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Entropy Production of Soil Hydrological Processes and Its Maximisa...

By: S. J. Schymanski; A. Kleidon; P. Porada

Description: Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 10 01 64, 07701 Jena, Germany. Hydrological processes are irreversible and produce entropy. Hence, the framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is used here to describe them mathematically. This means flows of water are written as functions of gradients in the gravitational and chemical potential of water between two parts of the hydrological system. Such a framework facilitates a consistent thermody...

Atkins, P. W.: Physical Chemistry, Sixth edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.; Budyko, M.: Climate and life, Academic Press, New York, 1974.; Carsel, R. F. and Parrish, R. S.: Developing Joint Probability Distributions of Soil Water Retention Characteristics, Water Resour. Res., 24, 755–769, doi:10.1029/WR024i005p00755, 1988.; Cramer, W., Kicklighter, D. W., Bondeau, A., Moore III, B., Churkina, G., Nemry, B., Ruimy, A., and Schloss, A.: Comparing global model...

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Gas Phase Acid, Ammonia and Aerosol Ionic and Trace Element Conce...

By: E. Crete; M. S. Long; W. C. Keene; A. A. P. Pszenny; B. Deegan; R. Sander; J. R. Maben; A. H. Young

Description: Air Chemistry Department, Max-Planck Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. We report mixing ratios of soluble reactive trace gases sampled with mist chambers and the chemical composition of bulk aerosol and volatile inorganic bromine (Brg) sampled with filter packs during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) field campaign at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on São Vicente isla...

Currie, L. A.: Nomenclature in evaluation of analytical methods including detection and quantification capabilities, Pure Appl. Chem., 67, 1699–1723, 1995.; Keene, W. C., Talbot, R. W., Andreae, M. O., Beecher, K., Berresheim, H., Castro, M., Farmer, J. C., Galloway, J. N., Hoffmann, M. R., Li, S.-M., Maben, J. R., Munger, J. W., Norton, R. B., Pszenny, A. A. P., Puxbaum, H., Westberg, H., and Winiwarter, W.: An intercomparison of measurement systems for vapor and partic...

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Obspack: a Framework for the Preparation, Delivery, and Attributio...

By: A. R. Jacobson; P. P. Tans; W. Peters; K. A. Masarie

Description: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas observations from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. Data products created using the ObsPack framework (called ObsPack products) are intended to support carbon cy...

Bruhwiler, L. M. P., Michalak, A. M., and Tans, P. P.: Spatial and temporal resolution of carbon flux estimates for 1983–2002, Biogeosciences, 8, 1309–1331, doi:10.5194/bg-8-1309-2011, 2011.; Gloor, M., Fan, S.-M., Pacala, S., and Sarmiento, J.: Optimal sampling of the atmosphere for purpose of inverse modeling: a model study, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 14, 407–428, doi:10.10...

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Decadal Regime Shift Linkage Between Global Marine Fish Landings a...

By: J. Xu; A. M. Powell Jr.

Description: Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR), NOAA/NESDIS College Park, Maryland, USA. This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is that the global atmospheric planetary waves can lead to changes in the global surface air–sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956–1957, 1964–1965, ...

Beamish, R. J., Benson, A. J., Sweeting, R. M., and Neville, C. M.: Regimes and the history of the major fisheries off Canada's west coast, Prog. Oceanogr., 60, 355–385, 2004.; Chavez, F. P., Ryan, J., Lluch-Cota, S. E., and Niquen, M. C.: From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean, Science, 299, 217–221, 2003.; Chelton, D. B., Esbensen, S. K., Schlax, M. G., Thum, N., Freilich, M. H., Wentz, F. J., Gentemann, C. L., McPhaden, M. J., an...

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Carbon Farming in Hot, Dry Coastal Areas: an Option for Climate Ch...

