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New Hampshire

State of New Hampshire
Flag of New Hampshire State seal of New Hampshire
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Granite State[1]
Motto(s): Live Free or Die
State song(s): "Old New Hampshire[2]"
Map of the United States with New Hampshire highlighted
Official language English
Demonym New Hampshirite, Granite Stater
Capital Concord
Largest city Manchester
Largest metro Greater Manchester
Area Ranked 46th
 - Total 9,304 sq mi
(24,217 km2)
 - Width 68 miles (110 km)
 - Length 190 miles (305 km)
 - % water 4.1
 - Latitude 42° 42′ N to 45° 18′ N
 - Longitude 70° 36′ W to 72° 33′ W
Population Ranked 42nd
 - Total 1,323,459 (2013 est)[3]
 - Density 147/sq mi  (56.8/km2)
Ranked 21st
 - Median household income $60,441 (6th)
 - Highest point Mount Washington[4][5][6][7]
6,288 ft (1916.66 m)
 - Mean 1,000 ft  (300 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[5]
sea level
Before statehood Province of New Hampshire
Admission to Union June 21, 1788 (9th)
Governor Maggie Hassan (D)
President of the Senate Chuck Morse (R)[8]
Legislature General Court
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Jeanne Shaheen (D)
Kelly Ayotte (R)
U.S. House delegation 1: Carol Shea-Porter (D)
2: Ann McLane Kuster (D) (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC -5/-4
Abbreviations NH, N.H. US-NH
Website .gov.nhwww
New Hampshire state symbols
Animal and Plant insignia
Amphibian Red-spotted newt
Notophthalmus viridescens
Bird(s) Purple finch
Haemorhous purpureus
Butterfly Karner Blue
Lycaeides melissa samuelis
Dog breed Chinook
Fish Freshwater: Brook trout
Salvelinus fontinalis
Saltwater: Striped bass
Morone saxatilis
Flower(s) Purple lilac
Syringa vulgaris
Insect Ladybug
Mammal(s) White-tailed deer
Odocoileus virginianus
Tree White birch
Betula papyrifera
Inanimate insignia
Food Fruit: Pumpkin
Vegetable: White Potato
Gemstone Smoky quartz
Mineral Beryl
Motto Live Free or Die
Rock Granite
Song(s) "Old New Hampshire"
Sport Skiing
Tartan New Hampshire State Tartan
Route marker(s)
New Hampshire Route Marker
State Quarter
Quarter of New Hampshire
Released in 2000
Lists of United States state symbols

New Hampshire (US ) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 5th smallest, and the 9th least populous of the 50 United States.

In January 1776 it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of Great Britain's authority, although it did not declare its independence at the time. Six months later, it became one of the original 13 states that founded the United States of America, and in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect. New Hampshire was the first U.S. state to have its own state constitution.

It is known internationally for the New Hampshire primary, the first primary in the U.S. presidential election cycle. Concord is the state capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state. It has no general sales tax, nor is personal income (other than interest and dividends) taxed at either the state or local level.[9]

Its license plates carry the state motto: "Live Free or Die". The state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite formations and quarries.[10]

Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, and author Dan Brown. Additionally, actor Adam Sandler grew up, but was not born in, the state. New Hampshire has produced one president: Franklin Pierce.

With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing, snowmobiling, and other winter sports, hiking and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, and Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach near Laconia in June. The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, and boasts the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot (1,917 m) Mount Washington.


  • Geography 1
    • Climate 1.1
    • Metropolitan areas 1.2
    • Earthquakes 1.3
  • History 2
  • Demographics 3
    • Race and ancestry 3.1
    • Religion 3.2
  • Economy 4
  • Law and government 5
    • Governing documents 5.1
    • Branches of government 5.2
    • Local government 5.3
    • Politics 5.4
      • New Hampshire primary 5.4.1
      • Election results 5.4.2
      • Free State Project 5.4.3
  • Transportation 6
    • Highways 6.1
    • Air 6.2
    • Public transportation 6.3
    • Freight railways 6.4
  • Education 7
    • High schools 7.1
    • Colleges and universities 7.2
  • Media 8
    • Daily newspapers 8.1
    • Other publications 8.2
    • Radio stations 8.3
    • Television stations 8.4
  • Sports 9
  • Culture 10
    • In fiction 10.1
      • Comics 10.1.1
      • Film 10.1.2
      • Literature 10.1.3
      • Television 10.1.4
  • Notable residents or natives 11
  • New Hampshire firsts 12
  • See also 13
  • References 14
  • Further reading 15
  • External links 16


New Hampshire, showing roads, rivers and major cities
Mount Adams (5,774 ft or 1,760 m) is part of New Hampshire's Presidential Range.

New Hampshire is part of the New England region. It is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the north and northwest; Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east; Massachusetts to the south; and Vermont to the west. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, and the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U.S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles (29 km),[11] sometimes measured as only 13 miles.[12] New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003.

The White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U.S. – site of the second-highest wind speed ever recorded[13] – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, and conspicuous krumholtz (dwarf, matted trees much like a carpet of bonsai trees), the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather".[14]

In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.

