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The Imperfect Legitimation of Inequality in Internal Labor Markets

By: Scully, Maureen

...EEN SCULLY Classic Literature Collection World Public Library.org INEQUALITY IN INTERNAL LABOR MARKETS Title: THE IMPERFECT LEGITIMATION... ...UALITY IN INTERNAL LABOR MARKETS Title: THE IMPERFECT LEGITIMATION OF INEQUALITY IN INTERNAL LABOR MARKETS Author: MAUREEN SCULLY Language: Engli... ...G PAPER ALFRED P. SLOAN SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT The Imperfect Legitimation of Inequality in Internal Labor Markets Maureen Scully Assistant Professor of ... ...MORIAL DRIVE CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139 The Imperfect Legitimation of Inequality in Internal Labor Markets Maureen Scully Assistant Professor ofM... ...per 3520-93-BPS January. 1993 1 f >. C (r ! The Imperfect Legitimation of Inequality in Internal Labor Markets This study addresses whether employees... ...r mobility rate relative to social comparison referents in their immediate occupational area. Each person's mobility rate can be standardized (to corr... ... countfor getting ahead. o that luck does not count for getting ahead. 13 Occupational and firm controls. This study examines mechanisms that work at... ...dents think merit ought to count, 3) creates the mobility rates normed for occupational group, 4) computes the relative return on education and tenure... ...Miscellanies. New York: AMS Press. England, P. (1981). Assessing trends in occupational sex segregation, 1900-1976. In I. Berg (Ed), Sociological pers...

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Inequality

Encyclopedia Article

... Economic inequality ... ... Social inequality ... ... Pages in category "Inequality" The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total.... ... United States C Concentration inequality E Environmental ineq... ... L Libertarianism Without Inequality List of bordering countries with greatest relative d... ...divide in the United Kingdom O Occupational segregation R Reli... ...divide in the United Kingdom O Occupational segregation R Reli...

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Diseases of Occupation and Vocational Hygiene

By: Kober, George M. (George Martin), 1850-1931; Hanson, William C. (William Clinton), 1874

...isconsin. DEVOTO, DR. LUIGI. Professor and Director of the Milan Clinic for Occupational Diseases; Professor of Internal Medicine, Emeritus, at the... ... American Public Health Association. HAYHURST, EMERY Ro, M. D. Chief of the Occupational Disease Survey, State of Ohio, 1913; Director of the Divis... ...ccupational Disease Survey, State of Ohio, 1913; Director of the Division of Occupational Diseases, State Board of Health of Ohio; Vice Chairman of ... ...dangerous to health. These and subsequent authors refer to their writings to occupational diseases of miners, bearer of burdens, messengers, sailors... ... trict from 166,200 in 1700 to 1,336,854 in 1831. But most important of all, occupational diseases and accidents assumed more and more importance. It... ...... ...d intermittent pulse. Palpi­ tation of the heart, a rapid irregular pulse and inequality of its volume are indications for rest and of danger from th...

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Occupational science

Encyclopedia Article

...in the social and behavioral sciences dedicated to the study of humans as "occupational beings". As used here, the term "occupation" refers to the goa... ... 1 History 2 Link between occupational science and occupational therapy ... ...rnal links History Occupational science evolved as a loosely organized effort by many scholars... ... by the work of graduate students under the supervision of Mary Reilly.[4] Occupational science emerged as a way to expand and support the profession ... ...upational science emerged as a way to expand and support the profession of occupational therapy.[5] Link between occupational scie... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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Diseases of Occupation and Vocational Hygiene

By: Kober, George M. (George Martin), 1850-1931; Hanson, William C. (William Clinton), 1874

...isconsin. DEVOTO, DR. LUIGI. Professor and Director of the Milan Clinic for Occupational Diseases; ProfesSor of Internal Medicine, Emeritus, at the... ...American Public Health Association. HAYHURST, EMERY R., ~I. D. Chief of the Occupational Disease Survey, State of Ohio, 1913; Director of the Divis... ...ccupational Disease Survey, State of Ohio, 1913; Director of the Division of Occupational Diseases, State Board of Health of Ohio; Vice Chairman of ... ...dangerous to health. These and subsequent authors refer to their writings to occupational disease~ of miners, bearer of burdens, messengers, sailors... ... trict from 166,200 in 1700 to 1,336,854 in 1831. But most important of all, occupational diseases and accidents assumed more and more importance. It... ...de of the abdomen than on the other. Accompanying this type of pain there is inequality of the radial pulses, inequality of the LEAD POISONING pup... ...d intermittent pulse. Palpi­ tation of the heart, a rapid irregular pulse and inequality of its volume are indications for rest and of danger from th...

