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List of World Heritage Sites in Western Europe

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Title: List of World Heritage Sites in Western Europe  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of World Heritage Sites in Northern Europe, List of World Heritage Sites in France, Lists of World Heritage Sites, List of World Heritage Sites in Slovakia, List of World Heritage Sites in Bulgaria
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

List of World Heritage Sites in Western Europe

Map of Western Europe showing the location of all UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Western Europe.
Location of World Heritage Sites within Western Europe. Some trans-national sites are partly in non-Western European countries. For trans-national sites the UNESCO latitude and longitude may not be in Western Europe.
     no sites or not in Western Europe
     1-10 sites          21-30 sites    indicates trans-national sites
     11-20 sites        31+ sites        indicates national sites

The World Heritage Sites in Western Europe. These sites are located in 9 countries (also called "state parties"); France and Germany are home to the most with 37, while Liechtenstein and Monaco have no sites. There are ten sites which are shared between state parties both in and out of Western Europe.[1][2] The first site from the region to be included on the list was the Aachen Cathedral in Germany in 1978, the year of the list's conception.[3]

Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list, or delist sites that that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x).[4] Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage.[5] In Western Europe, there are 120 cultural, 9 natural, and 2 mixed sites.[5]

The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List."[6] Presently, none of the sites in Western Europe are currently listed as endangered, though two German sites were previously listed: the Cologne Cathedral was marked as endangered in 2004 due to the construction of several high-rise buildings around it, but it was removed from the list in 2006;[7] and the Dresden Elbe Valley site was listed in 2006 in hopes of halting the construction of the four lane Waldschlösschen Bridge through the valley.[6][8][9] When construction continued as planned, it became the second site to be delisted as a World Heritage in 2009, the first being Oman's Arabian Oryx Sanctuary two years earlier.[10]


The list below uses a cultural definition of Western Europe (which includes Ireland and the United Kingdom, contrary to the United Nations Statistics Division's definition). It also omits six sites outside of Europe belonging to European state parties: Curaçao (Netherlands), New Caledonia (France), Reunion Island (France), Gough Island (United Kingdom), Henderson Island (United Kingdom), and Bermuda (United Kingdom). These sites are included in the African, American, and Oceania lists. The table is sortable by column by clicking on the at the top of the appropriate column; alphanumerically for the Site, Area, and Year columns; by state party for the Location column; and by criteria type for the Criteria column.

Site – named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation[5]
Location – sorted by country, followed by the region at the regional or provincial level and geocoordinates. In the case of multinational or multi-regional sites, the names are sorted alphabetically.
Criteria – as defined by the World Heritage Committee[4]
Area – in hectares and acres, followed by buffer zones if applicable. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year – during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description – brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable
  * Trans-border site


Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description
Aachen Cathedral A Gothic, castle-like building, located in a rural area and surrounded by several trees. GermanyAachen,
(i), (ii),
(iv), (vi)
1978 An iconic feat of architecture that sparked copies around Germany for centuries to come, Aachen's cathedral became the first-built vaulted structure since antiquity. The town itself was closely tied to Charlemagne during the cathedral's inception, which explains why it became his burial place when he died in 814.[11]
Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch A stand-alone gatehouse surrounded by many trees. GermanyLorsch,
(iii), (iv)
1991 The abbey and gate or 'Torhall', are from the Carolingian era. The notable Carolingian sculptures and paintings are still in good condition.[12]
Abbey Church of Saint-Savin sur Gartempe A large chapel, taken from a bridge seen in the foreground. FranceVienne,
(i), (iii)
69991600000000000000.16 (0.40) 1983 Often referred to as the "Romanesque Sistine Chapel", the church features well-preserved murals from the 11th and 12th cenutries.[13]
Amiens Cathedral A very tall cathedral with three large entrances. FranceAmiens,
(i), (ii)
70001370000000000001.37 (3.4) 1981 Amiens Cathedral is known as one of the classic Gothic churches of the 13th century. Following a devastating fire in 1218, it spent almost an entire 200 years under construction before taking on its current form in 1401, after which it has remained in great shape.[14]
Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne A large, circular stone tomb with a top covered with a thin grass. IrelandCounty Meath,
(i), (iii), (iv)
7002770000000000000770 (1,900) 1993 The site is a unique testament to the longevity of several prehistoric and medieval settlements, featuring various cultural, artistic and scientific advancements that span four millennia.[15]
Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments A large stone amphitheatre which is surrounded by many buildings. FranceBouches-du-Rhône,
(ii), (iv)
700165000000000000065 (160) 1981 The city, originally built in the 6th century BCE by Phocaean settlers from Greece, was remodelled by the Romans and slowly grew into an important metropolis, both politically and religiously. By 480, however, Arles was conquered by Barbarians and suffered a decline in its status until the 9th century, when Boso founded what would later become the Kingdom of Arles, where it regained its importance.[16]
Bauhaus and its sites in Weimar and Dessau A grayscale image of a modern looking building. GermanyDessau and Weimar
(ii), (iv), (vi)
1996 Formed in 1919, the original Bauhaus school in Weimar was known for its role in the progression of modern art through its architecture. Although it was shut down in 1925 for political reasons, Walter Gropius was able to establish a second and much more influential Bauhaus in Dessau months later, eventually attracting world-renowned artists to teach at the school before once again closing in 1933.[17]
Beemster Polder A row of small homes with varying architecture. NetherlandsNorth Holland,
(i), (ii), (iv)
1999 The early 17th century Beemster Polder, is a series of fields, roads, canals, dykes and settlements all built on land reclaimed from the sea.[18]
Belfries of Belgium and France A large tower with a clock near its top. Belgium Belgium*
(ii), (iv)
1999 The UNESCO entry covers 56 culturally significant belfries across France and Belgium, built over a period of several centuries.[19]
Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair A clock tower standing beside two small houses and a museum. SwitzerlandMüstair,
70032036000000000002,036 (5,030) 1983 The Convent of Müstair is a Christian monastery from the Carolingian period. It has Switzerland's greatest series of figurative murals, painted c. 800 AD, along with other Romanesque art and designs.[20]
Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe Hercules Monument and the giant cascades. GermanyKassel,
(iii), (iv)
7002559000000000000559 (1,380) 2013 Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe is the largest European hillside park, and second largest park on a mountain slope in the world. Its waterworks along with the towering Hercules statue constitute an expression of the ideals of absolutist Monarchy while the ensemble is a remarkable testimony to the aesthetics of the Baroque and Romantic periods.[21]
