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List of rulers of Wallachia

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Title: List of rulers of Wallachia  
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Subject: Wallachia, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, History of Romania, Slavery in Romania, Constantine Hangerli
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List of rulers of Wallachia

This is a List of rulers of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania.


Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family (on principle, princes were chosen from any family branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons - being defined as os de domn - "of Voivode marrow", or as having heregie - "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence). The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans; between 1821 and 1878 (the date of Romania's independence), various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Wallachian rulers, like the Moldavian rulers, bore the titles of Voivode ("duke") or/and Hospodar ("lord, master").

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.


House of Basarab

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Thocomerius or Radu Negru c. 1280 – 1310 Radu Negru is legendary voivode of Wallachia; some historians consider it to be just a nickname of Thocomerius or Basarab I.
Basarab I c. 1310 – 1352 Basarab son of Thocomerius; first non-legendary ruler of Wallachia; later also called Basarab Întemeietorul (Basarab the Founder);
Nicolae Alexandru 1352–1364 Basarab son of Basarab I
Vladislav I c. 1364 – 1377 Basarab son of Nicolae Alexandru; also known as Vlaicu-Vodă
Radu I c. 1377 – 1383 Basarab son of Nicolae Alexandru
Dan I c. 1383 – 1386 Dănești son of Radu I
Mircea I cel Bătrân
(Mircea I the Old)
1386–1394 Basarab son of Radu I. 1st rule.
Vlad I Uzurpatorul
(Vlad I the Usurper)
1394–1397 son of Dan I
Mircea I cel Bătrân
(Mircea I the Old)
1397–1418 Basarab 2nd rule
Mihail I 1418–1420 Basarab son of Mircea cel Bătrân
Dan II 1420–1421 Dănești son of Dan I, member of the Order of the Dragon; 1st rule
Radu II Chelul
(Radu II the Bald)
1421 Basarab son of Mircea cel Bătrân; 1st rule
Dan II 1421–1423 Dănești 2nd rule
Radu II Chelul 1423 Basarab 2nd rule
Dan II 1423–1424 Dănești 3rd rule
Radu II Chelul 1424–1426 Basarab 3rd rule
Dan II 1426–1427 Dănești 4th rule
Radu II Chelul 1427 Basarab 4th rule
Dan II 1427–1431 Dănești 5th rule
Alexandru I Aldea 1431–1436 Drăculești son of Mircea cel Bătrân
Vlad II Dracul 1436–1442 Drăculești illegitimate son of Mircea cel Bătrân; member of the Order of the Dragon (thus Dracul); 1st rule
Mircea II 1442 Drăculești son of Vlad II Dracul
Basarab II 1442–1443 Dănești son of Dan II
Vlad II Dracul 1443–1447 Drăculești 2nd rule
Vladislav II 1447–1448 Dănești son of Dan II; supported by John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary; 1st rule
Vlad III Țepeș
(Vlad the Impaler)
1448 Drăculești son of Vlad II Dracul; 1st rule
Vladislav II 1448–1456 Dănești son of Dan II; supported by John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary; 2nd rule
Vlad III Țepeș 1456–1462 Drăculești 2nd rule
Radu III cel Frumos