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Occupational rehabilitation

Encyclopedia Article

...nals involved 2 Common Mental Disorders and Occupational Rehabilitation 3 Approaches to ... ... Professionals involved Occupational therapist(OT)-The role of occupational therapists in the workp... ... in the workplace is to facilitate individuals’ ability to return to work. Occupational therapists assist their clients in reaching their maximum leve... ...n with the aim of meeting the physical and emotional demands of their job. Occupational therapists are also qualified to make recommendations to emplo... ...functional status of an employee in order to prevent further injury during occupational rehabilitation. Individual functional capacity evaluations are... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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Diseases of Occupation from the Legislative, Social, And Medical Points of View

By: Oliver, Thomas, Sir 1853-1942

...erable space has been allotted in the text to a consideration of some of the occupational circumstances under which the needs of these services may be... ...lop symptoms not unlike those observed in general paralysis, but without the inequality of pupils and the grandiose ideas characteristic of the more c... ...itain. If proof were required of the good effects of legislation in reducing occupational diseases, we have only to turn to coal-mining and compare it... ...hird man affected about the same time is still slow and syllabic : there are inequality of the pupils, tremor of muscles of the arms on elevation of t... .... Sculpture and Weakness of the Hands R. Sand l draws attention to a form of occupational paresis hitherto not described, viz., the paresis of sculpto...

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Occupational medicine

Encyclopedia Article

...al medicine is the branch of clinical medicine most active in the field of occupational health. OM specialists work to ensure that the highest standar... ...tional health. OM specialists work to ensure that the highest standards of occupational health and safety can be achieved and maintained. While it may... ...ment of illness, injury or disability that is related to the workplace.[1] Occupational physicians must have a wide knowledge of clinical medicine and... ...References Mission Occupational health aims for the promotion and maintenance of physical, men... ... from factors adverse to health; placing and maintenance of a worker in an occupational environment adapted to their physiological and psychological e... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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Hebrew University and World Bank, December 2002 : Mobility, Inequality, And Horizontal Equity

By: Shlomo Yitzhaki

...ransition process linking the observations of these two distributions. An inequality index describes properties of the intitial or final distribut... ...ed using properties of transition matrices independently of the concepts of inequality and equity that may also be used in the analysis. This paper p... ...that provides an overall consistent framework for the analysis of mobility, inequality, and horizontal equity. The theoretical concepts are illustrat... ...empirically using panel data from rural Mexico. Key words: mobility, inequality, horizontal equity JEL categories: D31, D63, O15 E-mail: qwo... ... 1 This paper is part of a research project on Poverty, Inequality, and Policy in Latin America managed by the Poverty Group of ... ...ransition and turnover matrices. 9 The main interest in this literature is occupational mobility, while the interest in this paper is in the impact...

...Mobility implies initial and final distributions and a transition process linking the observations of these two distributions. An inequality index describes properties of the intitial or final distribution. A mobility index describes the transition. In most cases, mobility indices have been developed using properties of transition matrices independently...

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Occupational asthma

Encyclopedia Article

... MeSH D059366 Occupational asthma is an occupational condition defined as: ... ...r-responsiveness due to causes and conditions attributable to a particular occupational environment and not stimuli encountered outside the workplace"... ...nd an improvement when away, which implies that they may be suffering from Occupational Asthma. Thus, when an individual’s Asthma is caused, not aggra... ...Asthma is caused, not aggravated, by workplace materials, it is defined as Occupational Asthma. In the USA, OA is considered the most common occupatio... ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a related condition, with many occupational examples (e.g. "Farmer's Lung", "Malt Worker's Lung" and "Humi... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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Reconstruction Therapy

By: Dunton, William Rush, 1868-1966

...IDENT OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY AND OFTHEMARYLAND SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY; SECRETARY OF THE MARYLAND PSYCHIATRIC SOCIETY ILLUS... ...all Games 94 Field and Track Athletics 95 CHAPTER IX WORKSHOPS' 98 CHAPTER X OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AND THE WAR 106 '* Invalid Occupation. . . . ^ 114**... ...ROSTHETIC APPLIANCES . 126 CHAPTER XII PHYSICAL EDUCATION 162 Gymnastics 175 Occupational Therapy 175-*- Feet Exercises 179 CHAPTER XIII OCCUPATIONS F... ...xercises 179 CHAPTER XIII OCCUPATIONS FOR THE FEEBLEMINDED 182*% CHAPTER XIV OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY FOR THE BLIND 187 CHAPTER XV OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AN... ... THERAPY AND SOCIAL SERVICE 197 CHAPTER XVI CONCLUSION 203 s BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 210 Amusements 212 Athletics . . 212 Blind 213 Cardi... ...y live; and whatever be the wounds received, they are not hors de combat the inequality of arms only increases their ardor. More happy still if, their...