Major rivers include the 110-mile (177 km) Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north-south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, and Winnipesaukee River. The 410-mile (660 km) Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as usually the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side; meaning that the entire river along the Vermont border (save for areas where the water level has been raised by a dam) lies within New Hampshire.[15] Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the state of Vermont. The "northwesternmost headwaters" of the Connecticut also define the Canadian border with New Hampshire.

Shaded relief map of New Hampshire

The Piscataqua River and its several tributaries form the state's only significant ocean port where they flow into the Atlantic at Portsmouth. The Salmon Falls River and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of the border with Maine. The Piscataqua River boundary was the subject of a border dispute between New Hampshire and Maine in 2001, with New Hampshire claiming dominion over several islands (primarily Seavey's Island) that include the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the case in 2002, leaving ownership of the island with Maine.

The largest of New Hampshire's lakes is Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers 71 square miles (184 km2) in the east-central part of New Hampshire. Umbagog Lake along the Maine border, approximately 12.3 square miles (31.9 km2), is a distant second. Squam Lake is the second largest lake entirely in New Hampshire.

New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any state in the United States, approximately 18 miles (29 km) long.[16] Hampton Beach is a popular local summer destination. About 7 miles (11 km) offshore are the Isles of Shoals, nine small islands (four of which are in New Hampshire) known as the site of a 19th-century art colony founded by poet Celia Thaxter, and the alleged location of one of the buried treasures of the pirate Blackbeard.

It is the state with the highest percentage of timberland area in the country.[17] New Hampshire is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. Much of the state, in particular the White Mountains, is covered by the conifers and northern hardwoods of the New England-Acadian forests. The southeast corner of the state and parts of the Connecticut River along the Vermont border are covered by the mixed oaks of the Northeastern coastal forests.[18]

The northern third of the state is locally referred to as the "north country" or "north of the notches," in reference to White Mountain passes that channel traffic. It contains less than 5% of the state's population, suffers relatively high poverty, and is steadily losing population as the logging and paper industries decline. However, the tourist industry, in particular visitors who go to northern New Hampshire to ski, snowboard, hike and mountain bike, has helped offset economic losses from mill closures.


During autumn, the leaves on many hardwood trees in New Hampshire turn colors, attracting many tourists.
A winter view of an apple orchard in Hollis, New Hampshire

New Hampshire experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa in southern areas and Dfb in the north), with warm, humid summers, cold, wet winters, and uniform precipitation all year. The climate of the southeastern portion is moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and averages relatively milder and wetter weather, while the northern and interior portions experience cooler temperatures and lower humidity. Winters are cold and snowy throughout the state, and especially severe in the northern and mountainous areas. Average annual snowfall ranges from 60 inches (150 cm) to over 100 inches (250 cm) across the state.[19]

Average daytime highs are in the mid 70s°F to low 80s°F (around 24–28 °C) throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the mid 50s°F to low 60s°F (13–15 °C). January temperatures range from an average high of 34 °F (1 °C) on the coast to overnight lows below 0 °F (−18 °C) in the far north and at high elevations. Average annual precipitation statewide is roughly 40 inches (100 cm) with some variation occurring in the White Mountains due to differences in elevation and annual snowfall. New Hampshire's highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) in Nashua on July 4, 1911, while the lowest recorded temperature was −47 °F (−44 °C) atop Mount Washington on January 29, 1934. Mount Washington also saw an unofficial −50 °F (−46 °C) reading on January 22, 1885, which, if made official, would tie the all-time record low for New England (also −50 °F (−46 °C) at Big Black River, Maine on January 16, 2009, and Bloomfield, Vermont on December 30, 1933).

Extreme snow is often associated with a nor'easter, such as the Blizzard of '78 and the Blizzard of 1993, when several feet accumulated across portions of the state over 24 to 48 hours. Lighter snowfalls of several inches occur frequently throughout winter, often associated with an Alberta Clipper.

New Hampshire, on occasion, is affected by hurricanes and tropical storms although by the time they reach the state they are often extratropical, with most storms striking the southern New England coastline and moving inland or passing by offshore in the Gulf of Maine. Most of New Hampshire averages fewer than 20 days of thunderstorms per year and an average of two tornadoes occur annually statewide.[20]

The National Arbor Day Foundation plant hardiness zone map depicts zones 3, 4, 5, and 6 occurring throughout the state[21] and indicates the transition from a relatively cooler to warmer climate as one travels southward across New Hampshire. The 1990 USDA plant hardiness zones for New Hampshire range from zone 3b in the north to zone 5b in the south.[22]

Metropolitan areas

Metropolitan areas in the New England region are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs). The following is a list of NECTAs in New Hampshire:

From "The New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau". Archived from the original on 2008-01-11. Retrieved June 16, 2014. 


