World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

National Republican Greek League

Article Id: WHEBN0002148128
Reproduction Date:

Title: National Republican Greek League  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Greek Resistance, Operation Harling, Greek Civil War, National Liberation Front (Greece), Panhellenic Union of Fighting Youths
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

National Republican Greek League

National Republican Greek League
Εθνικός Δημοκρατικός Ελληνικός Σύνδεσμος
Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos
Participant in the Greek Resistance
Napoleon Zervas (2nd from left) with fellow EDES officers Fotios Zambaras(1st from left of photo)was killed by communist guerrillas in 1944
Active 1941-1944Frozen
Ideology Greek nationalism,
Republicanism,
Socialism,
Venizelism,
Anti-communism,
Anti-fascism
Leaders Napoleon Zervas, Komninos Pyromaglou
Area of operations Epirus, Aetolia-Acarnania
Strength ca.12,000 (October 1944)
Allies SOE, Greek government in exile
Opponents Royal Italian Army, German Army, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Collaborationist government, Security Battalions, Këshilla, Balli Kombëtar, Principality of the Pindus, EAM/ELAS

The National Republican Greek League (Greek: Εθνικός Δημοκρατικός Ελληνικός Σύνδεσμος, Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos, abbreviated EDES) was one of the major resistance groups formed during the Axis Occupation of Greece during World War II. The largest of the non-communist resistance groups, its military wing, the National Groups of Greek Guerrillas (Εθνικές Ομάδες Ελλήνων Ανταρτών, ΕΟΕΑ) concentrated its military activities in Epirus. From 1943 onwards, EDES came into confrontation with the Communist-led National Liberation Front, beginning a series of civil conflicts that would lead to the Greek Civil War.

Foundation and ideology

The National Republican Greek League was founded on 9 September 1941 by a former army officer, Colonel Napoleon Zervas, a centrist ex-army officer who had been expelled from the army after the failed pro-Venizelist coup d'état of 1935, and two of his friends, Leonidas Spais and Ilias Stamatopoulos.[1]

Like many other resistance movements founded during that time, the political orientation of the National Republican Greek League was Republican, with a strong dislike towards the exiled King, Metaxas Dictatorship, which was strongly supported by the King, the monarchy was almost universally rejected, while social ideals for "social fairness" became the vogue among the various resistance groups.

The founding charter of EDES explicitly demanded the "establishment in Greece of a Republican regime, of Socialist form", the "revelation [...] of the treason of former King George II and the gang of the 4th of August Dictatorship", calling for a thorough cleansing of the state and Greek social and public life from anyone "who has not proven a National Republican [and] socialist conscience through actions". The charter acknowledged the prominent exiled Venizelist general Nikolaos Plastiras as its nominal political head, but due to his exile in France they failed to take his consent beforehand.[1] For the time being, no reference to armed opposition against the occupying forces was made in the text.[1]

On the same day, [2] After his arrival in Athens on 23 September, Pyromaglou came into contact with Republican circles, and after contacting Zervas took EDES' command. In October, a five-member Executive Committee was founded, with Pyromaglou as Plastiras' representative as General Secretary and Zervas as a simple member.[3]

As the organization grew, it succeeded in establishing links with the British Headquarters in [4] This marked a silent breach with the vitriolic anti-monarchist attacks of the past months, and marked EDES' slow slide towards a more pro-monarchist stance.

Beginnings of armed resistance - The Gorgopotamos operation

Like most similar groups, EDES was initially limited to Athens. Having the support of many prominent Venizelist and Republican military figures, EDES came into contact with EAM and tried to establish some form of cooperation. The negotiations failed over the demands of the Communists for a merger of EDES with EAM and their distrust of Zervas' pro-British attitudes.[5]

On 23 July 1942, after intense British pressure and more than a month after the official appearance of the military wing of EAM, the Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS), Zervas, accompanied by Pyromaglou and a handful of companions, set out for the Valtos Mountains in Aetolia-Acarnania, an area with long traditions of guerrilla warfare stretching back to the Ottoman period.[6] From then and until the end of the Occupation, Epirus would be the primary area of operations of the EDES andartes.

Supported by British parachute drops, EDES quickly gathered some 100 fighters. The first major operation of EDES was "SOE commandos, and EDES and ELAS forces. While the successful operation, one of the greatest sabotage acts in occupied Europe, greatly boosted the prestige of the nascent Resistance, it also caused a significant rift between EDES and ELAS: the British loudly proclaimed and lauded Zervas' role in the operation, while ignoring the - numerically far greater - contribution of the leftist ELAS forces.[7] While the rift was healed by British mediation, it presaged the problems that would appear in the future.