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Occupational licensing

Encyclopedia Article

...Occupational licensing, also called occupational licensure, is a form of government regulation requiring a lice... ... profession or vocation for compensation. Most developed countries require occupational licenses for professions, such as physicians and lawyers. Lice... ...onomic effects 3 Evidence on the effects of occupational licensing 4 Alternatives ... ...r market institutions in the United States. The figure shows the growth of occupational licensing relative to the decline of union membership since th... ...nsing relative to the decline of union membership since the 1950s. By 2008 occupational licensing in the U.S. had grown to 29 percent of the workforce... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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Spatial-Horizontal Inequality and the Maoist Insurgency in Nepal

By: S. Mansoob Murshed

...ct and Inequality-February 2003-02-28 Murshed & Gates 1 SPATIAL-HORIZONTAL INEQUALITY AND THE MAOIST INSURGENCY IN NEPAL S. Mansoob Murshed * Institut... ...eed is the main motivating force. The concept of horizontal or inter-group inequality is highly relevant in explaining the Nepalese civil war. This ha... ...hose of the authors and not necessarily those of DFID. Nepal-Conflict and Inequality-February 2003-02-28 Murshed & Gates 2 1 Introduction The landloc... ...hields by the Maoists. It is the contention of this paper that inter-group inequality and landlessness play a central part in motivating and sustainin... ...sustaining the conflict in Nepal. The concept of horizontal or inter-group inequality, which is highly relevant in explaining the Nepalese civil war, ... ... has its untouchable or Dalit group who are frequently referred to as the “occupational” castes. Nepal-Conflict and Inequality-February 2003-02-28 Mu... ...indicators can be about 50% greater than the hill ethnic, Tarai ethnic and occupational caste groups. Income per-capita amongst the hill ethnic groups... ...% 979 53% RAJBANSI YADAV THARU AHIR 0.313 96.28 58.4 94% 27.5 47% 1068 58% OCCUPATIONAL CASTES 0.239 73.62 50.3 81% 23.8 41% 764 41% OTHER 0.295 90.94...

...into the causes of the conflict would suggest that grievance rather than greed is the main motivating force. The concept of horizontal or inter-group inequality is highly relevant in explaining the Nepalese civil war. This has both an ethnic and caste dimension. Additionally, there is also a spatial aspect to the conflict, which is most intense in the mid and far western r...

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Occupational segregation

Encyclopedia Article

...ns and jobs, based upon demographic characteristics, most often gender.[1] Occupational segregation levels differ on a basis of perfect segregation an... ....[2] Many scholars, such as Biblarz et al., argue that occupational segregation is most likely caused by gender-based discriminati... ...arch strategies 4 Occupational segregation and the gender pay gap ... ...regation and the gender pay gap 5 Measuring occupational segregation 6 Occupational segr... ... 7 Solutions 8 Occupational segregation on the basis of sexual orientation ... ...eresford, therefore argue that any policies aimed at reducing occupational inequality must focus on culture changes.[11] According to Haveman and Bere... ... Occupational sexism Occupational inequality Online segregation ... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ...y relations Feminist economics Inequality Feminism and society ...

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World Health Organization : Year 1999 ; Assessment Document, A68869: A Framework for Measuring Health Inequality

By: Emmanuela E. Gakidou

...A Framework for Measuring Health Inequality Emmanuela E. Gakidou, Christopher J.L. Murray, Julio Frenk * ... ...key. The World Health Organization (WHO) is interested in measuring health inequality as a distinct dimension of the performance of health systems (23... ...nct dimension of the performance of health systems (23). We define health inequality to be variations in health status across individuals in a popula... ...opulation (16). This approach, which is consistent with the measurement of inequality in other fields, such as economics, allows us to perform cross c... ... to perform cross country comparisons and study the determinants of health inequality (24). This paper addresses the question of measuring health ineq... ...re invigorate interest in some health problems. For example, many specific occupational exposures are not major contributors to average levels of popu... ...y. As we better quantify the distribution of health expectancy the role of occupational and local environmental exposures in contributing to risk ineq...

...ce on health; rather, the distribution of health in the population is also key. The World Health Organization (WHO) is interested in measuring health inequality as a distinct dimension of the performance of health systems (23). We define health inequality to be variations in health status across individuals in a population (16). This approach, which is consistent with the ...

