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Bengali Hindus

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Bengali Hindus

Bengali Hindus
Total population
85,000,000 worldwide
Regions with significant populations
 India 68,000,000[1]
 Bangladesh 15,726,800[2]
 Burma 56,808[3]
 United Kingdom 30,000[4]
 United States 30,000[1]
   Nepal 23,600[5]
 Canada 12,130[6]
 Australia 3,000[7]
 Malaysia 2,500[8]
 Thailand 1,584
 Sweden 1,500[9]

Bengali Hindus (Bengali: বাঙালি হিন্দু) are ethnic Bengali adherents of Hinduism, and native to the Bengal region of the Indian Subcontinent. Bengali Hindus speak Bengali, which is classified as a part of the Indo-Aryan language family and adhere to the Shakta and Vaishnava traditions of their native religion Hinduism.[10][11]

Around the 8th century, Bengali branched off from Magadhi Prakrit, a derivative from Sanskrit that was prevalent in the eastern region of the Indian Subcontinent at that time.[12] During the Sena period (11th – 12th century) the Bengali culture developed into a distinct culture within the Hindu civilization. With the spread of Islam in the region in subsequent centuries, Islamic characteristics grew among Bengalis who converted to that religion, although Bengali Hindus and Muslims continued to have significant similarities. Bengali Hindus were at the forefront of the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century. The Bengal region was noted for its participation in struggle for the independence from the British rule.[13][14] At the time of independence of India in 1947, the province of Bengal was partitioned between Bengali Hindus and Bengali Muslims into West Bengal and East Bengal, parts of India and Pakistan, respectively. Millions of Bengali Hindus migrated from East Bengal (later Bangladesh) and settled in West Bengal and other states of India. The migration continued in waves through the fifties and sixties, especially during the violence of 1950 and 1964.[15] During the Bangladesh Liberation War, an estimated 2.4 million Bengali Hindus were massacred by the Pakistani army.[16]

The Bengali Hindu population is mainly concentrated in the Indian state of West Bengal and Bangladesh. While in the Indian states of West Bengal and Tripura they are in majority, in the other Indian states like Assam, Meghalaya, Jharkhand and the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands they form a significant linguistic minority. The Bengali Hindus thus constitute a minority ethnic group [17] both in India and Bangladesh, forming less than 10% of the population in both the countries. From the sixties, like many other ethnic groups of India, many Bengali Hindus began to emigrate outside India, mostly to pursue higher studies or in search of lucrative careers. This gave rise to a sizeable expatriate Bengali Hindu population in many parts of world.


The Hindus are a religious group,[18] native to the Indian subcontinent, speaking a broad range of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages and adhering to the native belief systems, rooted in the Vedas. The word Hindu is popularly believed to be a Persian exonym for the people native to the Indian subcontinent. The word is derived from Sindhu,[19] the Sanskrit name for the river Indus and it initially referred to the people residing to the east of the river. The Hindus are constituted into various ethno-linguistic subgroups, which in spite of being culturally diverse, share a common bond of unity.

The word Bengali is an English exonym for the native Bengali word bangali. The English word Bengali denoting the people as well as the language is derived from the English word Bengal denoting the region, which itself is derived ultimately from the Bengali word Vanga which was one of the five historical kingdoms of Eastern India. According to Harivamsa, Bali, the king of the asuras had five sons from his wife Sudeshna through sage Dirghatama. The five sons namely Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Sumha went on found five kingdoms of the same name in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. In ancient times Vanga proper consisted of the deltaic region between Bhagirathi, Padma and Madhumati, but later on extended to include the regions which now roughly comprise the Indian state of West Bengal and Bangladesh.

The Bengali Hindu people belong to the broader Hindu people. In Bengali, the Bengali Hindus are described as jati meaning an ethnic group or a nation, that form an inseparable part of the Hindu mahajati or great nation.

In India, they tend to identify themselves as Bengalis[20] while in Bangladesh they tend to identify themselves as Hindus.[21] In the global context, the terms Indian Bengali[22] and Bangladeshi Hindu[23] are respectively used. In India, Bengali generally refers to Bengali Hindus.[24] The ‘other’ is usually identified as ‘non-Bengali’, a term that generically refers to the Indian people who are not Bengali speaking, but sometimes specifically used to denote the Hindi speaking population.