While New Hampshire, along with the rest of New England, does not frequently experience earthquakes, it has experienced several earthquakes in history and has been affected by some of the larger earthquakes centered in the St. Lawrence Valley seismic zone in Canada and in a seismic zone in northeastern Massachusetts. All of New England felt the 1663 Charlevoix earthquake centered near the Quebec-Maine border, the magnitude of which has since been estimated at 7.3-7.9. In 1727, Newbury, Massachusetts, experienced a damaging earthquake, shaking New Hampshire too. The 1755 Cape Ann Earthquake, estimated magnitude 5.5-6.0, also shook most or all of New Hampshire. On November 9, 1810, Exeter experienced an estimated intensity VI tremor. It was accompanied by an unusual noise like an explosion below the area and broke windows in Portsmouth. Concord, the capital, experienced a series of shocks within a period of 19 years, 1872 to 1891. One earthquake was felt in late 1872, lasting 10 seconds in Concord, and was felt in Laconia and other towns to the north. Ten years later, another tremor was strongest in Concord, although Dover and Pittsfield reportedly had buildings shaken. On November 23, 1884, two earthquakes, the first one light, followed fifteen minutes later by a severe one, were both felt in Concord. The second shock was felt in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and eastern New York. Concord's last tremor in the 19-year period was mild and was reported in two Massachusetts locations: Cambridge and Melrose.

Southeastern New Hampshire and Maine experienced an earthquake in 1925. Both were moderately damaging. Dishes and goods were jostled from shelves in Ossipee, Tuftonboro, and Effingham Falls. In 1929 the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, 800 miles (1,300 km) away, experienced a magnitude 7.2 earthquake, and New Hampshire felt minor effects. In 1935, a 6.25 earthquake centered in Timiskaming, Ontario, 500 miles (800 km) away, was felt in an area of over 2,500,000 square kilometers (970,000 sq mi), and New Hampshire recorded intensities of V in some places. Ossipee Lake in December 1940 was the site of two moderate earthquakes. It was felt in all six New England states, as well as parts of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In the epicentral area, a large number of aftershocks happened. One observer counted over 120 aftershocks through January 31, 1941.[23]


1922 map of New Hampshire published in the bulletin of the Brown Company in Berlin

Various Algonquian (Abenaki and Pennacook) tribes inhabited the area prior to European settlement. English and French explorers visited New Hampshire in 1600–1605, and English fishermen settled at Odiorne's Point in present-day Rye in 1623. The first permanent settlement was at Hilton's Point (present-day Dover). By 1631, the Upper Plantation comprised modern-day Dover, Durham and Stratham; in 1679, it became the "Royal Province." Father Rale's War was fought between the colonists and the Wabanaki Confederacy throughout New Hampshire.

New Hampshire was one of the thirteen colonies that rebelled against British rule during the American Revolution. By the time of the American Revolution, New Hampshire was a divided province. The economic and social life of the Seacoast revolved around sawmills, shipyards, merchant's warehouses, and established village and town centers. Wealthy merchants built substantial homes, furnished them with the finest luxuries, and invested their capital in trade and land speculation. At the other end of the social scale, there developed a permanent class of day laborers, mariners, indentured servants and even slaves.

The only battle fought in New Hampshire was the raid on Fort William and Mary, December 14, 1774, in Portsmouth Harbor, which netted the rebellion sizable quantities of gunpowder, small arms and cannon. (General Sullivan, leader of the raid, described it as, "remainder of the powder, the small arms, bayonets, and cartouche-boxes, together with the cannon and ordnance stores") over the course of two nights. This raid was preceded by a warning to local patriots the previous day, by Paul Revere on December 13, 1774, that the fort was to be reinforced by troops sailing from Boston. According to unverified accounts, the gunpowder was later used at the Battle of Bunker Hill, transported there by Major Demerit, who was one of several New Hampshire patriots who stored the powder in their homes until it was transported elsewhere for use in revolutionary activities.

New Hampshire was a Jacksonian stronghold; the state sent Franklin Pierce to the White House in the election of 1852. Industrialization took the form of numerous textile mills, which in turn attracted large flows of immigrants from Quebec (the "French Canadians") and Ireland. The northern parts of the state produced lumber and the mountains provided tourist attractions. After 1960, the textile industry collapsed, but the economy rebounded as a center of high technology and a service provider.

Since 1952, New Hampshire gained national and international attention for its presidential primary held early in every presidential election year. It immediately became the most important testing grounds for candidates for the Republican and Democratic nominations. The media gave New Hampshire (and Iowa) about half of all the attention paid to all states in the primary process, magnifying the state's decision powers (and spurring repeated efforts by out-of-state politicians to change the rules.)


New Hampshire population density

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of New Hampshire was 1,323,459 on July 1, 2013, a 0.5% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[3] The center of population of New Hampshire is located in Merrimack County, in the town of Pembroke.[26] The center of population has moved south 12 miles (19 km) since 1950,[27] a reflection of the fact that the fastest growth in the state has been along its southern border, which is within commuting range of Boston and other Massachusetts cities.

Race and ancestry

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the racial makeup of New Hampshire was as follows:[28]

Hispanic and Latino Americans of any race made up 2.8% of the population in 2010.