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Occupational sexism

Encyclopedia Article

... 2 Emotion Politics 3 Some markers of occupational sexism 4 Wage discrimination ... ... 6 Sexism in academia 7 Challenging occupational sexism 8 See also ... ... Social role theory may explain one reason for why occupational sexism exists. Historically women’s place was in the home, whi... ...types that play a role in the formation of sexism in the work place, i.e., occupational sexism.[1] According to a reference there ... ...ole theory that might help explain the relationship between the theory and occupational sexism. The three patterns are as follows: ... ... ^ Blau, Francine D.; Lawrence M. Kahn (May 1994). "Rising Wage Inequality and the U.S. Gender Gap". The American Economic Review (PDF) (Na... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ... ^ Blau, Francine D.; Lawrence M. Kahn (May 1994). "Rising Wage Inequality and the U.S. Gender Gap". The American Economic Review (PDF) (Na... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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The Evolution of Poverty and Inequality in Indian Villages

By: Rajshri Jayaraman

...nstruction and Development / THE WORLD BANK 1 The Evolution of Poverty and Inequality in Indian Villages Rajshri Jayaraman • Peter Lanjouw This paper ... ...Jayaraman • Peter Lanjouw This paper examines the evolution of poverty and inequality in rural India by reviewing longitudinal village studies. It exp... ...economic change—agricultural intensification, changing land relations, and occupational diversification—from a wide range of disciplinary perspectives... ...ace the evolution of consumption levels and poverty rates, demographic and occupational trends, educational levels, and health and nu- tritional statu... ...nges, such as agricultural intensification, changes in land relations, and occupational diversification. The first section gives a brief account of ag... ...verty are discussed in this section. The third section examines changes in inequality, the nature and degree of which are difficult to gauge from larg... ...ntions. An important lesson that emerges from our review, however, is that inequality at the village level can significantly affect the way policies o... ...ld Bank Research Observer, vol. 14, no. 1 (February 1999) 6 migration, and occupational change. Thus, increased landlessness, even where it is observe... ...rom sharecropping contracts to fixed-rent tenancy con- tracts in Palanpur. Occupational Change DECLINE OF TRADITIONAL LABOR SERVICES. Many village stu...

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Occupational stress

Encyclopedia Article

... For other kinds of stress see stress. Occupational stress is stress involving work. According to the current Worl... ...rk. According to the current World Health Organization's (WHO) definition, occupational or work-related stress "is the response people may have when p... ...l's reactions or strains.[6] Strains can be mental, physical or emotional. Occupational stress can occur when there is a discrepancy between the deman... ... Categories Categories associated with occupational stress are[9] factors unique to ... ...due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses.[23] Physiological ... ... ^ Jacobs JA, Gerson K [2004]. The time divide: Work, family, and gender inequality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ... Gender inequality ... ... ^ Jacobs JA, Gerson K [2004]. The time divide: Work, family, and gender inequality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ...

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Inequality, Transfers, And Growth : New Evidence from the Economic Transition in Poland

By: Michael P. Keane and Eswar S. Prasad

.... Keane and Eswar S. Prasad* Abstract—This paper analyzes the evolution of inequality in Poland during the economic transition that began in 1989–1990... ...Surveys, we nd that, after a brief spike in 1989, income and consumption inequality actually declined to below pretransition levels during1990–1992a... ...ing only moderately above pretransition levels by 1997. In sharp contrast, inequality in labor earnings increased markedly and consistently through- o... ...pensions, played an important role in mitigating increases in both overall inequality and poverty. We argue that, from a political economy perspective... ...iated with the process of transition has led to substan- tial increases in inequality. This view, as summarized by Milanovic (1998) and Aghion and Com... ...Studies no. 18 (Paris: OECD, 1995). Banerjee,Abhijit, andAndrew F.Newman, “Occupational Choice and the Process of Development,” Journal of Political E...

...Contrary to the conventional wisdom about the Polish transition, we nd no evidence that income and consumption inequality increased in the early years of the transition. In fact, our preferred estimate of the Gini coef cient for the overall individual income distribution actually declined from 0.256 in 1988 to 0.230 in 1992. It then b...

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Ascriptive inequality

Encyclopedia Article

... 2 Why does ascriptive inequality occur? 3 How does ascriptive ineq... ...the usual cohesion of the relationship unit and its communication with the occupational system. (3) It prevails and persists because it is an efficien... ...al simply because of their ascribed status. Davis believed that ascriptive inequality led to stratification; however, he also believed that stratifica... ... status, whether it be greater or lesser, and hence perpetuates ascriptive inequality; inequality based on non-performance grounds.[2] ... ...ott Parsons [3] Why does ascriptive inequality occur? Sociologist Barbara Reskin has done ex... ...eskin has done extensive research to try to explain why and how ascriptive inequality occurs. Most commonly, it is thought to occur because of a perso... ...the usual cohesion of the relationship unit and its communication with the occupational system. (3) It prevails and persists because it is an efficien...

