World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Article Id: WHEBN0019043007
Reproduction Date:

Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ɵ, Ӏ, GSM 03.38, , TI calculator character sets
Collection: Languages of Taiwan, Specific Letter-Diacritic Combinations, Vowel Letters
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

is one of the six Taiwanese Hokkien vowels as written in the Peh-oe-ji (POJ) orthography. It is a normal o followed by Unicode U+0358 ͘ combining dot above right, and is not to be confused with the Vietnamese Ơ. It is pronounced [ɔ].

This letter is not well-supported by fonts and is often typed as either (using the interpunct), o• (using the bullet), oo, or ou.

Because Taiwanese is a tonal language the standard letter without a diacritic represents the vowel in the first tone, the other four possible tone categories require one of the following four tonal symbols to be written above it.

  • Ó͘ ó͘ (second tone)
  • Ò͘ ò͘ (third tone)
  • Ô͘ ô͘ (fifth tone)
  • Ō͘ ō͘ (seventh tone)


The character was introduced by the Xiamen-based missionary Elihu Doty in the mid-nineteenth century, as a way to distinguish the Minnan vowels /o/ and /ɔ/ (the latter becoming ).[1] Since then it has become established in the Peh-oe-ji orthography, with only occasional deviations early in its usage – one example being Carstairs Douglas's 1873 dictionary, where he replaced the with ø͘ (this letter can be recreated using U+00F8 ø latin small letter o with stroke and U+0358 ͘ combining dot above right.[2]


  1. ^ Klöter, Henning. "The History of Peh-oe-ji". 
  2. ^  

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.