World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Outline of humanism

Article Id: WHEBN0006585589
Reproduction Date:

Title: Outline of humanism  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Humanism, Index of philosophy, Outline of academic disciplines, Index of philosophy of religion articles
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Outline of humanism

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to humanism:

Humanism – group of philosophies and ethical perspectives which emphasize the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers individual thought and evidence (rationalism, empiricism), over established doctrine or faith (fideism). Two common forms of humanism are religious humanism and secular humanism.

Nature of humanism

Humanism can be described as all of the following:

  • Approach – manner in which a problem is solved or policy is made.
  • Branch of philosophy – study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument.
  • Social movement – type of group action. A large informal grouping of individuals or organization which focuses on specific political or social issues. In other words, it carries out, resists or undoes a social change.
    • Ethical movement
    • Philosophical movement – either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject.

Branches of humanism

  • Religious humanism – philosophy that integrates secular ethics with religious rituals and beliefs that center on human needs, interests, and abilities.
    • Buddhist humanism – philosophical perspective based on the teaching of inherent dignity of all human beings, their potential for attaining highest wisdom about their condition [1] and their essential nature of altruism exemplified by the Bodhisattva spirit of compassion.[2] In practical terms, humanism is expressed on the individual level through action: to “relieve sufferings and impart joy”,[3] to contribute to the welfare of society,[4] abiding by the attitude of nonviolence [5] supporting human rights,[6] and acting for world peace,[7][8] effectively advocating the concept of global citizenship.[9]
    • Christian humanism – emphasizes the humanity of Jesus, his social teachings and his propensity to synthesize human spirituality and materialism. It regards humanist principles like universal human dignity and individual freedom and the primacy of human happiness as essential and principal components of, or at least compatible with, the teachings of Jesus Christ.
    • Humanistic Judaism – movement in Judaism that offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life. It defines Judaism as the cultural and historical experience of the Jewish people and encourages humanistic and secular Jews to celebrate their Jewish identity by participating in Jewish holidays and life cycle events (such as weddings and bar and bat mitzvah) with inspirational ceremonies that draw upon but go beyond traditional literature.
  • Secular humanism – philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, social justice and philosophical naturalism, whilst specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience or superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.[10][11][12] Alternatively known by some adherents as Humanism, specifically with a capital H to distinguish it from other forms of humanism
    • Personism – ethical philosophy of personhood as typified by the thought of the preference utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer.[13][14][15] It amounts to a branch of secular humanism with an emphasis on certain rights-criteria.[16]
    • Posthumanism – "after humanism" or "beyond humanism". It has at least 5 contexts, and may refer to:
    • Renaissance humanism
    • Transhumanism – international intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. That is, striving to become posthuman. According to transhumanist thinkers, a posthuman is a hypothetical future being "whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer unambiguously human by our current standards."[17]

Humanist positions

Religious humanist positions

Supports

Rejects

Secular humanist positions

Supports

Rejects

Manifestos and statements setting out humanist viewpoints

History of humanism

Main article: History of humanism

Humanist beliefs

Religious humanist beliefs

Secular humanist beliefs

Humanist ethics

Humanist virtues and values

Humanist culture

The "Happy Human"
  • Ceremonies and services
    • Celebrancy – movement to provide agents to officiate at ceremonies often reserved in law to clergy or officers of the courts. These agents, generally referred to as "celebrants", perform weddings, funerals, and other life ceremonies for those who do not want a traditional religious ceremony.
      • Humanist officiant – person who performs secular humanist celebrancy services for weddings, funerals, child namings, coming of age ceremonies, and other rituals.
    • Humanist baby naming – some humanists perform a naming ceremony as a non-religious alternative to ceremonies such as christening. The principle is conceptually similar to a civil wedding ceremony as an alternative to a religious wedding ceremony.
  • Symbols
    • Happy Human (pictured) – icon and the official symbol of the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU), a world body of Humanist organizations, and has been adopted by many Humanist organisations and individuals worldwide.

General concepts pertaining to and embraced by humanism

Other humanist terms include:

Organizations

For more organizations see Category:Humanist associations

Humanists

Leaders in humanism

People who have made a major impact on the development or advancement of humanism:

Other notable humanists

Related philosophies

See also

  • Humanistic psychology – branch of psychology that emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. It holds that people are inherently good, and adopts a holistic approach to human existence which pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and human potential. While humanistic psychology is a specific division within the American Psychological Association, humanistic psychology is not so much a discipline within psychology as a perspective on the human condition that informs psychological research and practice.
  • Social psychology
  • Marxist humanism – branch of Marxism that primarily focuses on Marx's earlier writings, especially the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 in which Marx espoused his theory of alienation, as opposed to his later works, which are considered to be concerned more with his structural conception of capitalist society.
  • Unitarian Universalism
  • Existential humanism
  • Integral humanism

References

  1. ^ http://www.daisakuikeda.org/main/philos/buddhist/buddh-05.html
  2. ^ http://zenbuddhisttemple.org/about.html
  3. ^ http://www.iop.or.jp/0515/ikeda_unger.pdf page 4
  4. ^ http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/jones/wheel285.html
  5. ^ http://www.wabashcenter.wabash.edu/syllabi/g/gier/306/gbnd.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.buddhanetz.org/texte/rights.htm
  7. ^ http://www.uthumanist.com/2011/02/secular-ethics-necessary-for-world.html
  8. ^ http://www.iop.or.jp/1121/Journal21_Y.Kawada1.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/cu/buddhism/document/tc1996.pdf
  10. ^ Edwords, Fred (1989). "What Is Humanism?". American Humanist Association. Retrieved 2009-08-19. Secular Humanism is an outgrowth of eighteenth century enlightenment rationalism and nineteenth century freethought... Secular and Religious Humanists both share the same worldview and the same basic principles... From the standpoint of philosophy alone, there is no difference between the two. It is only in the definition of religion and in the practice of the philosophy that Religious and Secular Humanists effectively disagree. 
  11. ^ Compact Oxford English dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2007. humanism n. 1 a rationalistic system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. 
  12. ^ "Definitions of humanism (subsection)". Institute for Humanist Studies. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  13. ^ Rethinking Peter Singer: a Christian Critique, by Gordon R. Preece
  14. ^ Applied ethics: a non-consequentialist approach, by David S. Oderberg
  15. ^ Humanism and Personism: The false philosophy of Peter Singer, by Jenny Teichman
  16. ^ Singer, Peter (Oct–Nov 2004). "Taking Humanism Beyond Speciesism". Free Inquiry 24 (6): 19–21. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  17. ^  

External links

Organizations
  • Humanism at the Open Directory Project. A web portal to Humanist Societies.
  • American Humanist Association
  • International Humanist and Ethical Union
  • The British Humanist Association
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.