Berlin Modernism Housing Estates Panzerkreuzer apartment building, a white four storey apartment complex GermanyBerlin,
(ii), (iv)
700188000000000000088 (220) 2008 The property consists of six housing estates from 1910 to 1933. It is an example of the building reform movement that contributed to improved housing and living conditions for people with low incomes. The estates also showcase a number of new designs, decoration and layouts. The lessons learned here were applied on other projects around the world. Some of the notable architects on these house were; Bruno Taut, Martin Wagner and Walter Gropius.[22]
Blaenavon Industrial Landscape A small mining site overlooking a small city and large fields. United KingdomTorfaen, Wales,
 United Kingdom
(iii), (iv)
70033290000000000003,290 (8,100) 2000 In the 19th century, Wales was the world's foremost producer of iron and coal. Blaenavon is an example of the landscape created by the industrial processes associated with the production of these materials. The site includes quarries, public buildings, workers' housing, and a railway.[23]
Blenheim Palace A large brick building with a freshly mowed lawn in front. United KingdomWoodstock, England,
 United Kingdom
(ii), (iv)
1987 Blenheim Palace, the residence of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, was designed by architects John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor. The associated park was landscaped by Capability Brown. The palace celebrated victory over the French and is significant for establishing English Romantic Architecture as a separate entity from French Classical Architecture.[24]
Bordeaux, Port of the Moon A short tower stands beside two long peripheral buildings of a similar style. FranceGironde,
(ii), (iv)
70031731000000000001,731 (4,280) 2007 A port city world-renowned for its wine industry, Bordeaux is also a coherent blend of classical and neo-classical architectural trends that symbolise the urban transformation from the 18th century onwards.[25]
Bourges Cathedral A moderately lit FranceBourges,
(i), (iv)
69998500000000000000.85 (2.1) 1992 Originally built to confirm the ruling of the archdiocese and rebuilt due to fire, the cathedral is simplistic in its design, yet considered be a unique landmark of the city. Some of the medieval-era houses still surround the church.[26]
Canal du Midi A speedboat sails along a narrow river surrounded by a trail and trees on both of its sides. FranceSouthern France,
(i), (ii),
(iv), (vi)
70031172000000000001,172 (2,900) 1996 Called "one of the greatest engineering achievements of the modern age", the 360 km (220 mi) Canal du Midi is the result of 17th-century projects that linked the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, essentially setting the stage for the Industrial Revolution. Creator Pierre-Paul Riquet also placed heavy emphasis on the aesthetics of the waterway so that it would blend with its surroundings.[27]
Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church A beige-colored cathedral with various entrances. United KingdomCanterbury, England,
 United Kingdom
(i), (ii), (vi)
700118000000000000018 (44) 1988 St Martin's Church is the oldest church in England. The church and St Augustine's Abbey were founded during the early stages of the introduction of Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons. The cathedral exhibits Romanesque and Gothic architecture, and is the seat of the Church of England.[28][29][30]
Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd A medieval-style castle with a parking lot in the foreground. United KingdomGwynedd, Wales,
 United Kingdom
(i), (iii), (iv)
70006000000000000006 (15) 1986 During the reign of Edward I of England (1272–1307), a series of castles were constructed in Wales with the purpose of subduing the population and establishing English colonies in Wales. The World Heritage Site covers many castles including Beaumaris, Caernarfon, Conwy, and Harlech. The castles of Edward I are considered the pinnacle of military architecture by military historians.[31][32]
Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl A giant stretch of road leads to an open gate enclosing a large palace. GermanyBrühl, North Rhine-Westphalia,
(ii), (iv)
700189000000000000089 (220) 1984 Augustusburg Castle, the residence of the prince-archbishops of Cologne, and the Falkenlust hunting lodge are both examples of early German Rococo architecture.[33]
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Former Abbey of Saint-Rémi and Palace of Tau, Reims A large building with two distinct summits and two large entrances side-to-side. FranceReims,
(i), (ii), (vi)
70004160000000000004.16 (10.3) 1991 Notre-Dame in Reims is one of the masterpieces of Gothic art. The former abbey still has its beautiful 9th-century nave, in which lie the remains of Archbishop St Rémi (440–533), who instituted the Holy Anointing of the kings of France. The former archiepiscopal palace known as the Tau Palace, which played an important role in religious ceremonies, was almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century.[34]
The Causses and the Cévennes A small village lies almost hidden by trees in a narrow valley between steep sided mountains. FranceSouthern France,
(iii), (v)
7005302319000000000302,319 (747,050) 2011 This site, in the southern part of central France, displays the relationship between local farming and the environment. The region is mountainous with numerous narrow valleys. The local farmers had to adapt to raise food in this difficult landscape. The valleys of the Causses were developed and controlled by large abbeys, starting in the 11th century. Mont Lozère is one of the last places where summer transhumance is still practiced in the traditional way.[35]
Chartres Cathedral A large cathedral with two distinct summits. FranceChartres,
(i), (ii), (iv)
70001060000000000001.06 (2.6) 1979 The cathedral was started in 1145 and rebuilt after a fire in 1194. It is a masterpiece of French Gothic art. The sculptures are from the 12th century and the stained-glass windows are from the 12th and 13th centuries.[36]
La Chaux-de-Fonds / Le Locle, Watchmaking Town Planning A fairly large city with buildings of diverse sizes. SwitzerlandCanton of Neuchâtel,
7002284000000000000284 (700) 2009 The site consists of two towns situated close to one another in a remote environment in the Swiss Jura mountains. Due to poor agricultural land, the watchmaking industry developed in the towns in the 19th century. After several devastating fires the towns were rebuilt to support this single industry. The town of La Chaux-de-Fonds was described by Karl Marx as a “huge factory-town” in Das Kapital where he analyzed the division of labour in the watchmaking industry of the Jura.[37]
Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay A corridor enclosed by large pillars, which ends with a small doorway. FranceMarmagne, Côte-d'Or,
70005770000000000005.77 (14.3) 1981 The monastery was founded by St Bernard in 1119. The abbey was built to be self-sufficient and to isolate the residents from the outside world. In addition to the church and monks' quarters, it had a bakery and ironworks to help make it independent.[38]
City of Bath An aerial view of a semicircular terrace of houses. United KingdomSomerset, England,
 United Kingdom
(i), (ii), (iv)
70032900000000000002,900 (7,200) 1987 Founded by the Romans as a spa, an important centre of the wool industry in the medieval period, and a spa town in the 18th century, Bath has a varied history. The city is preserved for its Roman remains and Palladian architecture.[39]
City of Graz – Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg A short but large clock tower shines at dawn. AustriaStyria,
(ii), (iv)
1999 A branch of the Habsburg family lived in Graz for centuries. The Habsburgs and other local nobles beautified and expanded Graz over centuries, leading to a city with grand buildings in a number of styles.[40]