New Hampshire Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990[29] 2000[30] 2010[31]
White 98.0% 96.0% 93.9%
Asian 0.8% 1.3% 2.2%
Black 0.6% 0.7% 1.1%
Native 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
- - -
Other race 0.3% 0.6% 0.9%
Two or more races - 1.1% 1.6%

The largest ancestry groups in New Hampshire are, per 2011 Census Bureau estimates:[32]

The large Irish American and French-Canadian populations are descended largely from mill workers, and many still live in the former mill towns, like Manchester. New Hampshire has one of the highest percentages (23.2% of the population) of residents of French/French-Canadian/Acadian ancestry of any U.S. state. (As of 2011 estimates, Maine had a slightly higher percentage.)

According to the 2000 United States Census, 3.41% of the population aged 5 and older speak French at home, while 1.60% speak Spanish.[33]

In Coös County, 16% of the population speaks French at home.[33]


A Pew survey showed that the religious affiliations of the people of New Hampshire was as follows: Protestant 34%, Catholic 29%, LDS (Mormon) 1%, Jewish 1%, Jehovah's Witness 0.5%, Muslim 0.5%, Buddhist 1%, Hindu 0.5% and non-religious at 26%.[34]

A survey suggests that people in New Hampshire and Vermont[35] are less likely than other Americans to attend weekly services and only 54% say that they are "absolutely certain there is a God" compared to 71% in the rest of the nation.[36][37] New Hampshire and Vermont are also at the lowest levels among states in religious commitment. In 2012, 23% of New Hampshire residents in a Gallup poll considered themselves "very religious", while 52% considered themselves "non-religious".[38] According to the Association of Religion Data Archives(ARDA) the largest denominations are the Roman Catholic Church with 311,028 members; The United Church of Christ with 26,321 members; and the United Methodist Church with 18,029 members.[39]


The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Hampshire's total state product in 2008 was $60 billion, ranking 40th in the United States.[40] Median household income in 2008 was $49,467, the seventh highest in the country. Its agricultural outputs are dairy products, nursery stock, cattle, apples and eggs. Its industrial outputs are machinery, electric equipment, rubber and plastic products and tourism.[41]

New Hampshire experienced a significant shift in its economic base during the last century. Historically, the base was composed of the traditional New England manufactures of textiles, shoe making, and small machining shops drawing upon low-wage labor from nearby small farms and from parts of Quebec. Today, these sectors contribute only 2% for textiles, 2% for leather goods, and 9% for machining of the state's total manufacturing dollar value (Source: U.S. Economic Census for 1997, Manufacturing, New Hampshire). They experienced a sharp decline due to obsolete plants and the lure of cheaper wages in the South.

The state's budget in FY2008 was $5.11 billion, including $1.48 billion in federal funds. The issue of taxation is controversial in New Hampshire, which has a property tax (subject to municipal control) but no broad sales tax or income tax. The state does have narrower taxes on meals, lodging, vehicles, business and investment income, and tolls on state roads.

According to the Energy Information Administration, New Hampshire's energy consumption and per capita energy consumption are among the lowest in the country. The Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, located near Portsmouth, is the largest nuclear reactor in New England and provides about 30 percent of New Hampshire’s electricity. Two natural gas-fired plants and some fossil-fuel powered plants, including the coal-fired Merrimack Station plant in Bow, provide most of the rest.

New Hampshire's residential electricity use is low compared with the national average, in part because demand for air conditioning is low during the generally mild summer months and because few households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. Over half of New Hampshire households use fuel oil for winter heating. New Hampshire has potential for renewable energies like wind power, hydroelectricity, and wood fuel.[42]

The state has no general sales tax and no personal state income tax (the state does tax, at a 5 percent rate, income from dividends and interest), and the legislature has exercised fiscal restraint. Efforts to diversify the state's general economy have been ongoing.

New Hampshire's lack of a broad-based tax system has resulted in the state's local communities having some of the nation's highest property taxes. However, the state's overall tax burden is relatively low; in 2010 New Hampshire ranked 44th highest among states in combined average state and local tax burden.[43]

As of February 2010, the state's unemployment rate was 7.1%.[44] By October 2010, the unemployment rate dropped to 5.4%.[45]

According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, New Hampshire had the eighth-highest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 6.48 percent.[46] In 2013, New Hampshire also had the nation’s lowest poverty rate at just 8.7% of all residents according to the Census Bureau.[47]

Law and government

The Governor of New Hampshire is Maggie Hassan (Democrat). New Hampshire's two U.S. senators are Jeanne Shaheen (Democrat) and Kelly Ayotte (Republican). New Hampshire's two U.S. representatives are Carol Shea-Porter (Democrat) and Ann McLane Kuster (Democrat).

New Hampshire is an alcoholic beverage control state, and through the State Liquor Commission it takes in $100 million from the sale and distribution of liquor.[48]

The state has offered civil unions since January 1, 2008, and, on January 1, 2010, same-sex marriage became legal.