(Radu III the Fair)
1462–1473 Drăculești son of Vlad II Dracul; 1st rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân
(Basarab III Laiotă the Elder)
1473 Dănești son of Dan II; 1st rule
Radu III cel Frumos 1473–1474 Drăculești 2nd rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân 1474 Dănești 2nd rule
Radu III cel Frumos 1474 Drăculești 3rd rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân 1474 Dănești 3rd rule
Radu III cel Frumos 1474–1475 Drăculești 4th rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân 1475–1476 Dănești 4th rule
Vlad III Țepeș 1476 Drăculești 3rd rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân 1476–1477 Dănești 5th rule
Basarab IV Țepeluș cel Tânăr
(Basarab IV Țepeluș the Younger)
1477–1481 Dănești son of Basarab II; 1st rule
Mircea 1481 illegitimate son of Vlad II Dracul
Vlad IV Călugărul
(Vlad IV the Monk)
1481 Drăculești son of Vlad II Dracul; 1st rule
Basarab IV Țepeluș cel Tânăr 1481–1482 Dănești 2nd rule
Vlad IV Călugărul 1482–1495 Drăculești 2nd rule
Radu IV cel Mare
(Radu IV the Great)
1495–1508 Drăculești son of Vlad Călugărul
Mihnea I cel Rău
(Mihnea the Mean)
1508–1509 Drăculești son of Vlad III Țepeș
Mircea III 1509–1510 Drăculești son of Mihnea cel Rău
Vlad V cel Tânăr
(Vlad V the Younger)
1510–1512 Drăculești so of Vlad Călugărul; also known as Vlăduț
Neagoe Basarab V 1512–1521 Craiovești son of Pârvu Craiovescu
Teodosie 1521–1522 Craiovești under regency of his mother Despina Elena
Radu V 1522–1523 Drăculești illegitimate son of Radu cel Mare; allied with Craiovești; 1st rule
Vladislav III 1523 Dănești nephew of Vladislav II; 1st rule
Radu VI Bădica 1523–1524 Drăculești son of Radu IV the Great
Radu V 1524 Drăculești 2nd rule
Vladislav III 1524 Dănești 2nd rule
Radu V 1524–1525 Drăculești 3rd rule
Vladislav III 1525 Drăculești 3rd rule
Radu V 1525–1529 Drăculești 4th rule
Basarab VI 1529 son of Mehmed-bey
Moise 1529–1530 Dănești son of Vladislav III
Vlad VI Înecatul
(Vlad VI the Drowned)
1530–1532 Drăculești son of Vlad cel Tânăr
Vlad VII Vintilă de la Slatina 1532–1535 Drăculești son of Radu cel Mare
Radu VII Paisie 1535–1545 Drăculești son of Vlad Vintilă de la Slatina
Mircea IV Ciobanul
(Mircea IV the Shepherd)
1545–1552 Drăculești son of Radu cel Mare; 1st rule
Radu VIII Ilie Haidăul
(Radu VIII Ilie the Cowherd)
1552–1553 Drăculești son of Radu de la Afumați
Mircea IV Ciobanul 1553–1554 Drăculești 2nd rule
Pătrașcu cel Bun
(Pătrașcu the Kind)
1554–1558 Drăculești son of Radu Paisie
Mircea IV Ciobanul 1558–1559 Drăculești 3rd rule
Chiajna of Moldavia
1559-1564 Regent on behalf of her son.
Petru I cel Tânăr
(Peter I the Younger)
1564–1568 Drăculești son of Mircea Ciobanul
Alexandru II Mircea 1568–1574 Drăculești son of Mircea III Dracul; popularly called Oaie Seacă (Barren Sheep); 1st rule
Vintilă 1574 Drăculești son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun
Alexandru II Mircea 1574–1577 Drăculești 2nd rule
Catherine Salvaresso
1577-1583 Regent on behalf of her son, Mihnea II. Deposed by Peter II.
Petru II Cercel
(Peter II Earring)
1583–1585 Drăculești son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun
Mihnea II Turcitul 1585–1591 Drăculești Paid for the assassination of his usurper. Returned and ruled alone.