By: J. Gebel; T. Berger; V. Wulfmeyer; K. Becker; W. Münch

Description: Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany. We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas – if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world – could capture 17–25 t of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (over a 20 yr period). Based on recent farming results it is confirmed th...

Achten, W. M. J., Mathijs, E., Verchot, L., Singh, V. P., Aerts, R., and Muys, B.: Jatropha curcas biodiesel fueling sustainability?, Biofuel. Bioprod. Bior., 1, 283–291, doi:10.1002/bbb.39, 2007.; Angelini Luciana, G. A., Ceccarini, L., Nassi o Di Nasso, N., and Bonari, E.: Comparison of Arundo donax L. and Miscanthus x giganteus in a long-term field experiment in Central Italy: Analysis of product...

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The Influence of Vegetation Dynamics on Anthropogenic Climate Chan...

By: V. Brovkin; M. Claussen; U. Port

Description: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany. In this study, vegetation–climate and vegetation–carbon cycle interactions during anthropogenic climate change are assessed by using the Earth System Model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI ESM) that includes vegetation dynamics and an interactive carbon cycle. We assume anthropogenic CO2 emissions according to the RCP 8.5 scenario in the time period from 1850 to 2120. F...

Bala, G., Caldeira, K., Mirin, A., Wickett, M., Delire, C., and Phillips, T. J.: Biogeophysical effects of $CO_{2}$ fertilization on global climate, Tellus B, 58, 620–627, 2006.; Bala, G., Caldeira, K., Wickett, M., Phillips, T. J., and Lobell, D. B.: Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation, Proc. Natl. Acade. Sci. USA, 104, 6550–6555, 2007.; Bathiany, S., Claussen, M., Brovkin, V., Raddatz, T., and Gayler, V.: Combined biogeophysical and b...

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Hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea During a Cruise with RV Posei...

By: U. Drübbisch; G. Siena; V. Cardin; U. Hübner; D. Hainbucher; F. Basan; M. Moritz

Description: Institut für Meereskunde, CEN, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean Sea on the German research vessel Poseidon in April 2014. Data were taken on a west–east section, starting at the Strait of Gibraltar and ending south-east of Crete, as well on sections in the Ionian and Adriatic Sea. The objectives of the cruise were threefold: to contribute to the inve...

Roether, W., Klein, B., Manca, B. B., Theocharis, A., and Kioroglou, S.: Transient Eastern Mediterranean deep waters in response to the massive dense-water output of the Aegean Sea in the 1990s, Prog. Oceanogr., 74, 540–571, 2007.; Roether, W., Klein, B., and Hainbucher, D.: The Eastern Mediterranean Transient: Evidence for Similar Events Previously?, in: The Mediterranean Sea: Temporal Variability and Spatial Patterns, edited by: Borzelli, G. L. E., AGU monographs, 2013...

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A Global Satellite Assisted Precipitation Climatology : Volume 8, ...

By: A. Verdin; G. Husak; P. Peterson; J. Michaelsen; C. Funk; D. Pedreros

Description: U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, Sioux Falls, SD, USA. Accurate representations of mean climate conditions, especially in areas of complex terrain, are an important part of environmental monitoring systems. As high-resolution satellite monitoring information accumulates with the passage of time, it can be increasingly useful in efforts to better characterize the earth's mean climatology. Current stat...

Hutchinson, M. F.: Interpolating mean rainfall using thin plate smoothing splines, Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Syst., 9, 385–403, doi:10.1080/02693799508902045, 1995.; Janowiak, J. E., Joyce, R. J., and Yarosh, Y.: A real-time global half-hourly pixel-resolution infrared dataset and its applications, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 205–217, 2001.; Joyce, R. J., Janowiak, J. E., Arkin, P. A., and Xie, P.: CMORPH: a method that pr...

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Can Bioenergy Cropping Compensate High Carbon Emissions from Large...

