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Trend of Standardized Precipitation Index During Indian Summer Mon...

By: R. Raghava; M. Sinha; V. K. Sehgal; S. Jha

Description: Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi, 110016, India. Standardized precipitation index (SPI) was computed with CRU TS3.0 gridded 0.5 × 0.5° monthly precipitation dataset for each of the 14 mainland agroclimatic zones (ACZs) of India for individual months (June, July, August and September) and season (JJAS) of summer monsoon for 56 yr (1951–2006). Mann Kendall Trend Test with the representative SPI of the ACZs ...

Aggarwal, P. K., Joshi, P. K., Ingram, J. S. I., and Gupta, R. K.: Adapting food systems of Indo-Gangetic plains to global environmental change: key information needs to improve policy formulation, Environ. Sci. Pol., 7, 487–498, 2004.; Ashok, K. and Saji, N. H.: On the impact of ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole events on sub-regional Indian summer monsoon rainfall, Nat. Hazards, 42, 273–285, 2009.; Dash, S. K., Nair, A. A., Kulkarni, M. A., and Mohanty, U. C.: Characteristi...

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Inter-annual and Seasonal Trends of Vegetation Condition in the Up...

By: S. Uhlenbrook; W. Bewket; E. Teferi

Description: UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, the Netherlands. A long-term decline in ecosystem functioning and productivity, often called land degradation, is a serious environmental and development challenge to Ethiopia that needs to be understood so as to develop sustainable land use strategies. This study examines inter-annual and seasonal trends of vegetation cover in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) or Abbay basin. Advanced Very ...

Angert, A., Biraud, S., Bonfils, C., Henning, C., Buermann, W., Pinzon, J., Tucker, C., and Fung, I.: Drier summers cancel out the CO2 uptake enhancement induced by warmer springs, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 10823–10827, 2005.; Anyamba, A. and Tucker, C.: Analysis of Sahelian vegetation dynamics using NOAA-AVHRR NDVI data from 1981–2003, J. Arid Environ., 63, 596–614, 2005.; Bai, Z. G., Dent, D. L., Olsson, L., and Schaepman, M. E.: Proxy global assessment ...

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Distribution of Mesozooplankton Biomass in the Global Ocean : Volu...

By: T. D. O'Brien; R. Moriarty

Description: School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Williamson Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Mesozooplankton are cosmopolitan within the sunlit layers of the global ocean. They are important in the pelagic food web, having a significant feedback to primary production through their consumption of phytoplankton and microzooplankton. In many regions of the global ocean, they are also the primary contributors t...

Balvay, P. G.: Equivalence entre quelques parametres estimatifs de l'abondance du zooplankton total, Schweiz. Z. Hydrol., 49, 75–83, 1987.; Beaugrand, G., Brander, K. M., Lindley, J. A., Souissi, S., and Reid, P. C.: Plankton effect on cod recruitment in the North Sea, Nature, 426, 661–664, doi:10.1038/nature02164, 2003.; Bode, A., Álvarez-Ossorio, M. T., and Gonzáles, N.: Estimation of mesozooplankton biomass in a coasta...

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Framing Hydropower as Green Energy: Assessing Drivers, Risks and T...

By: R. Ahlers; D. Joshi; J. Budds; V. Merme; M. Zwarteveen

Description: Independent researcher, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. ...

ADB: Hydropower development in India: A Sector Assessment, Asian Development Bank, http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/ADB-Hydropower-Development-in-India.pdf (last access: 15 August 2014), 2007.; Agrawala, S., Raksakulthai, V., van Aalst, M., Larsen, P., Smith, J., and Reynolds, J.: Development and Climate Change in Nepal: Foc...

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Comparing Tide Gauge Observations to Regional Patterns of Sea-leve...

By: Y. Wada; L. L. A. Vermeersen; R. S. W. Van De Wal; A. B. A. Slangen

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht (IMAU), Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, the Netherlands. Although the global mean sea-level budget for the 20th century can now be closed, the understanding of sea-level change on a regional scale is still limited. In this study we compare observations from tide gauges to regional patterns from various contributions to sea-level change to see how much of the regional measurement...