Governing documents

The New Hampshire State Constitution of 1783 is the supreme law of the state, followed by the New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated and the New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules. These are roughly analogous to the federal United States Constitution, United States Code and Code of Federal Regulations respectively.

Branches of government

New Hampshire has a bifurcated executive branch, consisting of the governor and a five-member executive council which votes on state contracts worth more than $5,000 and "advises and consents" to the governor's nominations to major state positions such as department heads and all judgeships and pardon requests. New Hampshire does not have a lieutenant governor; the Senate president serves as "acting governor" whenever the governor is unable to perform the duties.

The legislature is called the General Court. It consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. There are 400 representatives, making it one of the largest elected bodies in the English-speaking world,[49] and 24 senators. Most are effectively volunteers, nearly half of which are retirees. (For details, see the article on Government of New Hampshire.)

The state's sole appellate court is the New Hampshire Supreme Court. The Superior Court is the court of general jurisdiction and the only court which provides for jury trials in civil or criminal cases. The other state courts are the Probate Court, District Court, and the Family Division.

Local government

New Hampshire has 10 counties and 234 cities and towns.

New Hampshire is a "Dillon Rule" state, meaning that the state retains all powers not specifically granted to municipalities. Even so, the legislature strongly favors local control, particularly with regard to land use regulations. New Hampshire municipalities are classified as towns or cities, which differ primarily by the form of government. Most towns generally operate on the town meeting form of government, where the registered voters in the town act as the town legislature, and a board of selectmen acts as the executive of the town. Larger towns and the state's thirteen cities operate either on a council-manager or council-mayor form of government. There is no difference, from the point of view of the state government, between towns and cities besides the form of government. All state-level statutes treat all municipalities identically.

New Hampshire has a small number of unincorporated areas that are titled as grants, locations, purchases, or townships. These locations have limited to no self-government, and services are generally provided for them by neighboring towns or the county or state where needed. As of the 2000 census, there were 25 of these left in New Hampshire, accounting for a total population of 175 people (as of 2000); several were entirely depopulated. All but two of these unincorporated areas are located in Coos County.


The Republican Party and the Democratic Party are the only official parties. A plurality of voters are registered as undeclared, and can choose either ballot in the primary and then regain their undeclared status after voting.[50] The Libertarian Party had official party status from 1990 to 1994.

New Hampshire primary

Saint Anselm College has held several national debates on campus.

New Hampshire is internationally famous for the New Hampshire primary, the first primary in the quadrennial American presidential election cycle. State law requires that the Secretary of State schedule this election at least one week before any "similar event." However, the Iowa caucus has preceded the New Hampshire primary. This primary, as the nation's first contest that uses the same procedure as the general election, draws more attention than those in other states, and has often been decisive in shaping the national contest.

State law permits a town with fewer than 100 residents to open its polls at midnight, and close when all registered citizens have cast their ballots. As such, the communities of Dixville Notch in Coos County and Hart's Location in Carroll County, among others, have chosen to implement these provisions. Dixville Notch and Hart's Location are traditionally the first places in both New Hampshire and the U.S. to vote in presidential primaries and elections.

Nominations for all other partisan offices are decided in a separate primary election. In Presidential election cycles, this is the second primary election held in New Hampshire.

Saint Anselm College in Goffstown has become a popular campaign spot for politicians as well as several national presidential debates because of its proximity to Manchester-Boston Regional Airport.[51][52][53]

Election results

In the past, New Hampshire has often voted Republican. Between 1856 and 1988, New Hampshire cast its electoral votes for the Democratic presidential ticket six times: Woodrow Wilson (twice), Franklin D. Roosevelt (three times), and Lyndon B. Johnson (once).

Beginning in 1992, New Hampshire became a 2000 election to supporting his Democratic challenger in the 2004 election, when John Kerry, a senator from neighboring Massachusetts, won the state.

The Democrats dominated elections in New Hampshire in 2006 and 2008. In 2006, Democrats won both congressional seats (electing Carol Shea-Porter in the 1st district and Paul Hodes in the 2nd district), re-elected Governor John Lynch, and gained a majority on the Executive Council and in both houses of the legislature for the first time since 1911. Democrats had not held both the legislature and the governorship since 1874.[54] Neither U.S. Senate seat was up for a vote in 2006. In 2008, Democrats retained their majorities, governorship, and Congressional seats; and former governor Jeanne Shaheen defeated incumbent Republican John E. Sununu for the U.S. Senate in a rematch of the 2002 contest.

The 2008 elections resulted in women holding a majority, 13 of the 24 seats, in the New Hampshire Senate, a first for any legislative body in the United States.[55]

In the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans made historic gains in New Hampshire, capturing veto-proof majorities in the state legislature, taking all five seats in the Executive Council, electing a new U.S. senator, Kelly Ayotte, winning both U.S. House seats, and reducing the margin of victory of incumbent Governor John Lynch compared to his 2006 and 2008 landslide wins.

