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Sea-surface Salinity Variations in the Northern Caribbean Sea Acro...

By: L. Vidal; F. Rostek; K. Tachikawa; S. Sepulcre; E. Bard

Description: CEREGE, UMR6635, Université Aix-Marseille, CNRS, Collège de France, IRD, Europôle de l'Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence, France. This study aimed at documenting climate changes in tropical area in response to the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) by reconstructing past hydrologic variations in the Northern Caribbean Sea and its influence on the stability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the last 940 kyr. ...

Bintanja, R. and van de Wal, R. S. W.: North American ice-sheet dynamics and the onset of 100 000-yr glacial cycles, Nature, 454, 869–872, 2008.; Bard, E. and Rickaby, R. E. M.: Migration of the subtropical front as a modulator of glacial climate, Nature, 460, 380–393, 2009.; Becquey, S. and Gersonde, R.: Past hydrographic and climatic changes in the Subantarctic Zone of the South Atlantic – the pleistocene record from ODP Site 1090, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 182, 221–239,...

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What Controls the Spatio-temporal Distribution of D-excess and 17O...

By: C. Risi; R. Winkler; F. Vimeux; A. Landais

Description: Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, UMR8539, CNRS, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS), Ecole Polytechnique (EP), Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Boite postale 99, 4 place Jussieu, 75752 Paris cedex 05, France. Combined measurements of the H218O and HDO isotopic ratios in precipitation, leading to second-order parameter D-excess, have provided additional constraints on past climates compared to t...

Majoube, M.: Fractionnement en Oxygène 18 et en Deutérium entre l'eau et sa vapeur, J. Chim. Phys., 10, 1423–1436, 1971b.; MARGO project members: Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nat. Geosci., 2, 127–132, 2008.; Barkan, E. and Luz, B.: High precision measurements of 17O/16O and 18O/16O ratios in H2O, Rapid Commun. Mass Sp., 19, 3737–3742, 2005.; Barkan, E. and Lu...

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Holocene Sub-centennial Evolution of Atlantic Water Inflow and Sea...

By: K. Husum; S. T. Belt; P. Cabedo-sanz; S. M. P. Berben

Description: Department of Geology, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway. A marine sediment core (JM09-KA11-GC) from the Kveithola Trough at the western Barents Sea margin has been investigated in order to reconstruct sub-surface temperatures and sea ice distribution at a sub-centennial resolution throughout the Holocene. The relationship between past variability of Atlantic water inflow and sea ice distribution has been established by measurement of planktic f...

Archer, D. and Maier-Reimer, E.: Effect of deep-sea sedimentary calcite preservation on atmospheric CO2 concentration, Nature, 367, 260–263, 1994.; Aure, J. and Strand, Ø.: Hydrographic normals and long-term variations at fixed surface layer stations along the Norwegian coast from 1936 to 2000, Fisken og Havet, 13, 1–24, 2001.; Barker, S. and Elderfield, H.: Foraminiferal calcification response to glacial interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2, Sci...

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Western Europe is Warming Much Faster Than Expected : Volume 5, Is...

By: R. Haarsma; S. Drijfhout; A. Van Ulden; W. Hazeleger; C. Severijns; H. Dijkstra; G. J. Van Oldenborgh; A. Sterl

Description: KNMI (Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut), De Bilt, The Netherlands. The warming trend of the last decades is now so strong that it is discernible in local temperature observations. This opens the possibility to compare the trend to the warming predicted by comprehensive climate models (GCMs), which up to now could not be verified directly to observations on a local scale, because the signal-to-noise ratio was too low. The observed temperatur...

Boe, J. and Terray, L.: Uncertainties in summer evapotranspiration changes over Europe and implications for regional climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05702, \doi10.1029/2007GL032417, 2008.; Brandsma, T., Können, G P., and Wessels, H. R A.: Empirical estimation of the effect of urban heat advection on the temperature series of De Bilt (The Netherlands), Int. J. Climatol., 23, 829–845, \doi10.1002/joc.902, 2003.; Brohan, P., Kennedy, J., Haris, I., Tett, S. F B., ...

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Carbon Cycle Dynamics During Recent Interglacials : Volume 11, Iss...

By: G. Munhoven; V. Brovkin; T. Kleinen

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. Trends in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during three recent interglacials, the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, are investigated using an Earth system Model of Intermediate Complexity, which we extended with modules to dynamically determine two slow carbon cycle processes – peat accumulation and shallow-water CaCO3 sedime...

