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Salinity Changes in the Agulhas Leakage Area Recorded by Stable Hy...

By: A. Mets; M. T. J. Van Der Meer; S. Schouten; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; S. Kasper; R. Zahn

Description: NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Marine Organic Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Texel), the Netherlands. At the southern tip of Africa, the Agulhas Current reflects back into the Indian Ocean causing so-called Agulhas rings to spin off and release relatively warm and saline water into the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous reconstructions of the dynamics of the Agulhas Current, based on paleo-sea surface temper...

Arbuszewski, J., deMenocal, P., Kaplan, A., and Farmer, E. C.: On the fidelity of shell-derived δ18Osw estimates, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 300, 185–196, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.10.035, 2010.; Bard, E.: Comparison of alkenone estimates with other paleotemperature proxies, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 2, 1002, doi:10.1029/2000gc000050, 200...

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Western Equatorial African Forest-savanna Mosaics: a Legacy of Lat...

By: P. Schevin; D. Jolly; C. Favier; M. Makaya; J. Maley; A. Chepstow-lusty; M. Fontugne; A. Ngomanda; R. Oslisly

Description: Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale, IRET/CENAREST, BP. 13354, Libreville, Gabon. Past vegetation and climate changes reconstructed using two pollen records from Lakes Maridor and Nguène, located in the coastal savannas and inland rainforest of Gabon, respectively, provide new insights into the environmental history of western equatorial African rainforests during the last 4500 cal yr BP. These pollen records indicate that the coastal savannas o...

% vor jede Referenz Assemien, P., Bonnefille, R., Cambon-Bou, G., Caratini, C., Cerceau, M. T., Dang, C. D., Fredoux, A., Guers, J., Guinet, P., Hideux, M., Hul-Thol, S., Keddam-Malplanche, M., Le Thomas, A., Lobreau-Callen, D., Lugardon, B., Maley, J., Mallea, M., Masure, E., Medus, J., Nigaud, M., Riollet, G., Senesse, S., Sivak, J., Soler, M., Stainier, F., Thanikaimoni, G., and Thiam, A.: Pollen et Spores d'Afrique tropicale, Travaux et Document de Géographie Tropica...

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A Model–data Comparison for a Multi-model Ensemble of Early Eocene...

By: T. Dunkley Jones; M. Huber; M. Heinemann; A. Winguth; A. Legrande; C. Winguth; P. Valdes; C. Loptson; D. J. Lunt; J. Tindall; J. Marotzke; C. D. Roberts

Description: School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK. The early Eocene (~55 to 50 Ma) is a time period which has been explored in a large number of modelling and data studies. Here, using an ensemble of previously published model results, making up EoMIP – the Eocene Modelling Intercomparison Project – and syntheses of early Eocene terrestrial and sea surface temperature data, we present a self-consistent inter-model and model–data comparison. Th...

Abbot, D. S. and Tziperman, E.: Sea Ice, High Latitude Convection, and Equable Climates, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L03702, doi:10.1029/2007GL032286, 2008.; Beerling, D. and Royer, D.: Convergent Cenozoic CO2 history, Nat. Geosci., 4, 418–420, 2011.; Anand, P., Elderfield, H., and Conte, M.: Calibration of Mg/Ca thermometry in planktonic foraminifera from a sediment trap time series, Paleoceanography, 1...

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Impact of North Atlantic – Gin Sea Exchange on Deglaciation Evolut...

By: Z. Liu; F. He; B. L. Otto-bliesner; C. Colose; J. Cheng

Description: Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education and College of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China. In a transient simulation of the last deglaciation with a fully coupled model (TraCE-21000), an overshoot of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is simulated and proposed as a key factor for the onset of the Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming event. There is collab...

Alley, R. B. and Clark, P. U.: The deglaciation of the northern hemisphere: a global perspective, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 27, 149–182, 1999.; Barker S., Diz, P., Vautravers, M. J., Pike, J., Knorr, G., Hall, I. R., and Broecker, W. S.: Extreme deepening of the Atlantic overturning circulation during deglaciation, Nat. Geosci., 3, 567–571, doi:10.1038/ngeo921, 2010.; Briegleb, B. P., Bitz, C. M., Hunke, E. C., Lipscomb, W. H...