In the 2012 state legislative elections, Democrats took back the New Hampshire House of Representatives and narrowed the Republican majority in the New Hampshire Senate to 13-11.[56] In 2012, New Hampshire became the first state in U.S. history to elect an all-female federal delegation: Democratic Congresswomen Carol Shea-Porter of Congressional District 1 and Ann McLane Kuster of Congressional District 2 will accompany U.S. Senators Jeanne Shaheen and Kelly Ayotte in 2013. Further, the state elected its second female governor: Democrat Maggie Hassan.

Free State Project

The Free State Project seeks to entice 20,000 individuals with libertarian-leaning views to move to New Hampshire with the intent of reducing the size and scope of government at the local, state and federal levels through active participation in the political process. The Free State Project holds the annual New Hampshire Liberty Forum[57] and the annual Porcupine Freedom Festival, also known as PorcFest.[58]



New Hampshire has a well-maintained, well-signed network of Interstate highways, U.S. highways, and state highways. State highway markers still depict the Old Man of the Mountain despite that rock formation's demise in 2003. Several route numbers align with the same route numbers in neighboring states. State highway numbering does not indicate the highway's direction. Major routes include:

  • Interstate 89 runs northwest from near Concord to Lebanon on the Vermont border.
  • Interstate 93 is the main Interstate highway in New Hampshire and runs north from Salem (on the Massachusetts border) to Littleton (on the Vermont border). I-93 connects the more densely populated southern part of the state to the Lakes Region and the White Mountains further to the north.
  • Interstate 95 runs north-south briefly along New Hampshire's seacoast to serve the city of Portsmouth, before entering Maine
  • U.S. Route 1 runs north-south briefly along New Hampshire's seacoast to the east of and paralleling I-95.
  • U.S. Route 2 runs east-west through Coos County from Maine, intersecting Route 16, skirting the White Mountain National Forest passing through Jefferson and into Vermont.
  • U.S. Route 3 is the longest numbered route in the state, and the only one to run completely through the state from the Massachusetts border to the Canadian border. It generally parallels Interstate 93. South of Manchester, it takes a more westerly route through Nashua. North of Franconia Notch, U.S. 3 takes a more easterly route, before terminating at the Canadian border.
  • U.S. Route 4 terminates at the Portsmouth Traffic Circle and runs east-west across the southern part of the state connecting Durham, Concord, Boscawen and Lebanon.
  • New Hampshire Route 16 is a major north-south highway in the eastern part of the state that generally parallels the border with Maine, eventually entering Maine as Maine Route 16. The southernmost portion of NH 16 is a four-lane freeway, co-signed with U.S. Route 4.
  • New Hampshire Route 101 is a major east-west highway in the southern part of the state that connects Keene with Manchester and the Seacoast region. East of Manchester, NH 101 is a four-lane, limited access highway that runs to Hampton Beach and I-95.


New Hampshire has 25 public-use airports, three with some scheduled commercial passenger service. The busiest airport by number of passengers handled is Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester and Londonderry, which serves the Greater Boston metropolitan area.

Public transportation

Long-distance intercity passenger rail service is provided by Amtrak's Vermonter and Downeaster lines.

As of 2013, Boston-centered MBTA Commuter Rail services reach only as far as northern Massachusetts. The New Hampshire Rail Transit Authority is working to extend "Capital Corridor" service from Lowell, Massachusetts to Nashua, Concord, and Manchester, including Manchester-Boston Regional Airport; and "Coastal Corridor" service from Haverhill, Massachusetts, to Plaistow, New Hampshire.[59][60] Legislation in 2007 created the New Hampshire Rail Transit Authority (NHRTA) with the goal of overseeing the development of commuter rail in the state of New Hampshire. In 2011, Governor John Lynch vetoed HB 218, a bill passed by Republican lawmakers, which would have drastically curtailed the powers and responsibilities of NHRTA.[61][62]

Eleven public transit authorities operate local and regional bus services around the state, and eight private carriers operate express bus services which link with the national intercity bus network.[63] The New Hampshire Department of Transportation operates a statewide ride-sharing match service,[64] in addition to independent ride matching and guaranteed ride home programs.[63]

Tourist railroads include the Conway Scenic Railroad, Hobo-Winnipesaukee Railroad, and the Mount Washington Cog Railway.

Freight railways

Freight railways in New Hampshire include Pan Am Railways, the New England Central Railroad, the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad, and New Hampshire Northcoast Corporation.


Thompson Hall, at UNH, was built in 1892.

High schools

The first public high schools in the state were the Boys' High School and the Girls' High School of Portsmouth, established either in 1827 or 1830 depending on the source.[65][66][67]

New Hampshire has more than 80 public high schools, many of which serve more than one town. The largest is Pinkerton Academy in Derry, which is owned by a private non-profit organization and serves as the public high school of a number of neighboring towns. There are at least 30 private high schools in the state.

  • New Hampshire High Schools and The Towns They Serve
  • New Hampshire public schools with a Web presence

In 2008 the state tied with Massachusetts as having the highest scores on the SAT and ACT standardized tests given to high school students.[68]

Colleges and universities


Daily newspapers

Other publications

Radio stations

See List of radio stations in New Hampshire.

