Academy of Persian Language and Literature

Academy of Persian Language and Literature
Formation 1935
Headquarters Tehran, Iran
Website Academy of Persian Language and Literature website

Iran's Academy of Persian Language and Literature (Persian: فرهنگستان زبان و ادب پارسی, pronounced ) is a body controlled by the Iranian government presiding over the use of the Persian language in Iran and other Persian speaking countries. The academy members are academics of Persian literature and linguistics from Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Previous language planning efforts 1.1
      • First Farhangestan 1.1.1
      • Second Farhangestan 1.1.2
      • Third Farhangestan 1.1.3
  • Aims and activities 2
  • Membership 3
  • Members 4
    • Iranian 4.1
    • Other 4.2
    • Deceased Members 4.3
  • Announcement of the Academy about the English name of Persian language 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

History

The academy was founded in 1935. Mohammad Ali Foroughi and Ali Asghar Hekmat were the main founders of the academy.

Memorable names, notable literary figures and highly celebrated scholars were the members of the academy upon its foundation,[1] such as:

Some international scholars were also involved, such as:[2]

Previous language planning efforts

The first official attentions to the necessity of protection of the Persian language against foreign words, and to the standardization of the Persian orthography, were in 1871 in the age of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar. After Naser al-Din Shah, Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar ordered the establishment of the first Persian association in 1903.[3] This academy declared officially that it used Persian and Arabic as acceptable sources for coining words. The ultimate goal of this association was to prevent books from being printed with wrong use of words. According to the executive guarantee of this association the government was responsible for wrongfully printed books. The words coined by this association, such as Rah-ahan(راه آهن) meaning 'railway', were printed in the Iran Soltani Newspaper, but after a lack of attention the association was closed.

A scientific association was founded in 1911. The achievement of this association was a dictionary called 'The words of scientific association' (Loghat-e-anjoman-e-elmiلغت انجمن علمی), which was completed in the future and was known by the name of Katouzian dictionary Farhang-Katouzianفرهنگ کاتوزیان. [4]

First Farhangestan

Second Farhangestan

Third Farhangestan

Aims and activities

The Academy's main activity has been creating and approving official Persian equivalents for the foreign general or technical terms. It has also created an official orthography of the Persian language, titled Dastur-e Xatt-e Fârsi (Persian Script Orthography). The academy also promotes research on Persian language and literature, other Iranian languages, Persian heritage, Iranian Studies and Iranian culture.

Iranian law requires those equivalents to be used in all official communications of government bodies and government-owned companies, and in product names of all private companies.

Membership

Academy's presidents to this day have been late Hassan Habibi and Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (the present Speaker of Parliament).

The academy members (permanent and associated) are selected from Masters of Persian literature and linguistics from Iran and other Persian speaking countries throughout the world as Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. Up to 10 permanent chairs (out of 25 permanent chairs) have been devoted to non-Iranian nationals.

Members

Permanent members of the academy are as follows:[5]

Iranian

Other

Deceased Members

Announcement of the Academy about the English name of Persian language

November 19, 2005 - The Academy of the Persian Language and Literature has delivered a pronouncement on the English name of Persian language and rejected any usage of the word "Farsi" instead of Persian(en) / Persa(es) / Persane(fr) / Persisch(de) in the Western languages. The announcement reads:

  1. "Persian" has been used in a variety of publications including cultural, scientific and diplomatic documents for centuries and, therefore, it carries a very significant historical and cultural meaning. Hence, changing "Persian" to "Farsi" would negate this established important precedent.
  2. Changing the usage from "Persian" to "Farsi" may give the impression that Farsi is a new language, although this may well be the intention of some users of "Farsi".
  3. Changing the usage may also give the impression that Farsi is a dialect used in some parts of Iran rather than the predominant (and official) language of the country.
  4. The word "Farsi" has never been used in any research paper or university document in any Western language, and the proposal to begin using it would create doubt and ambiguity about the name of the official language of Iran.

Supporting this announcement, gradually other institutions and literary figures separately took similar actions throughout the world.[6][7][8][9]

See also

References

  1. ^ 71st anniversary of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (BBC Persian)
  2. ^ Gozaresh-e Farhangestan Vadzeh, Tehran SH.1317 / 1938
  3. ^ "Farhangestan". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  4. ^ نگار داوری اردکانی (1389). برنامه ریزی زبان فارسی. روایت فتح. p. 33.  
  5. ^ "فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی". Persian Academy. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  6. ^ "Persian or Farsi?". Iranian. 16 December 1997. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  7. ^ "'"Fársi:'Recently appeared language!. Persiandirect. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  8. ^ "Persian or Fársi?". Persiandirect. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  9. ^ Samī‘ī Gīlānī, Aḥmad, ed. (Spring 1995). "متنِ اعلامِ نظرِ شورای فرهنگستانِ زبان و ادبِ فارسی درباره‌ی کاربردِ Farsi به جای Persian در مکاتباتِ وزارتِ امورِ خارجه" (PDF). The Quarterly Journal of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (in Persian) (Tehran) 1 (1): 152. 

External links

  • Official website of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (Persian)
  • Official website of the Assembly for the Expansion of the Persian Language شورای گسترش زبان و ادبیات فارسی
  • AriaDic Persian / English Dictionary with pronunciation
  • Forough Farrokhzad Poetry in English
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