List of battles

1943

  • 20 May: Victorious battle against Italians and Cham Albanians at Agia Kyriaki village.
  • 22 June : Destruction of Spiliopotamos bridge.
  • 6 July: Victorious battle against Italian alpinists at Milia, Epirus.
  • 8–20 September: Battles against German forces at Metsovo, Pramada, Kalarites.
  • 16,19 September: Battles against Germans and Cham Albanians at Skala Paramythias.
  • 30 September: Attack against German forces at Xirovouni.
  • 30–31 October: Battle against Edelweiss Division.
  • November–December: Battles against Germans and Cham Albanians at Thesprotia.

1944

TRUCE—No battles with German Forces. Battles with ELAS.

  • 29 Juny: Liberation of Paramythia and Parga.
  • 30 Juny: Victorious battle against Germans and Cham Albanians at Menina.
  • 11 August: Liberation of Margariti.
  • 17–18 August: Conquest of Fort Menina.
  • 14 September: Battle of Dodona-Liberation of Lefkada.
  • 22 September: Liberation of Igoumenitsa and Filiates.
  • 7–15 October: Battles against German forces.

Accusations of collaboration by ELAS

The left wing [8][9][10] However, this accusation was as yet unfounded, at least concerning EDES' guerilla branch.[11] Moreover during the armed conflicts between ELAS and EDES in Athens, a propaganda war was launched with ELAS accusing EDES of collaboration, mainly due to gaining plausibility from the explicit exemption of EDES from German propaganda attacks.[10][12] EDES was accusing ELAS for soviet perspective and crimes against non communists.

On the other hand Security Battalions and encouraged young officers to join their ranks, which led to hostility of the EAM groups towards him.[13][14] Apart from British support EDES had also some kind of covert German support.[15] Since autumn 1943 EDES and the 12th Army of Nazi Germany there was an important connection, which led to an armistice and a pact of mutual assistance against the Greek People's Liberation Army in February 1944.[16]

The civil war within the Resistance

Attempts at cooperation

The first conflict

These internal conflicts caused rivalry between resistance groups and eventually escalated into civil war. In October 1943, ELAS launched an attack on EDES. These attacks triggered a civil war that would last until February 1944. After that, a fragile truce was established, which lasted until December, two months after the Liberation. Then, while the ELAS of Athens attempted to overthrow the government, other units stormed the EDES positions in Epirus. The latter was defeated and the remaining forces were evacuated to Corfu. After the defeat of the ELAS in Athens (January 1945), EDES forces returned to Epirus, where part of them got involved to the expulsion of the Cham Albanians.

References

  1. ^ a b c Fleischer (1990), p. 150
  2. ^ Fleischer (1990), p. 154
  3. ^ Fleischer (1990), pp. 154-155
  4. ^ Fleischer (1990), p. 388
  5. ^ Fleischer (1990), p. 238
  6. ^ Fleischer (1990), p. 241
  7. ^ Fleischer (1990), p. 247
  8. ^ Charles R. Shrader. The withered vine: logistics and the communist insurgency in Greece, 1945-1949. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999 ISBN 978-0-275-96544-0. p. 34.
  9. ^ Ian Dear,Michael Richard Daniell Foot. The Oxford companion to World War II. Oxford University Press, 2001 ISBN 978-0-19-860446-4, p. 403
  10. ^ a b David H. Close. The origins of the Greek civil war . Longman, 1995, ISBN 978-0-582-06472-0, p. 106
  11. ^ John O. Iatrides. Greece in the 1940s: a nation in crisis Vol. 2. University Press of New England, 1981, ISBN 978-0-87451-198-7, p. 58
  12. ^ Hondros, John Louis (June 1983). Occupation and resistance: the Greek agony, 1941-44. Pella Pub. Co. p. 171.  
  13. ^ Shrader, Charles R. (1999). The withered vine: logistics and the communist insurgency in Greece, 1945-1949. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 38.  
  14. ^ McNeill, William Hardy (1947). The Greek dilemma: war and aftermath. J.B. Lippincott Company. p. 87. Retrieved 16 October 2010. 
  15. ^ Thomas, Nigel; Abbott, Peter (1983). Partisan warfare 1941-45. Osprey Publishing. p. 26.  
  16. ^ Kretsi, Georgia (2002). Ethnologia Balkanica. Ethnologia Balkanica 6. Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster. p. 182. 

Sources

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.