By: C. Müller; W. Cramer; V. Brovkin; P. Dass

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. Numerous studies have concluded that deforestation of the high latitudes result in a global cooling. This is mainly because of the increased albedo of deforested land which dominates over other biogeophysical and biogeochemical mechanisms in the energy balance. This dominance, however, may be due to an underestimation of the biogeochemical response, as carbon emissions are typically at or ...

Robinson, D. A. and Kukla, G.: Albedo of a Dissipating Snow Cover, J. Appl. Meteorol., 23, 1626–1634, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1984)023<1626:AOADSC>2.0.CO;2, 1984.; Roesch, A. and Roeckner, E.: Assessment of Snow Cover and Surface Albedo in the ECHAM5 General Circulation Model, J. Climate, 19, 3828–3843, doi:10.1175/JCLI3825.1, 2006.; Rojstaczer, S....

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Mapping Hydrological Environments in Central Amazonia: Ground Vali...

By: T. Emilio; G. M. Moulatlet; F. R. C. Costa; J. Schietti; C. D. Rennó

Description: Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. One of the most important freely available digital elevation models (DEMs) for Amazonia is the one obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). However, since SRTM tends to represent the vegetation surface instead of the ground surface, the broad use of SRTM DEM as a framework for terrain description in Amazonia is hampered by the presence of deforested areas. We present here two da...

Bispo, P. C., Valeriano, M. M., and Kuplich, T. M.: Relation of local geomorphometric variables with the vegetation of the Madeira-Purus interfluve (AM/RO), Acta Amazonica 39, 81–90, doi:10.1590/S0044-59672009000100008, 2009.; Brasil: Projeto Radambrasil. Folha SB.20 Purus; geologia, geomorfologia, pedologia, vegetação e uso potencial da terra, Mineral, D.N.P., Vol. 17, 566 pp., 1978.; Cintra, B. B. L., Schiet...

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Comparison of Physically- and Economically-based Co2-equivalences ...

By: O. Boucher

Description: Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, CNRS – UMR8539, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France. There is a controversy on the role methane (and other short-lived species) should play in climate mitigation policies, and there is no consensus on what an optimal methane CO2-equivalence should be. We revisit this question by discussing some aspects of physically-based (i.e. glob...

Nordhaus, W. D.: Discounting in economics and climate change: an editorial comment, Climatic Change, 37, 315–328, 1997.; O'Neill, B. C. and Oppenheimer, M., Climate change impacts are sensitive to the concentration stabilization path, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 16411–16416, 2004.; Ambrosi, P., Hourcade, J.-C., Hallegatte, S., Lecocq, F., Dumas, P., and Ha-Duong, M.: Optimal control models and elicitation of attitudes towards climate change, Environ. Model. Assess., 8,...

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Emulating Atlantic Overturning Strength for Low Emission Scenarios...

By: M. Meinshausen; K. Frieler; A. Levermann; C. F. Schleussner; J. Yin

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg A62, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. In order to provide probabilistic projections of the future evolution of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), we calibrated a simple Stommel-type box model to emulate the output of fully coupled three-dimensional atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Based on this calibration to ...

Bingham, R. J. and Hughes, C. W.: Signature of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in sea level along the east coast of North America, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02603, doi:10.1029/2008GL036215, 2009. \bibitem[{Challenor et al.(2006)}] challenor_hankin06 Challenor, P. G., Hankin, R. K. S., and Marsh, R.: Towards the probability of rapid climate change, Avoiding dangerous climate change, Cambridge Univ. Pr, 55–...

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Epoca/Eur-oceans Data-mining Compilation on the Impacts of Ocean A...

By: J. C. Orr; S. Pesant; R. G. J. Bellerby; B. Delille; D. Wolf-gladrow; U. Riebesell; A.-m. Nisumaa; J. Middelburg; J.-p. Gattuso; T. Tyrrell

Description: CNRS-INSU, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche (UMR7093), B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-Mer Cedex, France. The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean acidification on marine or...