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High-latitude Environmental Change During Mis 9 and 11: Biogeochem...

By: I. S. Castañeda; D. B. Finkelstein; J. Brigham-grette; R. M. D'Anjou; S. T. Petsch; J. H. Wei

Description: Climate Systems Research Center and Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. Marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 has been proposed as an analog for the present interglacial; however, terrestrial records of this time period are rare. Sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn (67°30' N, 172°5' E) in Far East Russia contain a 3.56 Ma record of climate variability from the Arctic. Here, we present the first terrestrial Arctic ...

Albrecht, P. and Ourisson, G.: Triterpene Alcohol isolation from Oil Shale, Science, 163, 1192–1193, 1969.; Bechtel, A., Smittenberg, R. H., Bernasconi, S. M., and Schubert, C. J.: Distribution of branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids in an oligotrophic and a eutrophic Swiss lake: insights into sources and GDGT-based proxies, Org. Geochem., 41, 822–832, 2010.; Blaga, C. I., Reichart, G. J., Schouten, S., Lotter, A. F., Werne, J. P., Kosten, S., Mazzeo, N., Lacerot, G...

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Modern Isotope Hydrology and Controls on Δd of Plant Leaf Waxes at...

By: H. Meyer; B. Chapligin; S. Burns; J. Brigham-grette; K. M. K. Wilkie; S. Petsch

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. Stable isotope data from lipid biomarkers and diatom silica recovered from lake sediment cores hold great promise for paleoclimate and paleohydrological reconstructions. However, these records rely on accurate calibration with modern precipitation and hydrologic processes. Here we investigate the stable isotopic composition of modern precipitation, streams, lake water and ice...

Anderson, W., Bernasconi, S., McKenzie, J., Saurer, M., and Schweingruber, F.: Model evaluation for reconstructing the oxygen isotopic composition in precipitation from tree ring cellulose over the last century, Chem. Geol., 182, 121–137, doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(01)00285-6, 2002.; Asikainen, C. A., Francus, P., and Brigham-Grette, J.: Sedimentology, clay mineralogy and grain-size as indicators of 65 ka of climate...

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Holocene Land-cover Reconstructions for Studies on Land Cover-clim...

By: A.-k. Trondman; A. Poska; C. Lemmen; B. Smith; F. Mazier; M. Lindbladh; A. Broström; P. Miller; H. J. B. Birks; R. Fyfe; U. Kokfelt; M. Leydet; S. Sugita; K. Hjelle; T. Hickler; J. O. Kaplan; M. Rundgren; M.-j. Gaillard; A. Bjune; S. Peglar; E. Kjellström; L. Balakauskas; W. O. Van Der Knaap; G. Strandberg; L. Barnekow; P. Lagerås; J. Lechterbeck; H. Seppä; M. Latałowa; L. Björkman; U. Segerström; J. Olofsson; T. Giesecke; A. B. Nielsen; B. Odgaard; M. Kangur; H. Von Stedingk; T. Koff; L. Kalnina; T. Alenius; P. Kuneš

Description: School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Linnaeus University, 39182 Kalmar, Sweden. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term re...

Andersen, S. T.: The Relative Pollen Productivity and Pollen Representation of North European Trees, and Correction Factors for Tree Pollen Spectra Determined by Surface Pollen Analyses from Forests, Geological Survey of Denmark, II Series, C. A. Reitzels, Kovenhavn, 96 pp., 1970.; Anderson, J., Bugmann, H., Dearing, J. A., and Gaillard, M.-J.: Linking palaeoenvironmental data and models to understand the past and to predict the future, Trends. Ecol. Evol., 21, 696–704, ...

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Spatial Structure of the 8200 Cal Yr Bp Event in Northern Europe :...

By: D. Hammarlund; A. E. K. Ojala; R. J. Telford; T. Alenius; H. Seppä; H. J. B. Birks; G. M. MacDonald; K. Antonsson; A. E. Bjune; T. Giesecke; M. Heikkilä; S. Veski

Description: Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Finland. A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the site...