Archer, D.: A data-driven model of the global calcite lysocline, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 511–526, 1996.; Berger, A.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic changes, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Brovkin, V., Bendtsen, J., Claussen, M., Ganopolski, A., Kubatzki, C., Petoukhov, V., and Andreev, A.: Carbon cycle, vegetation, and climate dynamics in the Holocene: experiments with the CLIMBER-2 model, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 16, 1139, doi...

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Simulated European Stalagmite Record and Its Relation to a Quasi-d...

By: D. Scholz; M. Werner; A. Wackerbarth; P. M. Langebroek; J. Fohlmeister; G. Lohmann; A. Mangini

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bussestr. 24, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. A synthetic stalagmite Δ18O record for the Bunker Cave (51° N, 7° E) is constructed using a combined climate–stalagmite modelling approach where we combine an atmospheric circulation model equipped with water isotopes and a model simulating stalagmite calcite Δ18O values. Mixing processes in the soil and karst above the cave represent ...

Baker, A., Wilson, R., Fairchild, I. J., Franke, J., Spötl, Ch., Mattey, D., Trouet, V., and Fuller, L.: High resolution δ18O and δ13C records from an annually laminated Scottish stalagmite and relationship with last millennium climate, Global Planet. Change, 79, 303–311, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.12.007, 2011.; Bjerknes, J.: Atlantic air-sea interaction, Adv. Geophys., 10, 1–82, 1964....

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The Calcium-dust Relationship in High-resolution Data from Dome C,...

By: H. Fischer; M. Hutterli; M. Bigler; J. P. Steffensen; F. Lambert

Description: Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Ice core data from Antarctica provide detailed insights into the characteristics of past climate, atmospheric circulation, as well as changes in the aerosol load of the atmosphere. We present high-resolution records of soluble calcium (Ca2+), non-sea-salt soluble calcium (nssCa2+), and insoluble mineral ...

Bowen, H. J. M.: Environmental Chemistry of the Elements, Academic Press, London, 1979.; Bellouin, N., Boucher, O., Haywood, J., and Reddy, M. S.: Global estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements, Nature, 438, 1138–1141, 2005.; Bigler, M.: Hochauflösende Spurenstoffmessungen an polaren Eisbohrkernen: glazio-chemische und klimatische Prozessstudien, Ph.D. thesis, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 2004.; Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., La...

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Past Temperature Reconstructions from Deep Ice Cores: Relevance fo...

By: P. Braconnot; G. Dreyfus; S. Johnsen; B. Stenni; D. Raynaud; A. Landais; J. Jouzel; M. Kageyama; V. Masson-delmotte; F. Parrenin; J. Nouet; M.-f. Loutre; E. Tuenter

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Bat 701 L’Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, France. Ice cores provide unique archives of past climate and environmental changes based only on physical processes. Quantitative temperature reconstructions are essential for the comparison between ice core records and climate models. Several methods have been developed to reconstruct past local temperatures fr...

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Temperature Changes Derived from Phenological and Natural Evidence...

By: Z. Hao; Y. Liu; Z. Hua; J. Zheng

Description: Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. The annual temperature anomalies in South Central China from 1850 to 2008 were reconstructed by synthesizing three types of proxies: the spring phenodate of plants recorded in historical personal diaries and observations; the snowfall days extracted from historical archives and o...

Aono, Y. and Kazui, K.: Phenological data series of cherry tree flowering in Kyoto, Japan, and its application to reconstruction of springtime temperatures since the 9th century, Int. J. Climatol., 28, 905–914, 2008.; Bradley, R. S.: Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing Climates of the Quaternary, 3rd edn., Elsevier/Academic Press, San Diego, 675 pp., 2014.; Cai, Q.-F. and Liu, Y.: The June–September maximum mean temperature reconstruction from Masson pine (Pinus massonia...

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A Distal 145 Ka Sediment Record of Nile Discharge and East African...

By: M. Seidel; S. Krüger; G. Schmiedl; W. Ehrmann; H. Schulz

Description: Universität Leipzig, Institut für Geophysik und Geologie, Talstraße 35, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Clay mineral assemblages in a sediment core from the distal Nile discharge plume off Israel have been used to reconstruct the late Quaternary Nile sediment discharge into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). The record spans the last ca. 145 ka. Smectite abundances indicate the influence of the Blue Nile and Atbara that have their headwaters in the volcanic ro...