Antonov, J. I., Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. P.: Thermosteric sea level rise, 1955–2003, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023112, 2005.; Baart, F., van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M., de Ronde, J., van Koningsveld, M., and Wouters, B.: The Effect of the 18.6-Year Lunar Nodal Cycle on Regional Sea-Level Rise Estimates, J. Coast. Res., 28, 511–516, doi:10.211...

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Global and Regional Effects of Land-use Change on Climate in 21St ...

By: V. Brovkin; P. Cadule; V. K. Arora; L. R. Boysen; N. De Noblet-ducoudré; J. Pongratz; V. Gayler; E. Kato

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. Biogeophysical (BGP) and biogeochemical (BGC) effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC) are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO2 simulations for the 21st century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs) are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC), contributing to the ...

Anav, A., Friedlingstein, P., Kidston, M., Bopp, L., Ciais, P., Cox, P., Jones, C., Jung, M., Myneni, R., and Zhu, Z.: Evaluating the land and ocean components of the global carbon cycle in the CMIP5 Earth System Models, J. Climate, 26, 6801–6843, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00417.1, 2013.; Arneth, A., Harrison, S. P., Zaehle, S., Tsigaridis, K., Menon, S., Bartlein, P. J., Feichter, J., Korhola, A., Kulmala, M., O'Donnel...

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Biogeography of Key Mesozooplankton Species in the North Atlantic ...

By: A. Gislason; P. Licandro; G. Chust; S. Plourde; B. Niehoff; J. A. Runge; E. K. Stenevik; C. Broms; J. Pierson; C. Castellani; H. Debes; T. G. Nielsen; E. Gaard; S. H. Jónasdóttir; P. Pepin; E. Head; W. Melle; C. Johnson; T. Falkenhaug; M. R. Heath

Description: Institute of Marine Research, Research Group Plankton, P.O. Box 1870, 5817 Nordnes, Bergen, Norway. Here we present a new, pan-North-Atlantic compilation of data on key mesozooplankton species, including the most important copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Distributional data of eight representative zooplankton taxa, from recent (2000–2009) Continuous Plankton Recorder data, are presented, along with basin-scale data of the phytoplankton colour index...

Basedow, L. and Tande, K. S.: Cannibalism by female Calanus finmarchicus on naupliar stages, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 327, 247–255, 2006.; Batten, S. D., Clark, R., Flinkman, J., Hays, G., John, E., John, A. W. G., Jonas, T., Lindley, J. A., Stevens, D. P., and Walne, A.: CPR sampling: the technical background, materials and methods, consistency and comparability, Prog. Oceanogr., 58, 193–295, 2003a.; Batten, S. D., Walne, A. W. Edwards, M., and Groom, S. B.: Phytop...

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Downscaling Climate Change Scenarios for Apple Pest and Disease Mo...

By: P. Calanca; S. Stoeckli; M. Hirschi; M. W. Rotach; C. Spirig; M. Dubrovsky; A. M. Fischer; J. Samietz; B. Duffy

Description: Federal Office for Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, Krähbühlstrasse 58, 8044 Zürich, Switzerland. As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which mod...

Altermatt, F.: Climatic warming increases voltinism in European butterflies and moths, P. Roy. Soc. B, 277, 1281–1287, doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1910, 2010.; Asser-Kaiser, S., Fritsch, E., Undorf-Spahn, K., Kienzle, J., Eberle, K. E., Gund, N. A., Reineke, A., Zebitz, C. P. W., Heckel, D. G., Huber, J., and Jehle, J. A.: Rapid Emergence of Baculovirus Resistance in Codling Moth Due to Dominant, Sex-Linked Inheritance, Scie...

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The Grene-tea Model Intercomparison Project (Gtmip) Stage 1 Forcin...