The Bengali Hindu Swastika

The Bengali Hindus constitute of numerous endogamous castes, which are sometimes further subdivided into endogamous subgroups. The caste system evolved over centuries and became more and more complex with time. In the medieval period, several castes were boycotted by the ruling classes from time to time and this isolation continued till the 19th century. These social boycotts were somewhat discriminatory in nature. After the Renaissance, the rigidity of the caste system ceased to a great extent, so much so that the first celebrated intercaste marriage took place as early as in 1925.

The Bengali Hindu families are patriarchal as well as patrilocal and traditionally follow a joint family system. However, due to the Partition and subsequent urbanization, the joint families have given way to the nuclear families. The Bengali Hindus were traditionally governed by the Dāyabhāga school of law, as opposed to the Mitākṣarā school of law, which governed the other Hindu ethno-linguistic groups. In India, after the promulgation of the Hindu code bills, the Bengali Hindus along with other Hindus are being governed by a uniform Hindu law.

There are two major social subgroups among the Bengali Hindus – the ghotis and the bangals. The Bengali Hindus who emigrated from Pakistan at the wake of the Partition and settled in West Bengal, came to known as the bangals, while the native Bengali Hindus of West Bengal came to known as ghotis. For several decades after partition, these two social subgroups possessed marked difference in their accents and their rivalry was manifested in many spheres of life, most notably in the support for the football clubs of East Bengal and Mohun Bagan respectively. Several such differences have eased with passing years.


Ancient period

Dancing Ganesha sculpture from North Bengal, 11th century AD, Asian Art Museum of Berlin (Dahlem)

In the ancient times, some of the Bengali Hindus were seafaring people as evident from Vijay Singha's naval conquest of Lanka,[25][26] the tales of merchants like Chand Sadagar and Dhanapati Saudagor whose ships sailed to far off places for trade and establishment of colonies in South East Asia. By the 3rd century B.C.E. they were united into a powerful state, known to the Greeks as Gangaridai, whose military prowess demoralized Alexander from further expedition to the east.[27][28] Later the region of Bengal came under Maurya, Sunga and Gupta rule. In the 7th century, Shashanka became the independent Bengali Hindu ruler of Gauda. He successfully fought against his adversaries Harshavardhana and Bhaskaravarmana and protected the sovereignty of the people.

Medieval period

In the middle of the 8th century, the Bengali Hindu nobility democratically elected Gopala as the ruler of Gauda, ushering in an era of peace and prosperity in Bengal, ending almost a century of chaos and confusion. The Buddhist Pala rulers unified Bengal into a single political entity and expanded it into an empire, conquering a major portion of North India. During this time, the Bengali Hindus excelled in art, literature, philosophy, mathematics, sciences and statecraft. The first scriptures in Bengali Charyapada was composed during the Pala rule. The Pala were followed by the Senas who made far reaching changes in the social structure of Bengali Hindus, introducing 36 new castes and orthodox institutions like kulinism.

The literary progress of the Pala and Sena period came to a halt after the Turkish conquest in the early 13th century. Except for Haridas Datta's Manasar Bhasan no significant literary work was composed for about a century after the conquest.[29] Even though the ruling classes resisted the invaders, Gauda, the centre of Bengal polity, fell to the Islamic invaders. During this period hundreds of temples and monasteries were desecrated. The next attack on the society came from the Islamic missionaries.[30] Local chieftains like Akananda, Dakshin Ray and Mukut Ray, resisted the missionary activities.

The Pathan occupation of Bengal was limited to the region of Gauda, the rest of which was held in sway by different Bengali Hindu rulers. Islam religion gradually spread throughout the Bengal region, and many Bengali Hindus were converted to Islam. In the early 15th century, the Pathan rule of Gauda was overthrown by the Bengali Hindu nobility under the leadership of Ganesha. When the Delhi-based Mughals tried to bring Bengal under their direct rule, the Bengali Hindu chiefs along with some Bengali Muslims consolidated themselves into confederacies and resisted the Mughals. After the fall of the confederacies, the Mughals brought a major part of Bengal under their control, and constituted a subah. Independent Bengali Hindu kingdoms like Tripura and Koch Bihar continued to maintain their sovereignty.