Adamson, D. A., Gasse, F., Street, F. A., and Williams, M. A. J.: Late Quaternary history of the Nile, Nature, 288, 50–55, 1980.; Almogi-Labin, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Shriki, D., Kolosovsky, E., Paterne, M., Schilman, B., Ayalon, A., Aizenshtat, Z., and Matthews, A.: Climatic variability during the last 90 ka of the southern and northern Levantine Basin as evident from marine records and speleothems, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 28, 2882–2896, 2009.; Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A....

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Comparing Transient, Accelerated, and Equilibrium Simulations of t...

By: P. J. Valdes; M. S. Williamson; T. M. Lenton; D. J. Lunt

Description: Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment (BRIDGE), School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, U.K.. We examine several aspects of the ocean-atmosphere system over the last 30 000 years, by carrying out simulations with prescribed ice-sheets, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and orbital parameters. We use the GENIE-1 model with a geostrophic ocean, dynamic sea-ice, an energy balance atmosphere, and a land-surfa...

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Impacts of Land Surface Properties and Atmospheric Co2 on the Last...

By: L. François; G. Munhoven; S. Brewer; A.-j. Henrot

Description: Laboratory of Atmospheric and Planetary Physics, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. Many sensitivity studies have been carried out, using simplified GCMs to test the climate response to Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions. Here, instead of adding the forcings successively as in previous studies, we applied the separation method of Stein and Alpert (1993), in order to determine rigourously the different contributions of the boundary condition modi...

AMIP2: The second phase of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP2), Workshop WCRP/WGNE, Météo France, Toulouse, France, 2004.; Adams,~J M., Faure,~H., Faure-Denard,~L., McGlade,~J M., and Woodward,~F I.: Increases in the terrestrial carbon storage from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present, Nature, 348, 711–714, 1990.; Bigelow,~N H., Brubaker,~L B., Edwards,~M E., Harrison,~S P., Prentice, ~I C., Anderson,~P M., Andreev,~A A., Bartlein,~P J., Christensen,...

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Water Ph and Temperature in Lake Biwa from Mbt'/Cbt Indices During...

By: K. Takemura; T. Ajioka; A. Hayashida; M. Yamamoto; H. Kitagawa

Description: Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-10, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan. We generated a 280 000 yr record of water pH and temperature in Lake Biwa, central Japan, by analysing the methylation index (MBT) and cyclisation ratio (CBT) of branched tetraethers in sediments from piston and borehole cores. Our aim was to understand the responses of precipitation and air temperature in central Japan to the Ea...

Ajioka, T., Yamamoto, M., and Murase, J.: Branched and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in soils and lake/river sediments in Lake Biwa basin and implications for MBT/CBT proxies, Org. Geochem., 73, 70–82, 2014.; Buckles, L. K., Weijers, J. W. H., Verschuren, D., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: Sources of core and intact branched tetraether membrane lipids in the lacustrine environment: Anatomy of Lake Challa and its catchment, equatorial East Africa, Geochim...

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Short-term Variability in the Sedimentary Bit Index of Lake Chall...

By: D. Verschuren; J. W. H. Weijers; C. Cocquyt; L. K. Buckles; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté

Description: University of Utrecht, Faculty of Geosciences, P.O. Box 80.021, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands. The branched vs. isoprenoid index of tetraethers (BIT index) in Lake Challa sediments has been applied as a monsoon precipitation proxy on the assumption that the primary source of branched tetraether lipids (brGDGTs) was soil washed in from the lake's catchment. However, water column production has since been identified as the primary source of brGDGT...

Barker, P. A., Hurrell, E. R., Leng, M. J., Wolff, C., Cocquyt, C., Sloane, H. J. and Verschuren, D.: Seasonality in equatorial climate over the last 25 000 years revealed by oxygen isotope records from Mount Kilimanjaro, Geology, 39, 1111–1114, 2011.; Barker, P. A., Hurrell, E. R., Leng, M. J., Plessen, B., Wolff, C., Conley, D. J., Keppens, E., Milne, I., Cumming, B. F., Laird, K. R., Kendrick, C. P., Wynn, P. M., and Verschuren, D.: Carbon cycling within ...

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Climate and Vegetation Changes Around the Atlantic Ocean Resulting...

By: L. Dupont; A. Paul; D. Handiani

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. The Bølling-Allerød (BA, starting ~ 14.5 ka BP) is one of the most pronounced abrupt warming periods recorded in ice and pollen proxies. The leading explanation of the cause of this warming is a sudden increase in the rate of deepwater formation in the North Atlantic Ocean and the resulting effect on the heat transport by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In t...