Aasa, A., Jaagus, J., Ahas, R., and Sepp, M.: The influence of atmospheric circulation on plant phenological phases in central and eastern Europe, Int. J. Climatol., 24, 1551–1564, 2004.; Alley, R. B. and Àg\'ustsdóttir, A. M.: The 8k event: cause and consequences of a major Holocene abrupt climate change, Quatern. Sci. Rev., 10–11, 1123–1149, 2005.; Alley, R. B., Mayewski, P. A., Sowers, T., Stuiver, M., Taylor, K. C., and Clark, P. U.: Holocene climatic instability: A ...

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Volcanic Forcing for Climate Modeling: a New Microphysics-based Da...

By: H. MacK; E. Rozanov; S. Brönnimann; T. Peter; F. Arfeuille; D. Weisenstein

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. As the understanding and representation of the impacts of volcanic eruptions on climate have improved in the last decades, uncertainties in the stratospheric aerosol forcing from large eruptions are now not only linked to visible optical depth estimates on a global scale but also to details on the size, latitude and altitude distributions of the stratospheric aerosols. Based ...

Fleming, E., Jackman, C., Stolarski, R., and Considine, D.: Simulation of stratospheric tracers using an improved empirically based two-dimensional model transport formulation, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23911–23934, 1999.; Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V., Artaxo, P., Berntsen, T., Betts, R., Fahey, D. W., Haywood, J., Lean, J., Lowe, D. C., Myhre, G., Nganga, J., Prinn, R., Raga, G., Schulz, M., and Van Dorland, R.: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing, i...

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Variability of Summer Humidity During the Past 800 Years on the Ea...

By: A. Bräuning; P. Hochreuther; J. Grießinger; J. Wernicke

Description: Institute of Geography, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany. We present an 800-year δ18O chronology from the eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The chronology dates back to AD 1193 and was sampled in AD 1996 from living Juniperus tibetica trees. This first long-term tree-ring-based δ18O chronology for eastern Tibet provides a reliable archive for hydroclimatic reconstructions. Highly s...

Araguás-Araguás, L., Fröhlich, K., and Rozanski, K.: Stable isotope composition of precipitation over southeast Asia, J. Geophys. Res. Lett., 103, 721–728, 1998.; An, W., Liu, X., Leavitt, S., Xu, G., Zeng, X., Wang, W., Qin, D., and Ren, J.: Relative humidity history on the Batang–Litang Plateau of western China since 1755 reconstructed from tree-ring δ18O and δD, Clim. Dynam., 42, 2639–2654, doi:10.1007/s00...

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Sea-ice Dynamics Strongly Promote Snowball Earth Initiation and De...

By: D. S. Abbot; A. Voigt

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. The Snowball Earth bifurcation, or runaway ice-albedo feedback, is defined for particular boundary conditions by a critical CO2 and a critical sea-ice cover (SI), both of which are essential for evaluating hypotheses related to Neoproterozoic glaciations. Previous work has shown that the Snowball Earth bifurcation, denoted as (CO2, SI)*, differs greatly among ...

Abbot, D. S. and Pierrehumbert, R. T.: Mudball: Surface dust and Snowball Earth deglaciation, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D03104, doi:10.1029/2009JD012007, 2010.; Abbot, D. S., Voigt, A., and Koll, D.: T}he {J}ormungand {G}lobal {C}limate {S}tate and {I}mplications for {N}eoproterozoic {G}laciations, {J. {G}eophys. {R}es., 116, D18103, doi:10.1029/2011JD015927, 2011.; Brandt,...

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Greenland Ice Core Evidence of the 79 Ad Vesuvius Eruption : Volum...

By: B. M. Vinther; P. Marianelli; N. M. Kehrwald; G. Cozzi; J. P. Steffensen; C. U. Hammer; C. Barbante; M.-l. Siggaard-andersen; H. B. Clausen

Description: Institute for the Dynamics of the Environmental Processes, CNR, University of Venice, 30123 Venice, Italy. Volcanic tephra are independent age horizons and can synchronize strata of various paleoclimate records including ice and sediment cores. The Holocene section of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) ice core is dated by multi-parameter annual layer counting, and contains peaks in acidity, SO42− and microparticle concentrations...