Early Modern Period

During the decline of the Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Bengal (who were Muslim) ruled large part of Bengal. During the reign of Alivardi Khan. a Nawab, the severe taxation and frequent Maratha Empire raids made the life miserable for the ordinary Bengali people.[31] A section of the Bengali Hindu nobility helped the British East India Company in overthrowing the Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah regime. After obtaining the revenue rights, the East India Company imposed more oppressive taxation that led to the famine of 1770, in which approximately one third of the Bengali Hindu population died of starvation.[32]

The British began to face stiff resistance in conquering the semi-independent Bengali Hindu kingdoms outside the pale of Muslim occupied Bengal. In some cases, even when their rulers have been captured or killed, the ordinary people began to carry on the fight. These resistances took the form of Bhumij (Chuar is a deragatory term used by the English to denote the Bhumij) and Paik Rebellion. These warring people were later listed as criminal tribes[33] and barred from recruitment in the Indian army. In 1766, the British troops were completely routed by the sanyasis and fakirs or the warrior monks at Dinhata, where the latter resorted guerilla warfare. Bankim Chandra's Anandamath is based on the Famine and consequential Sannyasi Rebellion.[34]

British rule, Renaissance, struggle for independence

According to author James Jeremiah Novak, as British rulers took power from Bengal's ruling Muslim class, they strategically catered to Bengali Hindus (a minority in Bengal region at that time).[35] The British rule destroyed the bases of Bengali Muslim society.[35] Bengali Hindus got favors from the British rulers, and experienced development in education and social mobility. In the 19th century, the elite class of Bengali Hindu people underwent radical social reforms and rapid modernization; the phenomenon came to be known as the Bengal Renaissance.

Swami Vivekananda was a leading figure of the Renaissance who promoted India and Hinduism to the world

Riding on the renaissance, Bengali Hindus revived the sense of patriotism in the late 1860s and by the turn of the 20th century, they were envisioning a modern nation state. Public media like press and theatres had become vents of nationalist sentiments, apolitical organizations had given way to political platforms, secret revolutionary societies had emerged and the society at large had become restive.

With rising nationalism among Bengali Hindus, the British rulers applied divide and rule policy, and started to make favours to Bengali Muslims.[35] In order to keep the rising Bengali Hindu aspirations at bay, the British partitioned the province in 1905 and along with some additional restructuring came up with two provinces – Eastern Bengal & Assam and Bengal itself, in each of which the Bengali Hindus were reduced to minorities. The Bengali Hindus, however, opposed to the Partition tooth and nail, embarked on a political movement of Swadeshi, boycott and revolutionary nationalism. On 28 September 1905, the day of Mahalaya, 50,000 Bengali Hindus resolved before the Mother at Kalighat to boycott foreign goods and stop employing foreigners.[36][37] The British Raj finally annulled the Partition in 1911. The Raj, however, carried out some restructuring, and carved out Bengali Hindu majority districts like Manbhum, Singbhum, Santal Pargana and Purnia awarding them to Bihar and others like Cachar that were awarded to Assam, which effectively made the Bengali Hindus a minority in the united province of Bengal. The Britishers also transferred the capital from Calcutta to New Delhi.

The revolutionary movement gained momentum after the Partition. Bengali revolutionaries collaborated with the Germans during the War to liberate British India. Later the revolutionaries defeated the British army in the Battle of Jalalabad and liberated Chittagong. During the Quit India Movement, the revolutionaries liberated the Tamluk and Contai subdivision of Midnapore district from British rule and established the Tamralipta National Government.

Bengali Hindus who constituted 44% of the province, were awarded less than a third of the representation in the legislature.