Aitken, S. N., Yeaman, S. H., Holliday, J. A., Wang, T., and Curtis-McLane, S.: Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations, Evol. Appl., 1, 95–111, 2008.; Bard, E., Hamelin, B., and Fairbanks, R. G.: U/Th ages obtained by mass spectrometry in corals from Barbados: sea level during the past 130 000 years, Nature, 346, 456–458, 1990.; Bard, E., Raisbeck, G. M., Yiou, F., and Jouzel, J.: Solar irradiance during the last 1200 years bas...

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Terrestrial Climate Variability and Seasonality Changes in the Med...

By: N. Combourieu-neboutb; M. Magny; O. Peyron; S. Goring; U. Kotthoff; J. Pross; I. Dormoy

Description: Laboratory of Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, University of Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besançon, France. Pollen-based climate reconstructions were performed on two high-resolution pollen – marines cores from the Alboran and Aegean Seas in order to unravel the climatic variability in the coastal settings of the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 cal yrs BP (the Lateglacial, and early to mid-Holocene). The quantitative climate re...

Allen, J. R. M., Long, A. J., Ottley, C. J., Graham Pearson, D., and Huntley, B.: Holocene climate variability in northernmost Europe, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 26, 1432–1453, 2007.; Alley, R. B., Marotzke, J., Nordhaus, W. D., Overpeck, J. T., Peteet, D. M., Pielke Jr., R. A., Pierrehumbert, T. R., Rhines, P. B., Stocker, T. F., Talley, L. D., and Wallace, J. M.: Abrupt climate change, Science, 299, 2005–2010, 2003.; Alley, R. B. and Agustsdottir, A. M.: The 8 k event: caus...

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Predicting Pleistocene Climate from Vegetation : Volume 2, Issue 5...

By: C. Loehle

Description: National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., 552 S Washington St., #224, Naperville, IL 60540, USA. Climates at the Last Glacial Maximum have been inferred from fossil pollen assemblages, but these inferred climates are colder than those produced by climate simulations. Biogeographic evidence also argues against these inferred cold climates. The recolonization of glaciated zones in eastern North America following the last ice age produced disti...

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Increasing Cloud Cover in the 20Th Century: Review and New Finding...

By: M. Wild; J. Calbó; A. Sanchez-lorenzo

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud ...

Henderson-Sellers, A. and McGuffie, K.: Diagnosis of cloud amount increase from an analogue model of a warming world, Atmósfera, 2, 67–101, 1989.; Dai, A., Del Genio, A. D., and Fung, I. Y.: Clouds, precipitation, and temperature range, Nature, 386, 665–666, 1997.; Alexandersson, H. and Moberg, A.: Homogenization of Swedish temperature data, Part I: homogeneity test for linear trends, Int. J. Climatol., 13, 191–201, 1997.; Angell, J. K.: Variations in United States cloud...

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Comment on Radiative Forcings for 28 Potential Archean Greenhouse ...

By: S. W. Sharpe; L. S. Rothman; R. L. Sams; I. E. Gordon; T. J. Johnson; R. V. Kochanov

Description: Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Cambridge MA, USA. In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases, Clim. Past. 10, 1779–1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of ...

Baskakov, O. I., Markov, I. A., Alekseev, E. A., Motiyenko, R. A., Lohilahti, J., Horneman, V. M., Winnewisser, B. P., Medvedev, I. R., and De Lucia, F. C.: Simultaneous analysis of rovibrational and rotational data for the 41, 51, 61, 72, 81, 7191 and 92 states of HCOOH, J. Mol. Struct., 795, 54–77, 2006.; Blass, W. E., Jennings, L., Ewing, A. C., Daunt, S. J., Weber, M. C., Senesac, L., Hager,...

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On the Milankovitch Sensitivity of the Quaternary Deep-sea Record ...

By: W. H. Berger

Description: Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, USA. The response of the climate system to external forcing (that is, global warming) has become an item of prime interest, especially with respect to the rate of melting of land-based ice masses. The deep-sea record of ice-age climate change has been useful in assessing the sensitivity of the climate system to a different type of forcing; that is, to...

Berger, A.: Pleistocene climate variability at astronomical frequencies, Quaternary Int., 2, 1–14, 1989.; Berger, A. and Loutre, M. F.: Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 10, 297–317, 1991.; Berger, A. and Loutre, M. F.: Climate 400,000 years ago, a key to the future?, in: Earth's Climate and orbital Eccentricity, edited by: Droxler, A. W., Poore, R. Z., and Burckle, L. H., American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 17–2...

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