Dickson, A. G., Sabine, C. L., and Christian J. R.: Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements, PICES Special Publication, 3, 1–191, 2007.; Crawford, D. W. and Harrison, P. J.: Direct measurement of pCO2 in cultures of marine phytoplankton: how good is the estimate from pH$_{\rm NBS}$ and single point titration of alkalinity?, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 158, 61–74, 1997.; Delille, B., Harlay, J., Zondervan, I., Jacquet, S., Chou, L., Wollast, R....

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Future Flows Hydrology: an Ensemble of Daily River Flow and Monthl...

By: C. Jackson; J. Kelvin; T. Haxton; C. Prudhomme; S. Crooks; A. Young; L. Wang; A. Barkwith; J. Williamson; G. Watts; J. MacKay

Description: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OXON, OX10 8BB, UK. The dataset Future Flows Hydrology was developed as part of the project Future Flows and Groundwater Levels to provide a consistent set of transient daily river flow and monthly groundwater levels projections across England, Wales and Scotland to enable the investigation of the role of climate variability on river flow and groundwater leve...

Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: FAO irrigation and drainage paper 56 – Crop evapotranspiration – Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, 300 pp., 1998.; Bell, V. A. and Moore, R. J.: An elevation-dependent snowmelt model for upland Britain, Hydrol. Process., 13, 1887–1903, 1999.; Charlton, M. B. and Arnell, N. W.: Adapting to climate change impacts on water resources in Englan...

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Migration and Global Environmental Change: Methodological Lessons ...

By: G. Gioli; T. Afifi; A. Milan

Description: United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security, Bonn, Germany. The relationship between migration and environmental and climatic changes is a crucial yet understudied factor influencing mountain livelihoods in the global South. These livelihoods are often characterized by high prevalence of family farming, widespread dependence on natural resources and high sensitivity to climatic changes. Except for a limited number of empi...

Adger, W. N., Dessai, S., Goulden, M., Hulme, M., Lorenzoni, I., Nelson, D. R., and Wreford, A.: Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?, Clim. Change, 93, 335–354, 2009.; Afifi, T.: Economic or environmental migration?, the push factors in Niger, Int. Migr., 49, e95–e124, 2011.; Afifi, T., Liwenga, E., and Kwezi, L.: Rainfall-induced crop failure, food insecurity and outmigration in Same-Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, Clim. Develop., 6, 53–60, 2014.; Alkire, S....

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A Uniform, Quality Controlled Surface Ocean Co2 Atlas (Socat) : Vo...

By: T. Johannessen; N. Lefèvre; A. Lourantou; A. F. Ríos; D. C. E. Bakker; J. M. Santana-casiano; S. R. Alin; A. Borges; T. Midorikawa; P. J. Brown; Y. Nojiri; L. Merlivat; T. Suzuki; H. Thomas; T. Veness; D. Vandemark; A. M. Omar; R. Weiss; C. Cosca; A. Chen; A. Murata; K. Paterson; S. Hankin; A. J. Watson; C. W. Hunt; B. Schneider; J. Akl; A. Kozyr; L. Mintrop; P. Landschützer; R. Schlitzer; C. Goyet; F. F. Perez; D. Pierrot; C. S. Wong; A. Poisson; J. Boutin; D. Hydes; T. Steinhoff; F. P. Chavez; H. Koyuk; J. Malczyk; C. L. Sabine; M. Ishii; A. J. Fassbender; M. González-dávila; X. A. Padin; T. Takahashi; K. Tedesco; R. G. J. Bellerby; A. Manke; B. Pfeil; S. Nakaoka; V. V. S. S. Sarma; J. Tjiputra; S. D. Jones; A. Lenton; W.-j. Cai; Y. Nakano; R. A. Feely; U. Schuster; N. Metzl; A. Olsen; A. Nakadate; A. Körtzinger; C. Heinze; R. Sieger; N. Hardman-mountford; M. Hood; R. M. Key; I. Skjelvan; S. K. Lauvset; M. Hoppema; M. Telszewski; B. Tilbrook; H. Yoshikawa-inoue; G.-h. Park; C. Miyaz

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. A well documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, g...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, in: Volume 2: Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 182 pp., 2006.; Archer, D., Kheshgi, H., and Maier-Reimer E.: Multiple timescales for neutralization of fossil fuel CO2, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 405–408, 1997.; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML): Underway p<...