Television stations


The following professional sports teams are located in New Hampshire:

Club Sport / League
New Hampshire Fisher Cats Eastern League (class AA baseball)
Manchester Monarchs American Hockey League
New Hampshire Phantoms USL Premier Development League (soccer)
Manchester Freedom Independent Women's Football League

The New Hampshire Motor Speedway in Loudon is an oval track and road course which has been visited by national motorsport championship series such as the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, the NASCAR Nationwide Series, the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series, NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour, American Canadian Tour (ACT), the Champ Car and the IndyCar Series. Other motor racing venues include Star Speedway and New England Dragway in Epping, Twin State Speedway in Claremont, Monadnock Speedway in Winchester and Canaan Fair Speedway in Canaan.

Annually since 2002, high-school statewide all-stars compete against Vermont in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs.[69] New Hampshire also has three amateur roller derby leagues with the ManchVegas Roller Girls (USARS), New Hampshire Roller Derby (WFTDA[70]) and Granite State Roller Derby.


In the spring, New Hampshire's many sap houses hold sugaring-off open houses. In summer and early autumn, New Hampshire is home to many county fairs, the largest being the Hopkinton State Fair, in Contoocook. New Hampshire's Lakes Region is home to many summer camps, especially around Lake Winnipesaukee, and is a popular tourist destination. The Peterborough Players have performed every summer in Peterborough, New Hampshire since 1933. The Barnstormers Theatre in Tamworth, New Hampshire, founded in 1931, is one of the longest-running professional summer theaters in the United States. In the fall New Hampshire is host to the New Hampshire Highland Games. New Hampshire has also registered an official tartan with the proper authorities in Scotland, used to make kilts worn by the Lincoln Police Department while its officers serve during the games. The fall foliage peaks in mid-October. In the winter, New Hampshire's ski areas and snowmobile trails attract visitors from a wide area.[71] After the lakes freeze over they become dotted with ice fishing ice houses, known locally as bobhouses.

In fiction




Many novels, plays and screenplays have been set in New Hampshire. The state has played other roles in fiction, including:


Notable residents or natives

See article List of people from New Hampshire.

New Hampshire firsts

  • On January 5, 1776 at Exeter, the Provincial Congress of New Hampshire ratified the first independent constitution in the Americas, free of British rule.[74]
  • On June 12, 1800, Fernald's Island in the Piscataqua River became the first government-sanctioned US Navy shipyard.
  • Started in 1822, Dublin's Juvenile Library was the first free public library.
  • In 1828, the first women's strike in the nation took place at Dover's Cocheco Mills.
  • Founded in 1833, the Peterborough Town Library was the first public library, supported with public funds, in the world.[75]
  • On August 3, 1852, Center Harbor was the site of the first intercollegiate athletic event. Harvard defeated Yale in a 2-mile (3.2 km) rowing race on Lake Winnipesaukee, the first meeting in a rivalry that continues to this day.
  • Finished on June 27, 1874, the first trans-Atlantic telecommunications cable between Europe and America stretched from Balinskelligs Bay, Ireland, to Rye Beach.
  • On February 6, 1901, a group of nine conservationists founded the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, the first forest-conservation advocacy group in the US.
  • In 1908, Monsignor credit union, “La Caisse Populaire, Ste-Marie” (The People’s Bank) in Manchester, to help mill workers save and borrow money, which is now St. Mary's Bank.[76]
  • In 1933 the League of New Hampshire Craftsmen held the first crafts fair in the nation.[77]
  • In July 1944, the Bretton Woods Agreement, the first fully negotiated system intended to govern monetary relations among independent nation-states, was signed at the Mount Washington Hotel.
  • On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard of Derry rode a Mercury spacecraft and became the first American in space.
  • In 1963, New Hampshire's legislature approved the nation's first modern state lottery, which began play in 1964.
  • In 1966, Ralph Baer of Sanders Associates, Inc., Nashua, recruited engineers to develop the first home video game.
  • Christa McAuliffe of Concord became the first private citizen selected to venture into space. She perished with her six space shuttle Challenger crewmates on January 28, 1986.
  • On May 17, 1996 New Hampshire became the first state in the country to install a green LED traffic light. New Hampshire was selected because it was the first state to install the red and yellow variety statewide.[78]
  • On May 31, 2007, New Hampshire became "...the first state to recognize same-sex unions without a court order or the threat of one."[79]