The British, unable to control the revolutionary activities, decided to hinder the Bengali Hindu people through administrative reforms. The Government of India Act 1919 introduced in the 144 member Bengal Legislative Assembly, 46 seats for the Muslims, 59 for the institutions, Europeans & others and left the rest 39 as General,[N 1] where the Bengali Hindus were to scramble for a representation. The situation worsened with the Communal Award of 1932, where in the 250 member Bengal Legislative Assembly a disproportionate 119 seats were reserved for the Muslims, 17 for Europeans, Anglo-Indians & Indian Christians, 34 for the institutions, and the rest 80 were left as General.[38] The Communal Award further divided the Hindus into Scheduled Caste Hindus and Caste Hindus.[38] Out of the 80 General seats, 10 were reserved for the Scheduled Castes.[N 2] In response the leading Bengali Hindu landholders, lawyers and professionals signed the Bengal Hindu Manifesto on 23 April 1932 rejecting the justification of reservation of separate electorates for Muslims in the Bengal Legislative Assembly.[39]

In 1946, the Muslim League government resorted to large scale massacre of the Hindu population of Kolkata in the name of Direct Action Day, which escalated into the bloodiest ethnic conflict of modern India. After two days of suffering, the Bengali Hindus resorted to a violent reprisal that resulted in heavy casualties on the other side, finally forcing the government to stop the mayhem. Later in the year, the Muslim League government orchestrated the infamous Noakhali genocide.[40]

The Direct Action Day and the Noakhali genocide prompted the Bengali Hindu leadership to move for the creation of a Bengali Hindu majority province by partitioning Bengal. At that time, the movement for creation of Pakistan was in full swing and Bengal was supposed to form one of its constituent provinces. After the failure of United Bengal plan when it became evident that all of Bengal would go to Pakistan, the Bengali Hindus voted for the Partition of Bengal.[41] On 23 April 1947, the Amrita Bazar Patrika published the results of an opinion poll, in which 98.3% of the Bengali Hindus favoured the creation of a separate homeland.[42][43] The proposal for the Partition of Bengal was moved in the Legislative Assembly on 20 June 1947, where the Hindu members voted 58–21 in favour of the Partition with two members abstaining.[N 3]

The Boundary Commission awarded the Bengali Hindus a territory far less in proportion to their population which was around 46% of the population of the province, awarding the Bengali Hindu majority district of Khulna to Pakistan. However, some Bengali Muslim majority districts such as Murshidabad and Malda were handed to India.

Post-partition Period

After the Partition, the majority of the urban middle class Bengali Hindu population of East Bengal immigrated to West Bengal. The ones who stayed back belonged to two categories – ones who had significant landed property and believed that they would be able to lead a normal life in an Islamic state and others who were illiterate and backward and therefore had no other option left. However after the genocide of 1950, Bengali Hindus fled East Bengal in thousands and settled in West Bengal. In 1964, tens of thousands of Bengali Hindus were massacred in East Pakistan and most of the Bengali Hindu owned businesses were permanently destroyed.[44] During the liberation war of Bangladesh, an estimated 2.4 million Bengali Hindus were massacred in Bangladesh.[16] The Enemy Property Act of the Pakistan regime which is still in force in the new incarnation of Vested Property Act, has been utilized by successive Bangladeshi governments to seize the properties of the Hindu minorities who left the country during the Partition of India and Bangladesh liberation war. According to Professor Abul Barkat of Dhaka University, the Act has been used to misappropriate 2,100,000 acres (8,500 km2) of land from the Bengali Hindus, roughly equivalent to the 45% of the total landed area owned by them.[45]

The refugee rehabilitation became an acute crisis and hundreds of refugees were rehabilitated in the inhabitable terrains of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and the Andamans. Apart from that thousands of Bengali Hindus had also immigrated to Assam, Tripura and other regions of the North East. In the Barak Valley region of Assam, where the Bengali Hindus were in a majority because of the inclusion of Sylhet into Pakistan, and subsequent immigration of Bengali Hindus from Sylhet into Cachar, an impasse was arrived at on the question of language. The government of Assam had unilaterally imposed Assamese as the sole medium of education. In response, the Bengali Hindus began peaceful demonstrations demanding Bengali as the optional medium of primary education in the Barak Valley region. The situation took an ugly turn on 19 May 1961, when eleven Bengali Hindu protesters including a minor girl were gunned down by the police at the Silchar railway station.[46][47][48] Subsequently, the Assam government allowed Bengali as the medium of education in Barak Valley.[46] However, the rise of ethnic militancy in the eighties and nineties once again made the Bengali Hindus vulnerable in the North East. The United Liberation Front of Asom, National Democratic Front of Bodoland, Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam and National Liberation Front of Tripura militants have selectively targeted the Bengali Hindu people, prompting the latter to form the Bengali Tiger Force.[49]