By: J. Mori; T. Hajima; H. Arakida; H. Ikawa; T. Yamazaki; K. Saito; S. Miyazaki; T. Ohta; T. Ise; A. Kotani; H. Sato; H. Yabuki; A. Sugimoto; Y. Iijima; R. Suzuki; T. Sueyoshi; A. Sato

Description: National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Japan. Here, the authors describe the construction of a forcing dataset for Land Surface Models (including both physical and biogeochemical models; LSMs) with eight meteorological variables for the 35 year period from 1979 to 2013. The dataset is intended for use in a model intercomparison (MIP) study, called GTMIP, which is a part of the Japanese-funded Arctic Climate Change research project. In ord...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P. P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Scheneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P., and Nelkin, E.: The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Dee, D. P., Uppalaa, S. M., Simmonsa, A. J. Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M. A., Ba...

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Norperm, the Norwegian Permafrost Database – a Tsp Norway Ipy Lega...

By: S. Iversen; H. H. Christiansen; G. S. Strand; J. S. Rønning; H. Juliussen; K. Midttømme

Description: The University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. NORPERM – The Norwegian Permafrost Database was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). This paper describes the structural and technical design of NORPERM. ...

Brown, J., Nelson, F .E., and Hinkel, K. M.: The circumpolar active layer monitoring (CALM) program research design and initial results, Polar Geography, 3, 165–258, 2000.; Brown, J., Ferrians, O. J., Heginbottom, J. A., and Melnikov, E. S.: Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology, Digital Media, 1998, Revised February, 2001.; Brown, J. and Christiansen, H. H.: Report from ...

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Differences and Implications in Biogeochemistry from Maximizing En...

By: J. J. Vallino

Description: Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA. In this manuscript we investigate the use of the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle for modeling biogeochemical processes that are catalyzed by living systems. Because of novelties introduced by the MEP approach, many questions need to be answered and techniques developed in the application of MEP to describe biological systems that are responsible for energy and mass transformations ...

Adami, C.: Sequence complexity in Darwinian evolution, Complexity, 8(2), 49–56, doi:10.1002/cplx.10071, 2002.; Adami, C., Ofria, C., and Collier, T. C.: Evolution of biological complexity, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97(9), 4463–4468, 2000.; Alberty, R. A.: Thermodynamics of biochemical reactions, Hoboken, NJ, Wiley & Sons, 397 pp., 2003.; Alberty, R. A.: Biochemical thermodynamics: Applications of Mathematica, Hoboken, NJ, Wiley & Sons, 464 pp., 2006.; Bailey, J. E.: Bioch...

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The Sensitivity of the Energy Budget and Hydrological Cycle to Co2...

By: M. Wild; R. Knutti; J. Cermak; N. Schaller

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland. The transient responses of the energy budget and the hydrological cycle to CO2 and solar forcings of the same magnitude in a global climate model are quantified in this study. Idealized simulations are designed to test the assumption that the responses to forcings are linearly additive, i.e. whether the response to individual forcings can be added to estimate the response...

Allen, M. R. and Ingram, W. J.: Constraints on future changes in climate and the hydrologic cycle, Nature, 419, 224–232, doi:10.1038/nature01092, 2002.; Andrews, T.: Forcing and response in simulated 20th and 21st century surface energy and precipitation trends, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D17110, doi:10.1029/2009JD011749, 2009.; Andrews, T. and Forster, P. M.: {CO}

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The Irminger Sea and the Iceland Sea Time Series Measurements of S...

By: T. Takahashi; A. Benoit-cattin; S. R. Olafsdottir; J. Olafsson

Description: Marine Research Institute, Skulagata 4, IS 121 Reykjavik, Iceland. This paper describes the ways and means of assembling and quality controling the Irminger Sea and Iceland Sea time-series biogeochemical data which are included in the CARINA data set. The Irminger Sea and the Iceland Sea are hydrographically different regions where measurements of sea water carbon and nutrient chemistry were started in 1983. The sampling is seasonal, four times a year. ...