Abbott, P. M. and Davies, S. M.: Volcanism and the Greenland ice-cores: the tephra record, Earth-Sci. Rev., 115, 173–191, 2012.; Andersen, K. K., Svensson, A., Johnsen, S. J., Rasmussen, S. O., Bigler, M., Rothlisberger, T., Ruth, U., Siggard-Andersen, M.-L., Peder Steffensen, J., Dahl-Jensen, D., Vinther, B. M., and Clausen, H. M.: The Greenland Ice Core Chronology, 15–42 ka, Part 1: constructing the time scale, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 3246–3257, 2006.; Baker, P. E. a...

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Contribution of Oceanic and Vegetation Feedbacks to Holocene Clima...

By: J. Otto; M. Claussen; A. Dallmeyer

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. The impact of vegetation-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere interactions on the mid- to late Holocene climate change as well as their synergy is studied for different regions in Central and Eastern Asia (60–140° E, 0–55° N), giving consideration to the large climatic and topographical heterogeneity in that area. With main focus on the Asian monsoon, we concentrate on both, temperatu...

An, Z., Porter, S. C., Kutzbach, J. E., Wu, X., Wang, S., Liu, X., Li, X., and Zhou, W.: Asynchronous Holocene optimum of the East Asian monsoon, Quat. Sci. Rev., 19, 743–762, 2000.; Berger, A.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climate changes, J. Atmos. Sci., 35(12), 2362–2367, 1978.; Braconnot, P., Marti, O., Joussaume, S., and Leclainche, Y.: Ocean feedback in response to 6 kyr BP insolation, J. Climate, 13, 1537–1553, 2000.; Claussen, M.: Model...

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Detecting Human Impacts on the Flora, Fauna, and Summer Monsoon of...

By: M. L. Fogel; M. K. Gagan; G. H. Miller; J. W. Magee

Description: INSTAAR and Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309-0450, USA. The moisture balance across northern and central Australia is dominated by changes in the strength of the Australian Summer Monsoon. Lake-level records that record changes in monsoon strength on orbital timescales are most consistent with a Northern Hemisphere insolation control on monsoon strength, a result consistent with recent modeling studies. A weak Holocene monso...

Gillespie, R., Brook, B. W., and Baynes, A.: Short overlap of humans and megafauna in Pleistocene Australia, Alcheringa Special Issue, 1, 163–186, 2006.; Barrett, D. J.: Steady state turnover time of carbon in the Australian terrestrial biosphere, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, 1108, doi:10.1029/2002GB001860, 2002.; Baynes, A.: The absolutely last remake of Beau Geste: yet another review of the Australian megafaunal radiocarbon dates, in: Papers in Vertebrate Palaeontolo...

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The Faint Young Sun Problem Revisited with a 3-d Climate–carbon Mo...

By: Y. Donnadieu; Y. Teitler; F. Fluteau; G. Le Hir; P. Philippot

Description: IPGP, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris cité, Université Paris Diderot, UMR7154, 75005, France. During the Archaean, the Sun's luminosity was 18 to 25% lower than the present day. One-dimensional radiative convective models (RCM) generally infer that high concentrations of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) are required to prevent the early Earth's surface temperature from dropping below the freezing point of liquid wa...

Abbot, D. S., Voigt, A., Branson, M., Pierrehumbert, R. T., Pollard, D., Le Hir, G., and Koll, D. D. B.: Clouds and snowball Earth deglaciation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20711, doi:10.1029/2012GL052861, 2012.; Andreae, M. O. and Rosenfeld, D.: Aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols, Earth-Sci. Rev., 89, 13–41,

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The Simulated Climate of the Last Glacial Maximum and the Insights...

By: A. Lenton; R. J. Matear; D. Etheridge; S. J. Phipps

Description: CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, CSIRO Marine Laboratories, G.P.O. Box 1538, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Global climate models (GCMs) provide an important tool for simulating the earth's climate. Here we present a GCM simulation of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which was obtained by setting atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and the earth's orbital parameters to the values which prevailed at 21 000 years before present (BP). During...