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The Grene-tea Model Intercomparison Project (Gtmip) Stage 1 Forcin...

By: J. Mori; T. Hajima; H. Arakida; H. Ikawa; T. Yamazaki; K. Saito; S. Miyazaki; T. Ohta; T. Ise; A. Kotani; H. Sato; H. Yabuki; A. Sugimoto; Y. Iijima; R. Suzuki; T. Sueyoshi; A. Sato

Description: National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Japan. Here, the authors describe the construction of a forcing dataset for Land Surface Models (including both physical and biogeochemical models; LSMs) with eight meteorological variables for the 35 year period from 1979 to 2013. The dataset is intended for use in a model intercomparison (MIP) study, called GTMIP, which is a part of the Japanese-funded Arctic Climate Change research project. In ord...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P. P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Scheneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P., and Nelkin, E.: The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Dee, D. P., Uppalaa, S. M., Simmonsa, A. J. Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M. A., Ba...

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Spatio-temporal Analysis of the Urban-rural Gradient Structure: an...

By: P. Zoccali; G. Modica; M. Vizzari; C. R. Fichera; M. Pollino; S. Di Fazio

Description: Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Department of Agroforestry and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (DiSTAfA), loc. Feo di Vito c/o Facoltà di Agraria, 89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy. The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural...

Antrop, M.: Changing patterns in the urbanized countryside of Western Europe, Landscape Ecol., 15, 257–270, doi:10.1023/A:1008151109252, 2000.; Antrop, M.: Landscape change and the urbanization process in Europe, Landscape and Urban Plan, 67, 9–26, doi:10.1016/S0169-2046(03)00026-4, 2004.; Bhatta, B.: Analysis of urban growth pattern using remote sensing and ...

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The Role of the North Atlantic Overturning and Deep Ocean for Mult...

By: J. Lehmann; J. Runge; A. Levermann; C. F. Schleussner

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg A62, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. Earth's climate exhibits internal modes of variability on various timescales. Here we investigate multi-decadal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), Northern Hemisphere sea-ice extent and global mean temperature (GMT) in an ensemble of CMIP5 models under control conditions. We report an inter-annual GMT variability of about ±0.1°...

Ba, J., Keenlyside, N. S., Park, W., Latif, M., Hawkins, E., and Ding, H.: A mechanism for Atlantic multidecadal variability in the Kiel Climate Model, Clim. Dynam., 41, 2133–2144, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1633-4, 2013.; Balmaseda, M. A., Trenberth, K. E., and Källén, E.: Distinctive climate signals in reanalysis of global ocean heat content, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1754–1759,

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Dynamical and Biogeochemical Control on the Decadal Variability of...

By: J. Servonnat; L. Bopp; R. Séférian; D. Swingedouw

Description: Centre National de Recherche de Météo-France, CNRM-GAME – URA1357, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31100 Toulouse, France. Several recent observation-based studies suggest that ocean anthropogenic carbon uptake has slowed down due to the impact of anthropogenic forced climate change. However, it remains unclear whether detected changes over the recent time period can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change or rather to natural climate variability (inte...

Aumont, O. and Bopp, L.: Globalizing results from ocean in situ iron fertilization studies, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 20, GB2017, doi:10.1029/2005GB002591, 2006.; Aumont, O., Maier-Reimer, E., Blain, S., and Monfray, P.: An ecosystem model of the global ocean including Fe, Si, P colimitations, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 17, 1060, doi:10.1029/2001GB001745, 2003.; Bakker, D. C....

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