Aminot, A. and Kérouel, R.: Pasteurization as an alternative method for preservation of nitrate and nitrite in sea water samples, Mar. Chem., 61, 203–208, 1998.; Carpenter, J. H.: The Chesapeake Bay Institute Technique for the Winkler oxygen method, Limnol. Oceanogr., 10, 141–143, 1965.; Chipman, D., Marra, J., and Takahashi, T.: Primary production at 47° N and 20° W in the North Atlantic Ocean: a comparision between the 14C incubation method and the mixed lay...

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A Consistent Dataset of Antarctic Ice Sheet Topography, Cavity Geo...

By: B. Galton-fenzi; E. Domack; A. Le Brocq; T. Deen; A. Lambrecht; F. Nitsche; K. Makinson; L. H. Smedsrud; D. Jansen; O. A. Nøst; R. Timmermann; H. Hellmer; F. Niederjasper; P. Dutrieux; W. H. F. Smith; A. Jenkins; A. Humbert

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates in ocean general circulation models depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry. Existing global or pan-Antarctic data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional fields into a global data set. We use ...

Assmann, K., Hellmer, H. H., and Beckmann, A.: Seasonal variation in circulation and water mass distribution on the Ross Sea continental shelf, Antarct. Sci., 15(1), 3–11, doi:10.1017/S0954102003001007, 2003.; Beckmann, A., Hellmer, H.H., and Timmermann, R.: A numerical model of the Weddell Sea: Large-scale circulation and water mass distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 104(C10), 23375–23391, 1999.; Deen, T. J. (Ed.): The British Antarctic Survey Geophysics Data Portal, Briti...

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Large Differences in Land Use Emission Quantifications Implied by ...

By: F. Joos; B. D. Stocker

Description: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK. The quantification of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land use and land use change (eLUC) is essential to understand the drivers of the atmospheric CO2 increase and to inform climate change mitigation policy. Reported values in synthesis reports are commonly derived from different approaches (observation-driven bookkeeping and proce...

Baccini, A., Goetz, S. J., Walker, W. S., Laporte, N. T., Sun, M., Sulla-Menashe, D., Hackler, J., Beck, P. S. A., Dubayah, R., Friedl, M. A., Samanta, S., and Houghton, R. A.: Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps, Nat. Clim. Change, 2, 182–185, doi:10.1038/nclimate1354, 2012.; Ciais, P., Sabine, C., Bala, G., Bopp, L., Brovkin, V., Canadell, J. A. C., DeFries, R....

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Gas Phase Acid, Ammonia and Aerosol Ionic and Trace Element Concen...

By: A. A. P. Pszenny; W. C. Keene; E. Crete; M. S. Long; B. Deegan; J. R. Maben; R. Sander; A. H. Young

Description: Air Chemistry Department, Max-Planck Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. We report mixing ratios of soluble reactive trace gases sampled with mist chambers and the chemical composition of bulk aerosol and volatile inorganic bromine (Brg) sampled with filter packs during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) field campaign at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on São Vicente isla...

Allan, J. D., Topping, D. O., Good, N., Irwin, M., Flynn, M., Williams, P. I., Coe, H., Baker, A. R., Martino, M., Niedermeier, N., Wiedensohler, A., Lehmann, S., Müller, K., Herrmann, H., and McFiggans, G.: Composition and properties of atmospheric particles in the eastern Atlantic and impacts on gas phase uptake rates, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9299–9314, doi:10.5194/acp-9-9299-2009, 2009.; Currie, L. A.: Nomenclature ...

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A Twelve-year High-resolution Climatology of Atmospheric Water Tra...

By: F. Maussion; J. Curio; D. Scherer

Description: Technische Universität Berlin, Chair of Climatology, Berlin, Germany. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a key role in the water cycle of High Asia and its downstream regions. The respective influence of the Indian and East Asian summer monsoon on TP precipitation and the regional water resources, together with the detection of moisture transport pathways and source regions are subject of recent research. In this study we present a twelve-year high-resoluti...