City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications Luxembourg Luxembourg
700130000000000000030 (74) 1994 Luxembourg occupies a strategically important location in the region. Over the centuries it was traded back and forth by the great powers in Europe, each of which fortified and expanded the city. Though many of the walls were dismantled in 1867, portions still remain.[41]
Classical Weimar A grayscale image of a small museum with a statue of two men in front. GermanyThuringia,
(iii), (vi)
1998 Weimar became a cultural center in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Among the many artists and writers, the city was home to Goethe and Schiller. During this same period elegant buildings and parks were built in Weimar.[42]
Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg A town square with two visible buildings and a few tourists. GermanyHarz,
1994 The preservation of old Quedlinberg allows tourists to see 16th- and 17th-century timber-framed houses and walk down medieval-patterned streets, while the Romanesque castle and cathedral, housing the bodies of Henry I and his wife, tower over the town.[43]
Cologne Cathedral A large, brightly lit cathedral sits in the middle of a skyline at night. GermanyCologne,
(i), (ii), (iv)
1996 While work on the Cologne Cathedral began in 1248, it remained incomplete until the Prussians picked up the task centuries later, finishing the job in 1880. It was heavily bombed in the Second World War, but restorations allowed it to become the most visited landmark in Germany, boasting 6.5 million visitors per year as of 2011.[44][45]
Convent of St Gall A large cathedral with two distinct summits. SwitzerlandSt. Gallen,
(ii), (iv)
1983 The Carolingian Convent of St Gall was one of the most important in Europe. It was in operation from the 8th century to its secularization in 1805. Its library is one of the richest and oldest in the world and contains a number of precious manuscripts such as the Plan of Saint Gall. Portions of the building were rebuilt in the Baroque style.[46]
Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape A small brick building obstructs a view of waves crashing into rocks behind it. United KingdomSouth West England,
 United Kingdom
(ii), (iii), (iv)
700419719000000000019,719 (48,730) 2006 Tin and copper mining in Devon and Cornwall boomed in the 18th and 19th centuries, and at its peak the area produced two-thirds of the world's copper. The techniques and technology involved in deep mining developed in Devon and Cornwall were used around the world.[47]
Defence Line of Amsterdam A small fortified building across a small footbridge. NetherlandsAmsterdam,
(ii), (iv), (v)
700414953000000000014,953 (36,950) 1996 Known in Dutch as the Stelling van Amsterdam, the 135-kilometre (84 mi) defence line surrounding the city was completed in 1920 to protect it from naval threats coming through the Markermeer. It was designed to temporarily flood the area comprising the line, enabling the 45 armed forts along it to effectively stage their countermeasures.[48]
Derwent Valley Mills A large building with many windows behind a blue fence. United KingdomDerbyshire, England,
 United Kingdom
(ii), (iv)
70031229000000000001,229 (3,040) 2001 The Derwent Valley Mills was the birthplace of the factory system; the innovations in the valley, including the development of workers' housing – such as at Cromford – and machines such as the water frame, were important in the Industrial Revolution. The Derwent Valley Mills influenced North America and Europe.[49][50]
Dorset and East Devon Coast A large, rocky cliff overlooking the sea to the right, crashing into the shore. United KingdomDorset, England,
 United Kingdom
70032550000000000002,550 (6,300) 2001 The cliffs that make up the Dorset and Devon coast are an important site for fossils and provide a continuous record of life on land and in the sea in the area since 185 million years ago.[51]
Durham Castle and Cathedral A courtyard in the foreground precedes a large medieval-style castle with a clock atop one of its peaks. United KingdomDurham, England,
 United Kingdom
(ii), (iv), (vi)
70008789999999999998.79 (21.7) 1986 Durham Cathedral is the "largest and finest" example of Norman architecture in England and vaulting of the cathedral was part of the advent of Gothic architecture. The cathedral houses relics of St Cuthbert and Bede. The Norman castle was the residence of the Durham prince-bishops.[52]
Episcopal City of Albi A distant view of a small city in the background and a narrow bridge hidden by a few trees along a river. FranceTarn,
(iv), (v)
700119000000000000019 (47) 2010 The once powerful Albi, originally founded as an agricultural town, gradually shifted its theme from fortifications to a much more classical Renaissance look that survives as a testament to the two eras in human history.[53]
Fagus Factory in Alfeld A very long building with a semi-circular roof. GermanyAlfeld,
(ii), (iv)
70001880000000000001.88 (4.6) 2011 Built by Walter Gropius in 1910, the factory designed to manufacture shoe last was renowned for redefining decorative values of the time period, particularly in the wide use of glass to render the building much more homogeneous, which foreshadowed his later work with the Bauhaus.[54]
Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape A crow walks on a frozen lake near a narrow dock. AustriaBurgenland and Győr-Moson-Sopron County,
700152000000000000052 (130) 2001 The Fertö/Neusiedler Lake area has been occupied by different peoples for eight millennia. A number of 18th and 19th century villages and castles were built on top of the ancient settlements and landscape.[55]
Flemish Béguinages A series of red houses with dark roofs are partially hidden behind a white, deteriorating wall. BelgiumFlanders,
(ii), (iii), (iv)
700160000000000000060 (150) 1998 The communities, called "béguinages", were built by the Béguines, religious women who "dedicated their lives to God without retiring from the world". Entire Flemish towns were created in the 13th century based on this principle of life.[56]
Fortifications of Vauban An aerial view of a large building and several other smaller buildings surrounded by a reinforced wall. France France
(i), (ii), (iv)
70031153000000000001,153 (2,850) 2008 The UNESCO entry covers 12 groups of fortified buildings in France engineered by Sébastien Le Prestre, who worked under Louis XIV in the 17th century.[57]
The Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs, La Louvière and Le Roeulx Two medium-sized boats float in front of a large iron structure. BelgiumLa Louvière,
(iii), (iv)
700167000000000000067 (170) 1998 The hydraulic lifts along the Canal du Centre were made to overcome the 89.46-metre (293.5 ft) height difference between Mons and Charleroi. They are the last functioning lifts built at the turn of the 20th century.[58]
Frontiers of the Roman Empire A very long wall separating two large plains. GermanyCentral Lowlands,
Northern England,
and Southern Germany
 United Kingdom*
(ii), (iii), (iv)
7002527000000000000527 (1,300) 1987 Hadrian's Wall was built in 122 AD and the Antonine Wall was constructed in 142 AD to defend the Roman Empire from "barbarians".[59] The World Heritage Site was previously listed as Hadrian's Wall alone, but was later expanded to include all the frontiers of the Roman Empire at its zenith in the 2nd century, ranging from Antonine's Wall in the north to Trajan's Wall in eastern Europe.[5]
Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz A small row boat navigates a wide river, while a forest stands in the background, hiding a large tower. GermanySaxony-Anhalt,
(ii), (iv)
700414500000000000014,500 (36,000) 2000 "The Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz is an outstanding example of the application of the philosophical principles of the Age of the Enlightenment to the design of a landscape that integrates art, education and economy in a harmonious whole."[60]
Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast A small cove made up of tall and geometrically distinct rock formations, on which two couples are sitting. United KingdomCounty Antrim, Northern Ireland,
 United Kingdom
(vii), (viii)
700170000000000000070 (170) 1986 The causeway is made up of 40,000 basalt columns projecting out of the sea. It was created by volcanic activity in the Tertiary period.[61]
La Grand-Place, Brussels A large city square with many large buildings around it. BelgiumBrussels,
(ii), (iv)
1998 Featuring Brussels' city hall, houses and other historic buildings, La Grand Place is a well-preserved testament to the social and cultural life of the late-17th century.[62]
Gulf of Porto: Calanche of Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve A large rock formation pierces through the ocean's surface. FranceCorsica,
(vii), (viii), (x)
700411800000000000011,800 (29,000) 1983 The Gulf of Porto is part of the Corsica Regional Park, hosting a variety of marine and avian life, as well as shrubland.[63]
Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape A large lake surrounded by mountains lies in front of a small town in the corner of the frame. AustriaSalzkammergut,
(iii), (iv)
700428446000000000028,446 (70,290) 1997 The region built itself around salt mining, which began as early as 2,000 BCE and continued in the modern era. The region is also known for its mountain ranges and caves, the longest of the latter reaching a length of 81 km (50 mi).[64]
Hanseatic City of Lübeck A courtyard behind a large building with two cone-shaped summits holds flowers and trees on its sides. GermanySchleswig-Holstein,
700181000000000000081 (200) 1987 Lübeck was the trading capital of the influential Hanseatic League, which monopolised trade in much of the Northern Europe. Although a fifth of the city was entirely destroyed in World War II, much of the original 12th century architecture remains.[65]
Heart of Neolithic Orkney A small depression in the ground reveals a well-preserved excavation site with walls made of rock. United KingdomMainland, Scotland,
 United Kingdom
(i), (ii),
(iii), (iv)
700115000000000000015 (37) 1999 A collection of Neolithic sites with purposes ranging from occupation to ceremony. It includes the settlement of Skara Brae, the chambered tomb of Maes Howe and the stone circles of Stenness and Brodgar.[66]
Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge A large castle-like building from the front. FranceVaucluse,
(i), (ii), (iv)
70008199999999999998.2 (20) 1995 [67]
Historic Centre of Bruges A small motorboat rides under a bridge over a canal, which runs between several buildings. BelgiumWest Flanders,
(ii), (iv), (vi)
7002410000000000000410 (1,000) 2000 One of the economic and commercial capitals of Europe in the late-Medieval period, Bruges boasts its intact Gothic and neo-Gothic architecture, which respectively documents its style from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance.[68]
Historic Centre of Salzburg A distant view of a city sitting atop a hill, overlooking a river at dawn. AustriaSalzburg,
(ii), (iv), (vi)
7002236000000000000236 (580) 1996 Best associated with Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Salzburg is known for its ecclesiastic city-state qualities only second to Vatican City. It is also where German and Italian cultures intersected, which is reflected by its blend of Gothic- and Baroque-style buildings.[69]
Historic Centre of Vienna A large statue depicting a soldier riding a horse stands in the middle of a park. Austria Austria
(ii), (iv), (vi)
7002371000000000000371 (920) 2001 "The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, as well as the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings, monuments and parks."[70]
Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar A brick building with a roof tapering dramatically toward the top via large square windows. GermanyMecklenburg-Vorpommern,
(ii), (iv)
7002168000000000000168 (420) 2002 The two towns were major Hanseatic League trading centres in the 14th and 15th centuries. They then served as defensive and administrative centres for Sweden two hundred years later, notably during the Thirty Years' War. The architectural styles from both of these periods remain and are well-preserved.[71]
Historic Site of Lyon A view of a courtyard, obstructed by a few trees, and a city in front of a large incline in the background. FranceRhône,
(ii), (iv)
7002427000000000000427 (1,060) 1998
Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne A medieval castle-style wall sits on a heavy incline alongside flora. FranceAude,
(ii), (iv)
700111000000000000011 (27) 1997
Ir.D.F. Woudagemaal (D.F. Wouda Steam Pumping Station) A large building stands behind a big pool of water, which enters the former through six gratings. NetherlandsLemmer,
(i), (ii), (iv)
70007320000000000007.32 (18.1) 1998
Ironbridge Gorge United KingdomShropshire, England,
 United Kingdom
(i), (ii),
(iv), (vi)
1986 Ironbridge Gorge contains mines, factories, workers' housing, and the transport infrastructure that was created in the gorge during the Industrial Revolution. The development of coke production in the area helped start the Industrial Revolution. The Iron Bridge was the world's first bridge built from iron and was architecturally and technologically influential.[72]
Jurisdiction of Saint-Émilion A view of a town with cramped houses and a church. FranceGironde,
(iii), (iv)
70037847000000000007,847 (19,390) 1999 The act of cultivating grapes was introduced to the region by the Romans around 27 BCE and became a large and enduring part of its economy over the course of the following millennia, despite wars and the changes of rule. Occupying 67.5% of the total commune, the vineyards accompany historic monuments and buildings in documenting a monocultural community's history.[73]
Mill Network at Kinderdijk-Elshout Five windmills along the left bank of a canal NetherlandsAlblasserdam and Nieuw-Lekkerland,
(i), (ii), (iv)
1997 The first canals and pumps to drain the land for farming were built here in the Middle Ages. They have continued to be used and expanded into the present day. The network includes a number of dykes, reservoirs, pumping stations, administrative buildings and a series of windmills.[74]
Lavaux, Vineyard Terraces Vineyard terraces rise above Lake Geneva SwitzerlandVaud,
(iii), (iv), (v)
70031408000000000001,408 (3,480) 2007 The Lavaux Vineyard Terraces stretch for about 30 km (19 mi) along the south-facing northern shores of Lake Geneva from Chillon Castle to the eastern outskirts of Lausanne in the Vaud region. The current terraces can be traced back to the 11th century, when Benedictine and Cistercian monasteries controlled the area.[75]
Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret A distant view of a large city bordered by a beach. FranceSeine-Maritime,
(ii), (iv)
7002133000000000000133 (330) 2005 After their city was heavily bombed in World War II, Le Havre officials commissioned Auguste Perret to lead a reconstruction project. Perret's final product was a city blending its original layout and spirit with modern construction methods, urban planning and an innovative exploitation of concrete.[76]
Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City Three building shine at dawn behind a large body of water in the distance. United KingdomMerseyside, England,
 United Kingdom
(ii), (iii), (iv)
7002136000000000000136 (340) 2004 In the 18th and 19th centuries, Liverpool was one of the largest ports in the world. Its global connections helped sustain the British Empire, and it was a major port involved in the slave trade until its abolition in 1807, and a departure point for emigrants to North America. The docks were the site of innovations in construction and dock management.[77]
The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes An ornate white castle in the middle of a pond or moat. FranceLoire Valley,
(i), (ii), (iv)
700485394000000000085,394 (211,010) 2000 The Loire Valley contains historic towns and villages, castles and cultivated lands along the banks of the river Loire.[78]
Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg A statue of a man holding a book stands in front of a white building. GermanySaxony-Anhalt,
(iv), (vi)
Major Mining Sites of Wallonia BelgiumWallonia,
(ii), (iv)
7002118000000000000118 (290) 2012
Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels) A medium-sized stairway that spirals as it climbs. BelgiumBrussels,
(i), (ii), (iv)
Margravial Opera House Bayreuth GermanyBayreuth, Bavaria
(i), (iv)
Maritime Greenwich A view of a city coastline populated by white buildings with renaissance-era influences. United KingdomLondon, England,
 United Kingdom
(i), (ii),
(iv), (vi)
7002110000000000000110 (270) 1997 As well as the presence of the first example of Palladian architecture in England, and works by Christopher Wren and Inigo Jones, the area is significant for the Royal Observatory where the understanding of astronomy and navigation were developed.[79]
Maulbronn Monastery Complex Monastery courtyard with the gothic church on the left and monastery buildings on the right GermanyMaulbronn,
(ii), (iv)
1993 The Cistercian Maulbronn Monastery is considered the most complete and best-preserved medieval monastic complex north of the Alps. The main buildings were constructed between the 12th and 16th centuries, along with the monastery walls. The monastery's church, mainly in Transitional Gothic style, helped spread the Gothic style across northern and central Europe. The monastery also had a large, elaborate water-management system.[80]
Messel Pit Fossil Site An open quarry pit in the middle of rolling, shrub covered hills GermanyMessel,
700142000000000000042 (100) 1995 Messel Pit is the richest site in the world for understanding the environment of the Eocene, between 57 million and 36 million years ago. In particular, it shows the early stages of mammalian evolution and includes exceptionally well-preserved mammal fossils. Some of the most notable discoveries include fully articulated skeletons and the contents of the stomachs of animals.[81]
Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar and Upper Harz Water Management System An aerial view showing several dammed lakes within a forested and urban landscape GermanyGoslar,
Upper Harz,
(i), (ii),
(iii), (iv)
70031010000000000001,010 (2,500) 1992 The Upper Harz water management system was developed over a period of some 800 years to assist in mining and extracting ore. The mines and their ponds began under the Cistercian monks in the Middle Ages. However, most of the works were built from the end of the 16th century until the 19th century. It is made up of an extremely complex system of artificial ponds, small channels, tunnels and underground drains. The mines were a major site for mining innovation in the western world.[82]
Monastic Island of Reichenau A grey and white stone church with two square towers, both capped with red, pyramidal roofs. GermanyBaden-Württemberg,
(iii), (iv), (vi)
2000 The site includes traces of the Benedictine monastery, founded in 724, which exercised remarkable spiritual, intellectual and artistic influence throughout the surrounding region. The churches of St Mary and Marcus, St Peter and St Paul, and St George, were mainly built between the 9th and 11th centuries. Their wall paintings and decorations show an impressive artistic activity.[83]
Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay The buildings of Mont Saint Michel sit on a rocky island that rises above the surrounding fields and bay FranceManche,
(i), (iii), (vi)
70036558000000000006,558 (16,210) 1979 Perched on a rocky islet in the midst of vast sandbanks exposed to powerful tides between Normandy and Brittany stands a Gothic-style Benedictine abbey, and the village that grew up under its walls. Both the abbey and the village had to overcome a number of challenges due to the small, rocky island. Built between the 11th and 16th centuries, the abbey is an incredible technical and artistic project.[84]
Monte San Giorgio SwitzerlandTicino,
70033207000000000003,207 (7,920) 2010 The pyramid-shaped, wooded mountain of Monte San Giorgio beside Lake Lugano is regarded as the best fossil record of marine life from the Triassic Period (245–230 million years ago). The sequence records life in a tropical lagoon environment, sheltered and partially separated from the open sea by an offshore reef. Diverse marine life flourished within this lagoon, including reptiles, fish, bivalves, ammonites, echinoderms and crustaceans. Because the lagoon was near land, the remains also include land-based fossils of reptiles, insects and plants, resulting in an extremely rich source of fossils.[85]
Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin An ornate grey stone building on the point of an urbanized island. The building is connected by two bridges to the neighboring banks GermanyBerlin,
(ii), (iv)
1999 The five museums on the Museumsinsel in Berlin, built between 1824 and 1930, are a unified but diverse collection of museum collections and buildings. Each museum was built to mesh with the collection and represents the aesthetic of the different times. The collections trace the development of civilizations throughout the ages.[86]
Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski A red, ornate neo-gothic castle in a park-like location, the main tower of the castle is located to the left and topped with an ornate round dome and spire PolandUpper Lusatia,
(i), (iv)
7002348000000000000348 (860) 2004 A landscaped park astride the Neisse River and the border between Poland and Germany, it was created by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau from 1815 to 1844. Designed as a ‘painting with plants’, it used local plants to enhance the existing landscape. The park spreads into the town of Muskau with parks and other green spaces. The site also features a reconstructed castle, bridges and an arboretum.[87]
Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes (Mons) A black and white drawing showing the underground and surface excavations in a flint bearing chalk BelgiumSpiennes,
(i), (iii), (iv)
7002172000000000000172 (430) 2000 The Neolithic flint mines at Spiennes are the largest and earliest concentration of ancient mines in Europe. They are also remarkable for the diversity of innovations used in mining and due to a nearby Neolithic settlement.[88]
New Lanark Several red brick factory buildings on the banks of a river which makes a hairpin turn. The buildings are surrounded by mountains and forest. United KingdomLanark, Scotland,
 United Kingdom
(ii), (iv), (vi)
7002146000000000000146 (360) 2001 Prompted by Richard Arkwright's factory system developed in the Derwent Valley, the community of New Lanark was created to provide housing for workers at the mills. Philanthropist Robert Owen bought the site and turned it into a model community, providing public facilities, education, and supporting factory reform.[89]
Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin FranceNord-Pas de Calais,
(ii), (iv), (vi)
70033943000000000003,943 (9,740) 2012
Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai A grey stone cathedral with a central square tower flanked by 4 square towers. Surrounded by the red roofs of the old city. BelgiumTournai,
(ii), (iv)
69995000000000000000.5 (1.2) 2000 The Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Tournai was built in the first half of the 12th century. The nave, transept and towers are all in the romanesque style. The choir was rebuilt in the following century in the gothic style. It is one of Wallonia's major heritage sites.[90]
Old City of Bern Bern's old city as seen from across the Aare River SwitzerlandBern,
700484684000000000084,684 (209,260) 1983 Founded in the 12th century on a hill site surrounded by the Aare River, Bern developed along the peninsula. Following a devastating fire, the entire town was rebuilt in a unified style. The early wooden buildings were replaced with sandstone, followed by arcades in the 15th century arcades and fountains in the 16th century. The medieval town was rebuilt in the 18th century, but retained its earlier character.[91]