Discrimination against Bengali Hindu population is not limited to the North East. In Jharkhand, the Bengali Hindu demand of making Bengali the second official language has not been met, in spite of the fact that the Bengali Hindu population forms the second largest linguistic group in the state. In Bihar, the Bengali Hindu refugees are denied land owning rights and caste certificates.[50] In Orissa, the Bengali Hindu refugees are served quit India notices in spite of having valid documents.[51][52] On the other hand massive infiltration from Bangladesh has substantially altered the demography in West Bengal so much so that Bengal Hindus have been reduced to minorities in the border regions.[53]



The proper Bengali literary history begins with the early Vaishnava literature like the Shreekrishna Kirtana and the Vaishnava padavalis followed by translation literatures like Ramayana and Srikrishna Vijaya. In the medieval period literary works on the life and teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu were composed. This period saw the emergence of Shakta padavalis. The characteristic feature of Bengali Hindu literature in the middle age are the mangalkavyas, that glorify various Hindu gods and goddesses often using folkloristic backgrounds.

The early modern period saw a flurry in the literary activity especially after the emergence of the Bengali press. The first Bengali prose Raja Pratapaditya Charitra was written during this time. The Renaissance saw a rapid development in modern Bengali literature. Most of the epics, poems, novels, short stories and dramas of the modern classical literature were written during this period. The Bengal Literary Society that later came to be known as Bangiya Sahitya Parishad was founded. The literary development during the Renaissance culminated in Rabindranath's Nobel prize for literature.

In the Post-Partition period, the Bengali Hindus pioneered the Hungry generation, Natun Kabita and the little magazine movements. Of late, some of them have made their mark in contemporary English literature.


Savitri-Satyavan story on Kalighat Painting, 3rd quarter of the 19th century.

The Kalighat school of painting flourished in Bengal in the early modern period, and especially after the first paper mill was set up in 1809. During the rise of nationalism in the early 20th century, the Bengali Hindus pioneered the Bengal school of art. It provided the artistic medium of expression to the Hindu nationalist movement. Though the Bengal school later gave way to modernist ideas, it left an enduring legacy. In the post-liberalisation phase of India, modern art acquired a new dimension as young artists like Devajyoti Ray, Sudip Roy and Paresh Maity started gaining international recognition. Devajyoti Ray is known for introducing Pseudorealism, which is one of the most original genres of Indian art today.





Swami Prabhupada, the founder of ISKCON was also a Bengali Hindu

The Bengali Hindus generally follow the beliefs and practices that fall under the broad umbrella of Hinduism. Majority of them follow either the Shakta or the Vaishnava traditions, or even sometimes a synthesis of the two. The minor traditions include Shaiva etc. A significant minority is atheist. Brahmoism is also found among Bengali Hindus.

Apart of the parent tradition, the Bengali Hindus usually affiliate themselves to one of the many sects that have come to be established as institutionalized forms of the ancient guru-shishya traditions. Major amongst them include the Ramakrishna Mission, Bharat Sevashram Sangha, Bijoy Krishna Goswami, Anukul Thakur, Matua, ISKCON, Gaudiya Math, Ananda Marga etc.


A traditional Durga idol at a pandal in Kolkata

According to a famous Bengali proverb, there are thirteen festivals in twelve months. The year begins with the Bengali New Year's Day or Paila Baishakh, which usually falls on 15 April. Traditional business establishment commence their fiscal year on this day, with the worship of Lakshmi and Ganesha and inauguration of the halkhata. People dress in ethnic wear and enjoy ethnic food. Paila Baishakh is followed by Rabindra Jayanti, Rathyatra and Janmashtami before the commencement of the pujas.

The Bengali Hindu diaspora celebrate Durga Puja all over the world.

The puja season begins with the Vishwakarma Puja and is followed up by Durga Puja, the greatest Bengali Hindu festival. It is commemoration of the victory of the good over the evil. According to Chandi Purana, goddess Durga killed Mahishasura, the evil demon and saved the devas. Rama the prince of Ayodhya invoked the blessings of goddess Durga in a battle against Ravana of Lanka. Durga Puja is the commemoration of Rama's victory over Ravana. Durga Puja is followed by Kojagari Lakshmi Puja, Kali Puja, Bhai Phonta and Jagaddhatri puja.