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Income, Inequality, And Poverty during the Transition from Planned to Market Economy

By: Branko Milanovic

...Economy BRANKO MILANOVIC WORLD BANK REGIONAL AND SECTORAL STUDIES Income, Inequality, and Poverty during the Transition from Planned to Market Econom... ...nned to Market Economy WORLD BANK REGIONAL AND SECTORAL STUDIES Income, Inequality, and Poverty during the Transition from Planned to Market Econom... ...f Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Milanovic, Branko. 1957– Income, inequality, and poverty during the transition from planned to market econom... ...he New States 1 Social Costs 6 2. The Way It Was 12 Income Composition and Inequality 12 Ideological Underpinnings 19 3. Income 23 The Post-Communist ... ...t on Population Incomes: How Level and Composition of Income Changed 30 4. Inequality 40 Income Inequality 40 Distribution of Income Sources: Wages, S... ...f three phenomena: (a) virtual absence of property incomes; (b) absence of occupational pensions (which are considered part of primary income); and (c... ...r income 63 64 35 Self-employment income 13 14 48 Property income 1 5 6 a Occupational (private) pensions 0 2 0 Social transfers 19 14 3 Pensions 13 ... ...d, in which case pensions are a part of social transfers, or differently , occupational and other private pension schemes are important), and (b) the ...

...This is a book about income, inequality, and poverty during the remarkable period of collapse of Communism and the ?construction? of capitalism in eighteen formerly socialist countries. It covers a period of almost ten years, from the time of the early G...

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International inequality

Encyclopedia Article

...International inequality is inequality between countries (cf. Milanovic 2002). Economic differences b... ...l tables and Powerpoint slides. The major component of the world's income inequality (the global Gini coefficient ) is comprised by two groups of co... ...ncome level under 1, 000 PPP$. (See Milanovic 2001, p. 38). Economic inequality very closely matches lognormal distribution as one traverses t... ...le and Newmayer (2003) or ). According to current research, global income inequality peaked approximately in 1970s when world income was distributed ... ...bimodally into "rich" and "poor" countries with little overlap. Since then inequality have been rapidly decreasing, and this trend seems to be acceler... ...rty Negative liberty Marx United Nations Millennium Development Goals Occupational inequality Poverty and Cycle of poverty Population health ...

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The Median-Voter Hypothesis, Income Inequality, And Income Redistribution : An Empirical Test with the Required Data

By: Branko Milanovic

...itical Economy . Vol. 16 2000 367–410 The median-voter hypothesis, income inequality, and income redistribution: an empirical test with the required ... ...s of income redistribution. For example, it has been proposed that greater inequality is associated with lower growth, because of the greater redistri... ...s. The results strongly support the conclusion that countries with greater inequality of factor income redistribute more to the poor. This is so even ... ...assification: D31; E62 Keywords: Median voter; Income distribution; Income inequality; Endogenous growth 1. Setting the problem: the link between ineq... ...en inequality and redistribution A key relationship in the literature on inequality and growth see Perotti, 1992, 1993; Persson and Tabellini, 1994;... ...come V5 qcash property income V 8 plus private pensions . . . V 32 plus occupational public pensions V 33 plus alimony received V 34 plus other reg...

...voter hypothesis has been central to an extensive literature on consequences of income redistribution. For example, it has been proposed that greater inequality is associated with lower growth, because of the greater redistribution that is sought by the median voter when income distribution is less equal. There have however been no proper tests of the median-voter hypothes...

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Occupational therapist

Encyclopedia Article

...finition for OT can also be illustrated with the use of models such as the Occupational Performance Model (Australia), known as the OPM(A). At the cor... ...a), known as the OPM(A). At the core of this approach is the ideology that occupational therapists are concerned with the occupations of people and ho... ...eople and how these contribute to health.[2] Specifically it is a person's occupational performance that influences their health and personal satisfac... ...individual needs. The OPM(A) is constructed on the following definition of Occupational Performance: The ability to perceive, desi... ...nal and/or external environment.[3] It can be seen that occupational performance, the roles it creates for a client, and the areas ... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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Diseases of Occupation from the Legislative, Social, And Medical Points of View

By: Oliver, Thomas, Sir 1853-1942

...lop symptoms not unlike those observed in general paralysis, but without the inequality of pupils and the grandiose ideas characteristic of the more c... ...itain. If proof were required of the good effects of legislation in reducing occupational diseases, we have only to turn to coal-mining and compare it...