Old and New Towns of Edinburgh A line of gray 4 to 6 story row houses from the right, lead to a gray stone church with a single tower. United KingdomEdinburgh, Scotland,
 United Kingdom
(ii), (iv)
1995 The Old Town of Edinburgh was founded in the Middle Ages, and the New Town was developed in 1767–1890. It contrasts the layout of settlements in the medieval and modern periods. The layout and architecture of the new town, designed by luminaries such as William Chambers and William Playfair, influenced European urban design in the 18th and 19th centuries.[92]
Old Town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof Several early modern or medieval townhouses. From right to left, a pale green house, a large red house filling most of the picture, and a white house. GermanyRegensburg,
(ii), (iii), (iv)
7002183000000000000183 (450) 2006 This medieval town contains many notable buildings that span almost two millennia and include ancient Roman, Romanesque and Gothic buildings. Regensburg’s 11th- to 13th-century architecture created a town of narrow, dark lanes flanked by tall buildings and surrounded by a city wall. It includes medieval patrician houses and towers, a large number of churches and monasteries as well as the 12th-century Old Bridge. Regensburg was a center of the Holy Roman Empire that turned to Protestantism.[93]
Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn Rocoo three and four story palace stretches across most of the midground. In the foreground are manacured lawns and walkways, while the background is the old city of Vienna with a cathedral on the horizon. AustriaVienna,
(i), (iv)
7002186000000000000186 (460) 1996 The residence of the Habsburg emperors from the 18th century to 1918. It was built in the rococo style as a single, unified project. It was designed by the architects Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and Nicolaus Pacassi and was the site of the world's first zoo.[94]
Palace and Park of Fontainebleau A long three and four story ornate building with manicured lawns in front. FranceFontainebleau,
(ii), (vi)
7002144000000000000144 (360) 1981 Used by the kings of France from the 12th century, the medieval royal hunting lodge of Fontainebleau was transformed, enlarged and embellished in the 16th century by François I, who wanted to make a 'New Rome' of it. Surrounded by an immense park, the Italianate palace combines Renaissance and French artistic elements.[95]
Palace and Park of Versailles A courtyard with two wings of the ornate, two story brick and stone palace coming from the right and left with the third side of the palace in the center. FranceVersailles,
(i), (ii), (vi)
70031070000000000001,070 (2,600) 1979 The Palace of Versailles was the principal residence of the French kings from the time of Louis XIV to Louis XVI. Embellished by several generations of architects, sculptors, decorators and landscape architects, it provided Europe with a model of the ideal royal residence for over a century.[96]
Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin Single story pale yellow ornate palace stretching from the left foreground to the right background. GermanyBerlin, Potsdam,
(i), (ii), (iv)
70032064000000000002,064 (5,100) 1990 This site contains 500 ha (1,200 acres) of parks and 150 buildings constructed between 1730 and 1916. It extends into the district of Berlin-Zehlendorf, with the palaces and parks lining the banks of the River Havel and Lake Glienicke. Voltaire stayed at the Sans-Souci Palace, built under Frederick II between 1745 and 1747.[97]
Paris, Banks of the Seine The Seine River flows around an island with a gray stone gothic cathedral rising above the island. FranceParis,
(i), (ii), (iv)
7002365000000000000365 (900) 1991 The river Seine runs through the heart of Paris. The banks of the river are lined with many of Paris' most famous sites including the Louvre, the Eiffel Tower, the Place de la Concorde, the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, the Sainte Chapelle and the Grand and Petit Palais. The architecture and Haussmann's design with wide squares and boulevards influenced late 19th- and 20th-century town planning all over the world.[98]
Pilgrimage Church of Wies GermanySteingaden,
(i), (iii)
69991000000000000000.1 (0.25) 1983 The Church of Wies (1745–54) is the work of architect Dominikus Zimmermann and is a masterpiece of the Bavarian Rococo.[99]
Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance in Nancy Ornate stone buildings with one two story building from the left, foreground to the left midground. A two story building covers the background. FranceNancy,
(i), (iv)
1983 Nancy is the oldest example of a capital city built as a unified whole and on modern principles. It was built between 1752 and 1756 by a brilliant team led by the architect Héré and is famous for the harmonious suite of axial spaces he developed, extending from the Place Stanislas to the Palais du Gouvernement.[100]
Plantin-Moretus House-Workshops-Museum Complex Library with dark wood bookcases and scattered stone busts. BelgiumAntwerp,
(ii), (iii),
(iv), (vi)
2005 The Plantin-Moretus Museum is a printing plant and publishing house dating from the Renaissance and Baroque periods. It is associated with the history of the invention and spread of typography. Its name refers to the greatest printer-publisher of the second half of the 16th century: Christophe Plantin (c. 1520–89). The museum contains a collection made up of the work of the most prolific printing and publishing house in Europe in the late 16th century. The building of the company, which remained in activity until 1867, contains a large collection of old printing equipment, an extensive library, archives and works of art, among them a painting by Rubens.[101]
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal Looking up toward a metal aqueduct, supported by multiple tall, stone pillars and arches. United KingdomWrexham, Wales,
 United Kingdom
(i), (ii), (iv)
7002105000000000000105 (260) 2009 The aqueduct was built to carry the Ellesmere Canal over the Dee Valley. Completed during the Industrial Revolution and designed by Thomas Telford, the aqueduct made innovative use of cast and wrought iron, influencing civil engineering across the world.[102]
Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct) A stone aqueduct consisting of three levels with many arches crosses a river. FranceVers-Pont-du-Gard,
(i), (iii), (iv)
69993300000000000000.33 (0.82) 1985 The Pont du Gard was built shortly before the Christian era in Rome to allow the aqueduct of Nîmes (which is almost 50 km (31 mi) long) to cross the Gard river. The Roman architects and hydraulic engineers who designed this bridge created a technical as well as an artistic masterpiece. The bridge stands almost 50 m (160 ft) high and is on three levels with the longest measuring 275 m (902 ft).[103]
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps Reconstruction of a pile house at the Pfahlbau Museum Unteruhldingen on Lake Constance in Germany Austria Austria*,
(iv), (v)
70033961000000000003,961 (9,790) 2011 Contains 111 small individual sites with the remains of prehistoric pile-dwelling (or stilt house) settlements in and around the Alps built from around 5000 to 500 B.C. on the edges of lakes, rivers or wetlands. While only some of the sites have been excavated, they contain a wealth of information on life and trade in agrarian Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures in Alpine Europe. Fifty-six of the sites are located in Switzerland.[104]
Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley Cave painting of a dun horse. FranceLascaux,
(i), (iii)
1979 The Vézère valley contains 147 prehistoric sites dating from the Palaeolithic and 25 decorated caves. The most interesting discoveries are the cave paintings, especially those of the Lascaux Cave, whose discovery in 1940 was of great importance for the history of prehistoric art. The hunting scenes show some 100 animal figures with remarkable color and detail.[105]
Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany A thickly wooded green forest with a stream bed running through it on the left hand side Germany Germany*,
700433670000000000033,670 (83,200) 2007 Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians, are used to study the spread of the beech tree (Fagus sylvatica) in the Northern Hemisphere across a variety of environments and the environment in the forest. The addition of the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany in 2011 included five forests totaling 4,391 hectares (10,850 acres) that are added to the 29,278 hectares (72,350 acres) of Slovakian and Ukrainian beech forests inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2007.[106]
Provins, Town of Medieval Fairs A grey stone castle rises above a stone retaining wall. The central, octagonal tower is flanked by two round towers. FranceProvins,
(ii), (iv)
7002108000000000000108 (270) 2001 The fortified medieval town of Provins is situated in the former territory of the powerful Counts of Champagne. It was a center of international trading fairs and the wool industry. Many parts of the town were built especially for the fairs and markets.[107]
Pyrénées – Mont Perdu Monte Perdido (left) and Cilindro de Marboré (right) FranceHautes-Pyrénées and
Province of Huesca,
(iii), (iv), (v),
(vii), (viii)
700430639000000000030,639 (75,710) 1997 This mountain landscape, which crosses the French and Spanish borders is centred around the peak of Mount Perdu. Mount Perdu is a calcareous massif that rises to 3,352 m (10,997 ft). The site includes two of Europe's largest and deepest canyons on the Spanish side and three major cirque valleys on the French side. In addition to the mountains, the site includes the cultural lifestyle of the seasonal herding migration in the mountains. This was one a common a way of life in the mountain valleys in Europe, but now mostly survives only in isolated ares such as this region in the Pyrénées.[108]
Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes The Glacier Express train in the Albula Valley. SwitzerlandGraubünden and Tirano,
(ii) (iv)
7005109386000000000109,386 (270,300) 2008 The Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes, brings together two historic railway lines that cross the Swiss Alps through those two passes. The railways provided a rapid and easy route into many formerly isolated alpine settlements. Building the railroads required overcoming a number of technical challenges with bridges and tunnels.[109]
Rietveld Schröder House Modern house of white and grey flat, angular concrete surfaces. The modern house is attached to several older, traditional houses. NetherlandsUtrecht,
(i), (ii)
2000 The Rietveld Schröder House in Utrecht was built in 1924. A small family house with flexible interior rooms and a unique exterior. It is an example of the De Stijl group of artists and architects from the 1920s, and is an example of the Modern Movement in architecture.[110]
Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier Ruins of brick bath house, only one wall and about a dozen arches are still visible GermanyTrier,
(iv), (vi)
1986 The Roman colony at Trier was founded in the 1st century AD. It grew into a major town and became one of the capitals of the Tetrarchy at the end of the 3rd century. Many of the Roman era structures are still standing in Trier. The cathedral is the oldest church in Germany, being built on the ruins of Roman buildings by Maximin of Trier in 329-346.[111]
Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the Triumphal Arch of Orange A mostly intact Roman amphitheater with a large wall behind the stage. FranceOrange,
(iii), (vi)
70009449999999999999.45 (23.4) 1981 The ancient theatre of Orange, is one of the best preserved of all the great Roman theatres. The theatre features an intact 103 m (338 ft) facade. The Roman arch was built between A.D. 10 and 25 as a triumphal arch during the reign of Augustus.[112]
Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France A cathedral in white stone. The west façade has a single entrance with a monumental rose window above it. The entrance and rose window are flanked on each side by a gothic bell tower and spire. France France
(ii), (iv), (vi)
1998 The site consists of a number of churches and hospitals that are places related to the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Western Spain, a part of the Way of Saint James.[113]
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew A large greenhouse with rounded ends and sides sits in the middle of groomed grass and flower beds. United KingdomLondon, England,
 United Kingdom
(ii), (iii), (iv)
7002132000000000000132 (330) 2003 Created in 1759, the influential Kew Gardens were designed by Charles Bridgeman, William Kent, Capability Brown, and William Chambers. The gardens were used to study botany and ecology and furthered the understanding of the subjects.[114]
Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans A large neo-classical white stone building, the triangular pediment is supported by six rough pillars. FranceArc-et-Senans,
(i), (ii), (iv)
1982 This site consists of two open pan saltworks. The Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans was built in 1775 during the reign of Louis XVI. It was built according to the principles of the Enlightenment, with a rational organization and layout. The other site, the Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains was active for at least 1200 years until stopping activity in 1962. The Saltworks of Salins has an underground gallery from the 13th century along with a 19th-century hydraulic pump and a boiler house. From 1780 to 1895, its salt water traveled through 21 km (13 mi) of wood pipes to the Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans.[115]
Saltaire A three story pale red brick building along the left side of a small river. The building has a bell tower rising out of the middle of it. United KingdomCity of Bradford, England,
 United Kingdom
Cultural:United Kingdom
(ii), (iv)
700120000000000000020 (49) 2001 Saltaire was founded by mill-owner Titus Salt as a model village for his workers. The site, which includes the Salts Mill, featured public buildings for the inhabitants and was an example of 19th century paternalism.[116]
Schokland and Surroundings About 10 small buildings of dark wood with steeply peaked red roofs. In the center is a larger building with a grey roof and a small clock tower. NetherlandsNoordoostpolder,
(iii), (v)
70031306000000000001,306 (3,230) 1995 Schokland was a peninsula on the Zuider Zee that became an island by the 15th century. When the waters rose, it was abandoned in 1859. However after the draining of the Zuider Zee in the 1940s, it was once again repopulated.[117]
Semmering railway A photochorm picture of the a curving railroad bridge coming out of a tunnel bored into a large mountain.  In the background another bridge and mountains are visible. AustriaGloggnitz,
Simmering in Styria,
(ii), (iv)
7002156000000000000156 (390) 1998 The Semmering Railway, was built between 1848 and 1854 and covers 41 km (25 mi) of rugged mountains. This project was undertaken in the early days of railroad construction and required a number of innovations. The tunnels, viaducts and other works are still in use today.[118]
Seventeenth-century canal ring area of Amsterdam inside the Singelgracht An aerial view of a cramped city, clearly spaced by hexagonal bodies of water. NetherlandsAmsterdam,
(i), (ii), (iv)
7002198000000000000198 (490) 2010 By strategically draining the swamp land surrounding the port city via canal digging, Amsterdam quickly became a force in long-term city-planning, filling concentric voids with housing and infrastructure that would later accommodate the influx of free-thinking Europeans who help the city prosper.[119]
Skellig Michael Three beehive shaped dry-stone huts surround a worn statue or cross IrelandCounty Kerry,
(iii), (iv)
700122000000000000022 (54) 1996 The monastery at Skellig Michael is from the 7th century. It is located on the rocky island of Skellig Michael, some 12 km (7.5 mi) off the coast of south-west Ireland. It shows the harsh and spartan lives of the first Irish Christians.[120]