The winter solstice is celebrated a Paush Sankranti in mid January, followed by Netaji Jayanti and Saraswati Puja. The spring is celebrated in the form of Dolyatra. The year ends with Charak Puja and Gajan.

See also


  1. ^ There were no separate electorates for Hindus, in spite of them being minorities in the province.
  2. ^ The Caste Hindus were supposed to contest in the 70 General seats. However as per the Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar, 20 General seats were reserved for Scheduled Castes.
  3. ^ Rup Narayan Roy and Jyoti Basu, the two Communist Party MLAs abstained.


  1. ^ a b Sanghamitra, Niyogi (2008). "Immigrant Sub-National Ethnicity: Bengali-Hindus and Punjabi-Sikhs in the San Francisco Bay Area". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston on 31 July 2008. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 
  2. ^ "The Hindu Bengali of Bangladesh". Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  3. ^ "Bengali of Myanmar (Burma)". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  4. ^ "What Are London Kalibari's Aims for the Future?". London Kalibari. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  5. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: ben". Bethany World Prayer Center. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  6. ^ "Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  7. ^ The Australian people:an encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their origins. Cambridge University Press. 2001. p. 186.  
  8. ^ "Bengali". Asia Harvest. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  9. ^ "Indian Associations and portals in Sweden". Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  10. ^ "What Is Hinduism?", p. 27
  11. ^ "The Home and the World", by Rabindranath Tagore, p. 320
  12. ^ "Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis", p. 351, by Kunal Chakrabarti, Shubhra Chakrabarti
  13. ^ "Muslim freedom martyrs of India". Two Circles. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  14. ^ "ROLE OF MUSLIMS IN THE FREEDOM MOVEMENT-II". Radiance Weekly. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  15. ^ "Bengal Partition Stories: An Unclosed Chapter", p. 26, by Bashabi Fraser
  16. ^ a b Gumaste, Vivek. "The Hindu genocide that Hindus and the world forgot". India Tribune. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  17. ^ Togawa, Masahiko (2008). "Hindu Minority in Bangladesh – Migration, Marginalization and Minority Politics in Postcolonial South Asia". Discussion Paper Series (Hiroshima University) 6: 2. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  18. ^ Tagore, Rabindranath. "Atmaparichay". Society for Natural Language Technology Research. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  19. ^ Garg, Ganga Ram (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu world (Volume I). Concept Publishing Company. p. 3.  
  20. ^ Sandipan Deb (30 August 2004). "In Apu's World". Outlook. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  21. ^ Ghosh, Shankha (2002). ইছামতীর মশা (Ichhamatir Masha). Swarnakshar Prakashani. p. 80. 
  22. ^ Ghosh, Sutama (2007). We Are Not All the Same":The Differential Migration, Settlement Patterns and Housing Trajectories of Indian Bengalis and Bangladeshis in Toronto""". Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Retrieved 3 March 2011. 
  23. ^ "Bengali Hindu Migrant: Ashim Sen – Bradford". Bangla Stories. Retrieved 3 March 2011. 
  24. ^ Bose, Neilesh (2009). "Anti-colonialism, regionalism, and cultural autonomy: Bengali Muslim politics, c.1840s – 1952". DAI/A 70-08. Tufts University. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  25. ^ Sen, Dinesh Chandra (1999). Brihatbanga Volume I. Deys Publishing, p. 54.
  26. ^ Bangali Charitabhidhan Volume I. Sansad, p. 341.
  27. ^ "When he (Alexander) moved forward with his forces certain men came to inform him that Porus, the king of the country, who was the nephew of that Porus whom he had defeated, had left his kingdom and fled to the nation of Gandaridai... He had obtained from Phegeus a description of the country beyond the Indus: First came a desert which it would take twelve days to traverse; beyond this was the river called the Ganges which had a width of thirty two stadia, and a greater depth than any other Indian river; beyond this again were situated the dominions of the nation of the Prasioi and the Gandaridai, whose king, Xandrammes, had an army of 20,000 horse 200,000 infantry, 2,000 chariots and 4,000 elephants trained and equipped for war".... "Now this (Ganges) river, which is 30 stadia broad, flows from north to south, and empties its water into the ocean forming the eastern boundary of the Gandaridai, a nation which possesses the greatest number of elephants and the largest in size." –Diodorus Siculus (c.90 BC – c.30 BC). Quoted from The Classical Accounts of India, Dr R.C. Majumdar, p. 170-72/234