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Occupational health psychology

Encyclopedia Article

...safety of workers.[1][2] Houdmont and Leka [1] noted seven major topics of occupational stress, occupational burnout, work-family conflict, workplace ... ...rial engineering, economics,[3] preventive medicine, public health,[4] and occupational health.[5] OHP is concerned with psychosocial factors[6] in th... ... 3.2 Health promotion 3.3 Occupational stress and cardiovascular disease ... ... 3.8.2 OHP research at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ... ...SR) at the University of Michigan was important because of its research on occupational stress and employee health.[11][12][13] Re... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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The Median-Voter Hypothesis, Income Inequality, And Income Redistribution : An Empirical Test with the Required Data

By: Branko Milanovic

...itical Economy . Vol. 16 2000 367–410 The median-voter hypothesis, income inequality, and income redistribution: an empirical test with the required ... ...s of income redistribution. For example, it has been proposed that greater inequality is associated with lower growth, because of the greater redistri... ...s. The results strongly support the conclusion that countries with greater inequality of factor income redistribute more to the poor. This is so even ... ...assification: D31; E62 Keywords: Median voter; Income distribution; Income inequality; Endogenous growth 1. Setting the problem: the link between ineq... ...en inequality and redistribution A key relationship in the literature on inequality and growth see Perotti, 1992, 1993; Persson and Tabellini, 1994;... ...come V5 qcash property income V 8 plus private pensions . . . V 32 plus occupational public pensions V 33 plus alimony received V 34 plus other reg...

...voter hypothesis has been central to an extensive literature on consequences of income redistribution. For example, it has been proposed that greater inequality is associated with lower growth, because of the greater redistribution that is sought by the median voter when income distribution is less equal. There have however been no proper tests of the median-voter hypothes...

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Occupational lung disease

Encyclopedia Article

...Occupational lung diseases are a branch of occupational diseases concerned primarily with work related exposures to ha... ... External agents/ occupational lung disease ... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2003 ; Issue 9241562455, (Part 4) - (Chapter 34-42): Chapter 34 ; A Framework for Measuring Health Inequality

By: Emmanuela Gakidou

...A Framework for Measuring Health Inequality Emmanuela Gakidou, Christopher J.L. Murray, Julio Frenk 1 Chapte... ...as a distinct dimension of the performance of health systems (23). Health inequality is defned as variations in health status across individuals in ... ...ulation (16). This approach, which is consistent with the measurement of inequality in other felds, such as economics, allows us to perform cross-c... ...to perform cross-country comparisons and study the determinants of health inequality (24). This chapter addresses the question of measuring health i... ...ity of what (25)? We believe it is critical for a clear debate on health inequality to frst articulate what the quantity of interest is and why, an... ... reinvigorate interest in some health problems. For example, many specifc occupational exposures are not major contributors to average levels of pop... ...As we quantify better the distribution of health expec- tancy, the role of occupational and local environ- mental exposures in contributing to risk in... ...Epidemiology and Community Health, 1995, 49:117–123. (9) Kunst AE, et al. Occupational class and cause specifc mortality in middle aged men in 11 Eu...

...distribution of health in the population is also key and should be measured as a distinct dimension of the performance of health systems (23). Health inequality is defined as variations in health status across individuals in a population (16). This approach, which is consistent with the measurement of inequality in other fields, such as economics, allows us to perform cros...

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Gender inequality in China

Encyclopedia Article

...2000s, gender inequalities in the labor markets of China increased. Gender inequality in the labor market emerged as a significant economic and social... ...s unfolded in China.[1] In international terms, gender inequality in China is relatively low. In 2011 China ranked 35th on the Uni... ...011 China ranked 35th on the United Nations Development Programme's Gender Inequality Index (GII) among 142 countries for which the index was calculat... ... 2 China's economic reforms and the emergence of gender inequality in labor market 2.1 Ea... ... 2.1 Earnings inequality 2.2 Occupational segregation 2.3 Une... ...ed gender inequality in pay in the workplace in this era.,[4] owing to the occupational and industrial segregation by sex. For example, during the pla... ...on by sex. For example, during the planned economy enterprises had typical occupational differentiation into two groups, i.e. the primary jobs and sec... ... gap increased by 19.4 percentage points from 1990.[7] Occupational segregation Two new trends in the labor mar... ... Chinese) He Cai, Xiaoping Wu, “social change and occupational gender inequality [J]”, Society, 2005, (6) (In Chinese) ...

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Federal Job Training Programs : The Need for Overhaul : Hearings before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, On Examining the Effectiveness of the Federal, Employment Training System in Helping Reduce Long-Term Welfare Dependence, January 10, 11, And 12, 1995

By: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human Resources

...s were out of context and bored them. The current trend in training combines occupational skill train- ing with academic remediation so the trainee ca... ...s were out of context and bored them. The current trend in training combines occupational skills training with academic remediation so the trainee can... ...wn experience as a case manager, frequently clients express an inter- est in occupational training that they know nothing about. For example, one youn... ...l and Educational Counseling for Servieemambers and Veterans Service Members Occupational Conversion and Training Health Care for Homeless Veterans Do... ...as the All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program. ••Service Members Occupational Conversion and Training funding shown represents carryover f... ...becoming more unequal. Even as we sit here, the data continue to show rising inequality. People are not sharing the growth. Why did this happen? It is... ...d the nature of the investment required to reduce the current levels of wage inequality, I think it might be useful to do some simple, back-of-the-env... ...e has been even greater for female college graduates. For bothmen and women, inequality of labor incomes has risen. The returns to schooling and skill... .... 1993). n. The herd ofInvestuuiaNeeded To Reduce The Current Levels Of Wage Inequality. There have beenmany proposals for investments in human coital...