Adkins, J. F.: The salinity, temperature, and δ18O of the glacial deep ocean, Science, 298, 1769–1773, 2002.; Adkins, J. F.: The role of deep ocean circulation in setting glacial climates, Paleoceanography, 28, 539–561, 2013.; Abbey, E., Webster, J. M., and Beaman, R. J.: Geomorphology of submerged reefs on the shelf edge of the Great Barrier Reef: the influence of oscillating Pleistocene sea-levels, Mar. Geol., 288, 61–78, 2011.; Anderson, D. and Archer, D. E...

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Automated Ice-core Layer-counting with Strong Univariate Signals :...

By: E. W. Wolff; N. J. Abram; J. R. McConnell; P. G. Blackwell; J. J. Wheatley; E. R. Thomas

Description: School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Sheffield, UK. We present an automated method for determining the annual layer chronology of an ice-core with a strong annual signal, utilising the hydrogen peroxide record from an Antarctic Peninsula ice-core as a test signal on which to count annual cycles. The signal is de-trended and normalised before being split into sections with a deterministic cycle count and those that need more att...

Andersen, K. K., Svensson, A., Johnsen, S. J., Rasmussen, S. O., Bigler, M., R{ö}thlisberger, R., Ruth, U., Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L., Peder Steffensen, J., Dahl-Jensen, D., Vinther, B. M., and Clausen, H. B.: The Greenland ice core chronology 2005, 15–42 ka. Part 1: constructing the time scale, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 3246–3257, 2006.; McGwire, K., Taylor, K., Banta, J., and McConnell, J.: Identifying annual peaks in dielectric profiles with a selection curve, J. Glaci...

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Spatial and Temporal Oxygen Isotope Variability in Northern Greenl...

By: H. Oerter; S. Kipfstuhl; T. Opel; A. Wegner; S. Weißbach; B. M. Vinther

Description: Alfred Wegener Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany. We present for the first time all 12 δ18O records obtained from ice cores drilled in the framework of the North Greenland Traverse (NGT) between 1993 and 1995 in northern Greenland between 74 to 80° N, 36 to 49° W and 2000 to 3200 m a.s.l. The cores cover an area of 680 km × 317 km, ~200 000 km2 or 10 % of the area of Gree...

Ammann, C. M., Joos, F., Schimel, D. S., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., and Tomas, R. A.: Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: results from transient simulations with the NCAR Climate System Model, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 3713–3718, 2007.; Andersen, K. K., Azuma, N., Barnola, J.-M., Bigler, M., Biscaye, P., Caillon, N., Chappellaz, J., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., Flückiger, J., Fritzsche, D., Fujii, Y., Goto-Azuma, K., Grønvold, K., Gunde...

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Statistical Framework for Evaluation of Climate Model Simulations ...

By: R. Sundberg; A. Moberg; A. Hind

Description: Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Bert Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. A statistical framework for comparing the output of ensemble simulations from global climate models with networks of climate proxy and instrumental records is developed, focusing on near-surface temperatures for the last millennium. This framework includes the formulation of a joint statistical model for proxy da...

Bard, E., Raisbeck, G., Yiou, F., and Jouzel, J.: Solar irradiance during the last 1200 years based on cosmogenic nuclides, Tellus B, 52, 985–992, 2000.; Allen, M. R. and Tett, S. F. B.: Checking for model consistency in optimal fingerprinting, Clim. Dynam., 15, 419–434, 1999.; Ammann, C. M., Joos, F., Schimel, D. S., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., and Tomas, R. A.: Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations with the NCAR Climate Sys...

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Holocene Climate Change, Permafrost and Cryogenic Carbonate Format...

By: H. Cheng; C. Spötl

Description: Institute of Geology, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Cryogenically formed carbonate particles represent a rather new class of speleothems whose origin is directly linked to the presence of perennial ice in the subsurface. Recent studies concluded that dating these deposits provides important time constraints on the presence and the thickness of permafrost, e.g., during the last glacial period. More precisely, these carbona...

Auer, I., et al.: HISTALP – Historical instrumental climatological surface time series of the greater Alpine region 1760–2003, Int. J. Climatol., 27, 17–46, 2007.; Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S., and Noetzli, J.: Permafrost distribution in the European Alps: calculation and evaluation of an index map and summary statistics, The Cryosphere, 6, 807–820, doi:10.5194/tc-6-807-2012, 2012.; Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., S...

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