  28. ^ http://articles/Gangaridai#During_Alexander.27s_invasion
  29. ^ Sarkar, Jagadish Narayan (1981). Banglay Hindu-Musalman Samparka (Madhyayuga). Kolkata: Bangiya Sahitya Parishad. p. 53. 
  30. ^ "When the Islamic missionaries arrived they found in several instances that the conquering armies had destroyed both the temples of revived Hinduism and the monasteries of the older Buddhism; in their place—often on the same sites—they built new shrines. Moreover, they very frequently transferred ancient Hindu and Buddhist stories of miracles to Muslim saints, fusing the old religion into the new on a level that could be accepted by the masses." Qouted from The Interaction of Islam and Hinduism; Source:
  31. ^ Chaudhuri, B.B. (2008). Peasant history of late pre-colonial and colonial India. Pearson Education India, p. 184.
  32. ^ Kumar, Dharma, Raychaudhuri, Tapan & Desai, Meghnad (1983). The Cambridge economic history of India, Volume II. Cambridge University Press, p. 299.
  33. ^ As soon as the British took over Eastern India tribal revolts broke out to challenge alien rule. In the early years of colonization, no other community in India offered such heroic resistance to British rule or faced such tragic consequences as did the numerous Adivasi communities of now Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Orissa and Bengal. In 1772, the Paharia revolt broke out which was followed by a five year uprising led by Tilka Manjhi who was hanged in Bhagalpur in 1785. The Tamar and Munda revolts followed. In the next two decades, revolts took place in Singhbhum, Gumla, Birbhum, Bankura, Manbhoom and Palamau, followed by the great Kol Risings of 1832 and the Khewar and Bhumij revolts (1832-34). In 1855, the Santhals waged war against the permanent settlement of Lord Cornwallis, and a year later, numerous Adivasi leaders played key roles in the 1857 war of independence. But the defeat of 1858 only intensified British exploitation of national wealth and resources. A forest regulation passed in 1865 empowered the British government to declare any land covered with trees or brushwood as government forest and to make rules to manage it under terms of its own choosing. The act made no provision regarding the rights of the Adivasi users. A more comprehensive Indian Forest Act was passed in 1878, which imposed severe restrictions upon Adivasi rights over forest land and produce in the protected and reserved forests. The act radically changed the nature of the traditional common property of the Adivasi communities and made it state property. As punishment for Adivasi resistance to British rule, “The Criminal Tribes Act” was passed by the British Government in 1871 arbitrarily stigmatizing groups such as the Adivasis (who were perceived as most hostile to British interests) as congenital criminals. Quoted from
  34. ^ Bangali Charitabhidhan Volume I. Sansad, p. 489.
  35. ^ a b c Novak, James Jeremiah (1 January 1993). Bangladesh: Reflections on the Water. Indiana University Press. p. 140.  
  36. ^ Das, S.N.(ed). The Bengalis: The People, their History and Culture. Genesis Publishing, p. 214.
  37. ^ Beck, Sanderson. Ethics of Civilization Volume 20: South Asia 1800–1950. World Peace Communications
  38. ^ a b Government of India Act, 1935, 26 GEO. 5. CH. 2., Fifth Schedule, p. 245.
  39. ^ Mitra, N.N.(ed), Indian Annual Register, Volume I, Jan–Jun 1932, p. 323.
  40. ^ Sinha, Dinesh Chandra; Dasgupta, Ashok (2011). 1946: The Great Calcutta Killings and Noakhali Genocide. Kolkata: Himangshu Maity. p. 218.  
  41. ^ Fraser, Bashabi and Sengupta, Sheila (ed). Bengal Partition Stories: An Unclosed Chapter. Anthem Press, p. 26.
  42. ^ Roy, Haimanti (2009). A Partition of Contingency? Public Discourse in Bengal, 1946–47. Cambridge University Press, p. 2.
  43. ^ Roy, Tathagata. My People, Uprooted. Ratna Prakashan, p. 131.
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