House of Bogdan-Muşat

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Ștefan I Surdul
(Stephen the Deaf)
Alexandru III cel Rău
(Alexander III the Mean)
1592–1593 also ruled Moldavia (1592)

Houses of Basarab and Movilă

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Mihail II Viteazul
(Michael II the Brave)
1593–1600 Drăculești illegitimate son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun; also ruled Transylvania (1599-1600) and Moldavia (1600), briefly uniting the three principalities.
Nicolae Pătrașcu 1599–1600 Drăculești Son of Michael II, co-ruled with his father since 1599.
Simion Movilă 1600–1601 Movilești 1st rule
Radu IX Mihnea 1601–1602 Drăculești son of Minhea II Turcitul; 1st rule
Simion Movilă 1602 Movilești 2nd rule
Radu X Șerban 1602–1610 Nephew of Neagoe Basarab V. 1st rule
Transylvanian occupation: direct rule of Gabriel Báthory (1611)
Radu IX Mihnea 1611 Drăculești 2nd rule
Radu X Șerban 1611 2nd rule
Radu IX Mihnea 1611–1616 Drăculești 3rd rule
Gabriel Movilă 1616 Movilești son of Simion Movilă; 1st rule

Various dynasties

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Alexandru IV Iliaș 1616–1618 1st rule
Gabriel II Movilă 1618–1620 Movilești 2nd rule
Radu IX Mihnea 1620–1623 Drăculești 4th rule
Alexandru V Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
1623–1627 Drăculești son of Radu Mihnea
Alexandru IV Iliaș 1627–1629 2nd rule
Leon Tomșa 1629–1632
Radu XI Iliaș 1632
Matei Basarab 1632–1654 Brâncovenești
Constantin I Șerban 1654–1658 illegitimate son of Radu Șerban
Mihnea III 1658–1659
Gheorghe I Ghica 1659–1660 Ghica
Grigore I Ghica 1660–1664 Ghica 1st rule
Radu XII Leon 1664–1669
Antonie Vodă din Popeşti 1669–1672
Grigore I Ghica 1672–1673 Ghica 2nd rule
Gheorghe II Ducas 1673–1678
Șerban Cantacuzino 1678–1688 Cantacuzene
Constantin II Brâncoveanu 1688–1714 Brâncovenești
Ștefan II Cantacuzino 1714–1715 Cantacuzene
Phanariote rule (1715–1821)
Nicolae Mavrocordat 1715–1716 Mavrocordato 1st rule
- Habsburg occupation 1716
Ioan Mavrocordat 1716–1719 Mavrocordato
Nicolae Mavrocordat 1719–1730 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1730 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Mihai Racoviță 1730–1731 Racoviță 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1731–1733 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Grigore II Ghica 1733–1735 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1735–1741 Mavrocordato 3rd rule
Mihai Racoviță 1741–1744 Racoviță 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1744–1748 Mavrocordato 4th rule
Grigore II Ghica 1748–1752 Ghica 2nd rule
Matei Ghica 1752–1753 Ghica
Constantin Racoviță 1753–1756 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1756–1758 5th rule
Scarlat Ghica 1758–1761 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1761–1763 6th rule
Constantin Racoviță 1763–1764 Racoviță 2nd rule
Ștefan Racoviță 1764–1765 Racoviță
Scarlat Ghica 1765–1766 Ghica 2nd rule
Alexandru Ghica 1766–1768 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1768
Grigore III Ghica 1768–1769 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1769–1770
Emanuel Giani Ruset 1770-1771 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Alexander Ypsilantis 1774–1782 Ypsilanti 1st rule
Nicolae Caragea 1782–1783 Caradja
Mihai Suțu 1783–1786 Soutzos 1st rule
Nicolae Mavrogheni 1786–1789
- Habsburg occupation 1789–1790 military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Mihai Suțu 1791–1793 Soutzos 2nd rule
Alexandru Moruzi 1793–1796 Mourousi 1st rule
Alexander Ypsilantis 1796–1797 Ypsilanti 2nd rule
Constantin Hangerli 1797–1799
Alexandru Moruzi 1799–1801 Mourousi 2nd rule
Mihai Suțu 1801–1802 Soutzos 3rd rule
Alexandru Suțu 1802 Soutzos
Constantin Ypsilanti 1802-1806 Ypsilanti
- Russian occupation 1806–1812
Ioan Gheorghe Caragea 1812–1818 Caradja
Grigore Brâncovenu
1818 assisted by Vornic Barbu Văcărescu, Vistier Grigore Ghica and Logofăt Samurcaș
Alexandru Suțu 1818–1821 Soutzos
Grigore Brâncoveanu
Tudor Vladimirescu 1821 leader of the anti-Phanariote uprising
Scarlat Callimachi 1821 Callimachi
Grigore IV Ghica 1822–1828 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1828–1834 military commanders: Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Alexandru II Ghica 1834–1842 Ghica
Gheorghe Bibescu 1842–1848 Bibescu
Provisional Government 1848 Gheorghe Scurti
Locotenența domnească
(Regency of three)
1848 Christian Tell, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Nicolae Golescu
Joint Ottoman and Russian occupation 1848–1851 military commanders: Omar Pasha and Alexander von Lüders
Constantin Cantacuzino
Barbu Știrbei 1848–1853 Știrbei 1st rule
Russian occupation 1853–1854
Ottoman occupation 1854
Austrian occupation 1854–1856 military commander: Johann Coronini-Cronberg
Barbu Știrbei 1854–1856 Știrbei 2nd rule
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Alexandru II Ghica
Caimacam of three 1858–1859 Ioan Manu, Emanoil Băleanu, Ioan A. Filipide
Alexander John Cuza 1859–1862 also ruled Moldavia in personal union
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia since 1862.
Alexander John Cuza 1862–1866 also ruled Moldavia in personal union
Carol I 1866–1881 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen A new constitution came into effect in 1866 giving the country the official name Romania, and on 14 March (O.S.) (26 March) 1881, it became the Kingdom of Romania.

For later rulers, see Kings of Romania.

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