An, Z., Colman, S. M., Zhou, W., Li, X., Brown, E. T., Jull, A. J. T., Cai, Y., Huang, Y., Lu, X., Chang, H., Song, Y., Sun, Y., Xu, H., Liu, W., Jin, Z., Liu, X., Cheng, P., Liu, Y., Ai, L., Li, X., Liu, X., Yan, L., Shi, Z., Wang, X., Wu, F., Qiang, X., Dong, J., Lu, F., and Xu, X.: Interplay between the Westerlies and Asian monsoon recorded in lake Qinghai sediments since 32 ka, Sci. Rep., 2, 619, doi:10.1038/srep00619, ...

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Farmers' Perceptions of and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Chang...

By: U. A. Schneider; J. Scheffran; M. Ashfaq; M. Abid

Description: Research Group Climate Change and Security (CLISEC), Institute of Geography, University of Hamburg, KlimaCampus, Grindelberg 7, 20144 Hamburg, Germany. Climate change is a global environmental threat to all economic sectors, particularly the agricultural sector. Pakistan is one of the negatively affected countries from climate change due to its high exposure to extreme events and low adaptive capacity. In Pakistan, farmers are the primary sta...

Abid, M., Ashfaq, M., Hassan, S., and Fatima, N.: A resource use efficiency analysis of small Bt cotton farmers in Punjab, Pakistan, Pak. J. Agric. Sci, 48, 65–71, 2011a.; Abid, M., Ashfaq, M., Khalid, I., and Ishaq, U.: An economic evaluation of impact of soil quality on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton productivity, Soil Environm., 30, 78–81, 2011b.; Adger, W. N., Dessai, S., Goulden, M., Hulme, M., Lorenzoni, I., Nelson, D. R., Naess, L. O., Wolf, J., and Wre...

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Mesospheric Co Above Troll Station, Antarctica Observed by a Groun...

By: R. E. Hibbins; P. J. Espy; D. A. Newnham; C. Straub

Description: Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. This paper presents mesospheric carbon monoxide (CO) data acquired by the ground-based microwave radiometer of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS radiometer) stationed at Troll station in Antarctica (72° S, 2.5° E, 1270 a.m.s.l.). The data set covers the period from February 2008 to January 2010, however, due to very low CO concentrations below approximately 80 km altitude in summe...

Aellig, C. P., Kämpfer, N., and Hauchecorne, A.: Variability of mesospheric CO in the fall and winter as observed with ground-based microwave radiometry at 115 GHz, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 14125–14130, 1995.; Allen, D. R., Stanford, J. L., Nakamura, N., L{ó}pez-Valverde, M. A., L{ó}pez-Puertas, M., Taylor, F. W., and Remedios, J. J.: Antarctic polar descent and planetary wave activity observed in ISAMS CO from April to July 1992, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 665–668,

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Bimodality of Woody Cover and Biomass Across the Precipitation Gra...

By: S. C. Dekker; B. J. J. M. Van Den Hurk; H. A. Dijkstra; Z. Yin

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Multiple states of woody cover under similar climate conditions are found in both conceptual models and observations. Due to the limitation of the observed woody cover data set, it is unclear whether the observed bimodality is caused by the presence of multiple stable states or is due to dynamic growth processes of vegetation. In this study, we combine a ...

Guan, K., Wood, E. F., and Caylor, K. K.: Multi-sensor derivation of regional vegetation fractional cover in Africa, Remote Sens. Environ., 124, 653–665, 2012.; Hanan, N. P., Tredennick, A. T., Prihodko, L., Bucini, G., and Dohn, J.: Analysis of stable states in global savannas: is the CART pulling the horse?, Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 23, 259–263, doi:10.1111/geb.12122, 2014.; Hansen, M. C., DeFries, R. S., Townshend, J. R. ...

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