See also


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  2. ^
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  4. ^ "Mt Wash". NGS data sheet.  
  5. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States".  
  6. ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  7. ^ The summit of Mount Washington is the highest point on the northeastern Northern American Continent.
  8. ^ In the event of a vacancy in the office of Governor, the President of the State Senate is first in line for succession.
  9. ^ NH has a room and meals sales tax and a business profits income tax. Alaska does not have a statewide sales or income tax, but many Alaska towns have a sales tax.
  10. ^ "Visit NH: State Facts". NH Department of Resources and Economic Development. Retrieved August 30, 2010. 
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  13. ^ Filipov, David (January 31, 2010). "Record blown away, but pride stays put: N.H. summit's claim to nasty weather intact".  
  14. ^ "Mount Washington...Home of the World's Worst Weather". Mt. Washington Observatory. Retrieved March 22, 2010. 
  15. ^ VERMONT v. NEW HAMPSHIRE 289 U.S. 593 (1933)
  16. ^ "New Hampshire Water Resources Primer, Chapter 6: Coastal and Estuarine Waters". NH Dept. of Environmental Services. Retrieved April 11, 2011. 
  17. ^ USDA report: "Tree and impervious cover in the United States (2012)"
  18. ^ Olson, D. M, E. Dinerstein, et al (2001). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth".  
  19. ^ Dellinger, Dan (June 23, 2004). "Snowfall — Average Total In Inches".  
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  23. ^ "New Hampshire". Earthquake Hazards Program Earthquake.Usgs.Gov. 
  24. ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". Retrieved December 24, 2012. 
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  26. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 5, 2008. 
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  30. ^ Population of New Hampshire: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts
  31. ^ 2010 Census Data
  32. ^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (DP02)". U.S. Census Bureau American Factfinder. Retrieved January 3, 2013. 
  33. ^ a b "MLA Language Map Data Center". July 17, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
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  35. ^ which were polled jointly
  36. ^ 86% in Alabama and South Carolina
  37. ^ "". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  38. ^ Frank Newport (March 27, 2012). "Mississippi is The Most Religious U.S. State". Gallup. 
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  41. ^ "State at a Glance — New Hampshire". U.S. Department of Labor. October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007. 
  42. ^ "EIA State Energy Profiles: New Hampshire". June 12, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008. 
  43. ^ "New Hampshire's State and Local Tax Burden, 1970–2006". The Tax Foundation. August 7, 2008. Retrieved February 18, 2014. 
  44. ^ "Local Area Unemployment Statistics". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved March 26, 2010. 
  45. ^ "NH unemployment rate drops to 5.4 percent in Oct.". BusinessWeek. November 16, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  46. ^ Frank, Robert. "Top states for millionaires per capita". CNBC. Retrieved January 25, 2014. 
  47. ^ Hess, Alexander E.M. (6 October 2014). "The 10 states with the best quality of life". Yahoo Finance. Retrieved 12 November 2014. 
  48. ^ "State of New Hampshire Department of Administrative Services – Monthly Revenue Focus (FY 2005)" (PDF). Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  49. ^ House Fast Fact", New Hampshire House of Representatives""". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  50. ^ Independents Become Largest Voting Bloc in New Hampshire. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
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  53. ^ Font size Print E-mail Share (January 7, 2008). "Candidates Face Off At St. Anselm's College". CBS News. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
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  55. ^ Senate President Sylvia Larsen, quoted in "Women make up majority in state Senate," the Manchester Union-Leader, November 6, 2008.
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  58. ^ Liberty Forum Porcupine Festival External (June 27, 2010). "PorcFest". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
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  61. ^ Business groups unite to support NH Rail Transit Authority « New Hampshire Journal
  62. ^ Governor Lynch's Veto Message Regarding HB 218|Press Releases|Governor John Lynch
  63. ^ a b Tom Gilligan, IT Services, NHDOT 603-271-1561. "". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
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  69. ^ Fantino, John A. (July 20, 2008). Vermont breaks through. Burlington Free Press. 
  70. ^ "Member Leagues – Women’s Flat Track Derby Association". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
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  72. ^ "Susan Morse, "Last of the Yankees", ''Portsmouth Herald'', July 4, 2004". July 4, 2004. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  73. ^ Tim Goodman (2013-09-22). "'Breaking Bad' Deconstruction, Ep. 15: 'Granite State'". The Hollywood Reporter. 
  74. ^ "NH Firsts & Bests". Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  75. ^ "The Peterborough Town Library". Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  76. ^ "History of St. Mary's Bank". Retrieved July 9, 2014. 
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  78. ^ Sending a bright signal, Concord Monitor pg B-6, May 18, 1996
  79. ^ Wang, Beverley. (April 26, 2007) State Senate approves civil unions for same-sex couples Concord Monitor. Retrieved April 26, 2007.

Further reading

  • Sletcher, Michael (2004). New England. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.  
  • Land Use in Cornish, N.H., a 2006 documentary presentation by James M. Patterson of the Valley News, depicts various aspects of the societal and cultural environment of Northern New Hampshire

External links

State government
  • Official state website
  • New Hampshire Almanac
  •, New Hampshire Office of Travel and Tourism Development
U.S. Government
  • New Hampshire State Guide from the Library of Congress
  • Energy Facts for New Hampshire
  • New Hampshire State Facts, USDA Economic Research Service
  • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of New Hampshire
  • Internet Movie Database listing of films shot in the state
  • New Hampshire Historical Society
  • New Hampshire at DMOZ
  • Geographic data related to New Hampshire at OpenStreetMap
Preceded by
South Carolina
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on June 21, 1788 (ninth)
Succeeded by

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