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Gender inequality in India

Encyclopedia Article

...ries. Gender gap index is one of many multi-dimensional measures of gender inequality. India was scored at 0.66 by World Economic Forum, and ranked 10... ...t of 136 countries in 2013.[1] Gender inequality in India refers to health, education, economic and political ine... ...equalities between men and women in India.[1] Various international gender inequality indices rank India differently on each of these factors, as well... ...r lifetimes, their educational attainment, and economic conditions. Gender inequality in India is a multifaceted issue that concerns men and women ali... ... 3.2 Access to credit 3.3 Occupational inequalities ... ... 9.1 State initiatives to reduce gender inequality 10 Orga... ...cides by women who were unable to pay their debts.[20] Occupational inequalities Military service ... ... 3.2 Access to credit 3.3 Occupational inequalities ... ...cides by women who were unable to pay their debts.[20] Occupational inequalities Military service ...

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Steps to a Healthier U.S. Workforce : Integrating Occupational Health and Safety and Worksite Health Promotion : State of the Science

By: Glorian Sorensen, Ph. D., M. P. H.

... i Steps to a Healthier US Workforce: Integrating Occupational Health and Safety and Worksite Health Promotion: State of th... ...unity-based Research Commissioned paper for The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Steps to a Healthier US Workforce Symposiu... ... Section Page Abstract iv A. Introduction 1 B. Rationale for integrating occupational health and safety and worksite health promotion 5 C. Occupat... ...health programs 10 D. Worksite health promotion programs 16 E. Integrated Occupational Safety and Health/Worksite Health Promotion 23 (OSH/WHP) Pr... ...ic evidence for coordinating and integrating worksite health promotion and occupational health and safety as a means of enhancing the effectiveness o... ..., may reduce workers’ success with health behavior change. Fifth, income inequality is increasing and wages are falling for many workers. 192, 193 ... ..., Tolbert, C.M. Work in the fast lane: Flexibility, division of labor, and inequality in high tech industries, SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 1992. 189. Ki... ...nt of Health, London, U.K., 1994. 217. Graham, H. Promoting health against inequality: Using research to identify targets for intervention, A case s...

...Table of contents Section Page Abstract iv A. Introduction 1 B. Rationale for integrating occupational health and safety and worksite health promotion 5 C. Occupational safety and health programs 10 D. Worksite health promotion programs 16 E. Integrated Occupational Safety and Health/Worksite Health Promotion 23 (...

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Inequality within immigrant families in the United States

Encyclopedia Article

...same family have differing access to resources. Much literature focuses on inequality between families, but inequality often exists within families as... ... but inequality often exists within families as well. Though within-family inequality is not unique to immigrant families, the processes of migration ... ...assimilation into American society provide new channels through which such inequality may emerge. Contents ... ...tus. [9] Thus, the unequal access to employment opportunities can generate inequality among family members of different legal statuses. ... ...th care in the United States Gender Inequality in the family may occur along gender lines. This is not an issue... ...'niche' occupations" as well as occupations in low-wage sectors. [33] This occupational concentration provides few opportunities for advancement beyon... ...occupations. [6] Subsequent generations, however, are less likely to be so occupationally concentrated by ethnicity and nationality. Members of later ... ...'niche' occupations" as well as occupations in low-wage sectors. [33] This occupational concentration provides few opportunities for advancement beyon... ...occupations. [6] Subsequent generations, however, are less likely to be so occupationally concentrated by ethnicity and nationality. Members of later ...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2003 ; Issue 9241590742: Compendium of Activities of the World Health Organization Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health Network of Collaborating Centres Work Plan 2001-2005 15 Task Forces

By: David Nabarro

...Compendium of Activities of the WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health Compendium of Activities of the WHO Collaborating Centr... ...tional Health Compendium of Activities of the WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health Network of Collaborating Centres Work Plan 2001-2005 15... ...res Work Plan 2001-2005 15 Task Forces Protection of the Human Environment Occupational and Environmental Health Programme June 2003 World Health Orga... ...Organization. Compendium of activities of the WHO collaborating centres in occupational health : network of collaborating centres work plan : 2001-200... ...network of collaborating centres work plan : 2001-2005 : 15 task forces. 1.Occupational health 2.Occupational diseases - prevention and control 3.Aca... ...cess to health services, basic water and food quality concerns, and social inequality. Enhanced efforts in this area could advance regional programmes...

...ealth of a large audience. Thus the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa in August-September 2002, prioritized occupational health in the final document of the Summit. The Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health carries out its activities in all regions of the globe. The workplan that is set out in this Compendium,...

...rce 14: Economic evaluation of interventions …………………… 112 Task Force 15: Global burden of disease …………………………………………. 115 Annexes Annex I: Directory of Occupational Health Collaborating Centres and WHO Offices………………………………………………………………………… Annex II: Summary Report of the Sixth Network Meeting of the WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health……………………….. Annex III: Report ...

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Occupational therapy in the United Kingdom

Encyclopedia Article

... Contents 1 Occupational therapy education in the UK 2 H... ...al therapy education in the UK 2 History of occupational therapy in the UK 3 Why are occ... ... 6 External links Occupational therapy education in the UK Every year arou... ...ery year around 1,500 new students embark on training to become registered occupational therapists. To qualify as an occupational therapist one is req... ...e an approved programme of study at one of the 31 UK universities offering occupational therapy education. There are a variety of full and part time p... ...Hygiene Inequality ... ...Hygiene Inequality ...

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Interests in Relation to Intelligence; A Study of the Relation of the Mental Status of School Children to Their Motivation as Shown in the Choices of School Plans and Occupational Preferences

By: Poull, Louise Elizabeth, 1876

...CHIL- DREN TO THEIR MOTIVATION AS SHOWN IN THE CHOICES OF SCHOOL PLANS AND OCCUPATIONAL PREFERENCES. By Louise E. Poull, Ph.D. Introduction and Review... ...e intelligence of the child according to the Stanford-Binet Scale with the occupational rating of the father worked out on 104 cases. The correlation ... ...as a larger population than No. 11, the school for boys. To avoid a marked inequality between the number of boys and girls, the 6a class of Public Sch... ...15 roughly the relation of children's aspirations to life opportuni- ties. Occupational preferences were also tabulated against life prospects, of whi... ... " Taking the twelve-year-olds as a fair sampling of the entire group, the occupational prefer- ences were tabulated against the life prospects as exp... ... only 11 boys. Separate distributions for boys and for girls regardless of occupational preferences were therefore necessary. They show the following ...

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Income inequality in the United States

Encyclopedia Article

...ome in the United States Income inequality in the United States ... ... Income inequality in the United States has grown significantly since the early 197... ...rs and institutions. The U.S. consistently exhibits higher rates of income inequality than most developed nations due to the nation's enhanced support... ... middle of America's income distribution.[18] Most of the growth in income inequality has been between the middle class and top earners, with the disp... ...tion.[19] To put this change into perspective, at 1979 inequality levels, each family in the bottom 80% of the income distribution... ...ch remains after accounting for ethnicity,[146] national culture,[147] and occupational classes or education levels.[148] Their findings, based on UN ... ...ss/education level in high inequality countries, but continued through all occupational classes and was still significant among the highest. (Pickett ... ...ch remains after accounting for ethnicity,[146] national culture,[147] and occupational classes or education levels.[148] Their findings, based on UN ... ...ss/education level in high inequality countries, but continued through all occupational classes and was still significant among the highest. (Pickett ...

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Project WISH: The Emerald City, phase 2

By: NON

...rst type being called equality constraints while the second type is called inequality constraints. The third type of constraint is on the design varia... ...t exposure. Table 5.2 shows the limits recommended for constant public and occupational exposure in the United States. The occupational annual exposur... ... present throughout the Table 5.2 - Continuous Dose Limits solar system at Occupational Annual 5.0 rem Lifetime (guideline) :Age*l.0 rem Planned or sp...

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Causes of income inequality in the United States

Encyclopedia Article

... Household income in the United States Income inequality in the United States ... ... Causes of income inequality in the United States d... ...xternal links Overview U.S. inequality from 1913–2008.[1] ... ...s been the subject of study of many scholars and institutions. The U.S. consistently exhibits higher rates of income inequality than most developed na... ...and structure of executive compensation,[25] and the failure of government policy makers to do anything about rising inequality.[26] ... ...ased. Expertise and skill certified through an academic degree translates into increased scarcity of an individual's occupational qualification which ... ...al percentages of 27%, 58% and 42%, respectively.[43][45][46] Upper-most sphere US Census Bureau data indicated that occupational achievement and the ... ...t than others. In the case of women this concept is referred to as the glass ceiling keeping women from climbing the occupational ladder. ...

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