Speyer Cathedral Looking toward the choir of a brick Romanesque cathedral. The twin bell towers, the transept crossing dome, and the roof are green copper. GermanySpeyer,
1981 The romanesque Speyer Cathedral, was founded by Conrad II in 1030 and remodelled at the end of the 11th century. It was one of the grandest romanesque cathedrals in the Holy Roman Empire and the burial place of German emperors for almost 300 years.[121]
St Kilda A rocky bay with stone ruins in the foreground. The ocean enters the picture from the left and across the bay several rocky crags are visible sticking out the sea. United KingdomSt Kilda, Scotland,
 United Kingdom
(iii), (v), (vii),
(ix), (x)
700424201000000000024,201 (59,800) 1986 Although inhabited for over 2,000 years, the isolated archipelago of St Kilda has had no permanent residents since 1930. The islands' human heritage includes various unique architectural features from the historic and prehistoric periods. St Kilda is also a breeding ground for many important seabird species including the world's largest colony of gannets and up to 136,000 pairs of puffins.[122][123]
St. Mary's Cathedral and St Michael's Church at Hildesheim A romanesque stone cathedral, view of the side chapels and transept. The green copper dome over the transept crossing is visible. GermanyHildesheim,
(i), (ii), (iii)
69995800000000000000.58 (1.4) 1985 The site consists of two churches in Hildesheim. The Ottonian romanesque St Michael's Church was built between 1010 and 1020. Inside it is decorated with a notable wooden ceiling, painted stucco-work, and the Bernward Column. The treasures of the Romanesque Hildesheim Cathedral contain the Bernward Doors, the Hezilo chandelier and the Azelin chandelier.[124]
Stoclet House A primarily yellow abstract mural. BelgiumBrussels,
(i), (ii)
69998600000000000000.86 (2.1) 2009 This house was built by the architect Josef Hoffmann for the banker Adolphe Stoclet starting in 1905. The house and garden were completed in 1911 and the angular undecorated design marked a turning point in Art Nouveau movement. The house is an excellent example of the Vienna Secession movement in art and architecture. The house is decorated with works by Koloman Moser and Gustav Klimt.[125]
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites A ring of standing stones some with lintels stands in the middle of a green field United KingdomWiltshire, England,
 United Kingdom
(i), (ii), (iii)
70034985000000000004,985 (12,320) 1986 The Neolithic sites of Avebury and Stonehenge are two of the largest and most famous megalithic monuments in the world. They relate to man's interaction with his environment. The purpose of the henges has been a source of speculation, with suggestions ranging from ceremonial to interpreting the cosmos. "Associated sites" includes Silbury Hill, Beckhampton Avenue, and West Kennet Avenue.[126]
Strasbourg – Grande île A pair of rectangular medieval stone towers guard both banks of a river and the stone bridge that stretches between them. FranceStrasbourg,
(i), (ii), (iv)
700194000000000000094 (230) 1988 The Grande Ile (Big Island) is the historic center of the Alsatian capital and includes a number of historic buildings. Some of the most notable include the cathedral, the four ancient churches and the Palais Rohan (the former residence of the prince-bishops).[127]
Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey The ruins of a large abbey and church. The walls are mostly intact, though the roof has fallen in and been removed. United KingdomNorth Yorkshire, England,
 United Kingdom
(i), (iv)
1986 Before the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the mid-16th century, Fountains Abbey was one of the largest and richest Cistercian abbeys in Britain and is one of only a few that survives from the 12th century. The later garden, which incorporates the abbey, survives to a large extent in its original design and influenced garden design in Europe.[128]
Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch A range of tall, snowy mountains. SwitzerlandCantons of Bern and Valais,
(vii), (viii), (ix)
700482400000000000082,400 (204,000) 2007 The site includes several of the highest mountains in the Central Alps along with the largest glacier in Eurasia. The landscape provides information on the succession of plants after the retreat of a glacier and allows study of the retreat of glaciers resulting from climate change. The impressive landscape has also played an important role in European art, literature, mountaineering and tourism.[129]
Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona Martinsloch (Martins hole) is visible in the center of the Tschingelhörner in the Glarus Alps SwitzerlandGlarus,
St. Gallen
and Graubünden
700432850000000000032,850 (81,200) 2008 The Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona in the north-eastern part of the country covers a mountainous area which features seven peaks that rise above 3,000 m (9,800 ft). The area displays an exceptional example of mountain building through continental collision and displays a clear example of tectonic thrust, i.e. the process whereby older, deeper rocks are carried onto younger, shallower rocks. The site has been a key site for the geological sciences since the 18th century.[130]
Three Castles of Bellinzona Montebello and Sasso Corbaro castles above Bellinzona SwitzerlandBellinzona,
2000 The Bellinzona site consists of a group of fortifications grouped around the castle of Castelgrande, which stands on a rocky peak looking out over the entire Ticino valley. Running from the castle, a series of fortified walls protect the ancient town and block the passage through the valley. A second castle (Montebello) forms an integral part of the fortifications, while a third but separate castle (Sasso Corbaro) was built on an isolated rocky promontory south-east of the other fortifications.[131]
Tower of London A stone castle with four towers rises above a gatehouse and other walls. United KingdomLondon, England,
 United Kingdom
(ii), (iv)
1988 Begun by William the Conqueror in 1066 during the Norman conquest of England, the Tower of London is a symbol of power and an example of Norman military architecture that spread across England. Additions by Henry III and Edward I in the 13th century made the castle one of the most influential buildings of its kind in England.[132]
Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen A dark stone gothic building in a paved town square. GermanyBremen,
(iii), (iv), (vi)
69992900000000000000.29 (0.72) 2004 The site consists of the Town Hall and the statue of Roland that stands near the town hall. The town hall was built in the 15th century when Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. It was renovated in the 17th century and a new Town Hall was built nearby in the early 20th. Under the Holy Roman Empire, Bremen had extensive autonomy which allowed the town to grow and made the town hall a center of power. Both the old and new Town Halls survived bombings during World War II. The statue of Roland was built in 1404. It stands 5.5 m (18 ft) high.[133]
Town of Bamberg A stone cathedral with two towers on the west façade and two towers flanking the choir, all four towers are topped with slender, pointed metal roofs. GermanyBamberg,
7002142000000000000142 (350) 1993 In 1007, Bamberg became the center of a dioesce that was intended to help spread Christianity to the Slavs. During the 12th century the Bishops of Bamberg began a program of monumental public construction. The architecture that developed influenced construction in northern Germany and Hungary. In the 18th century it became a center of the Enlightenment when writers such as Hegel and Hoffmann settled in the town.[134]
Upper Middle Rhine Valley A river winds between high cliffs and hills, with a castle in the midground. GermanyRhineland-Palatinate,
(ii), (iv), (v)
700427250000000000027,250 (67,300) 2002 A 65 km (40 mi) stretch of the Middle Rhine Valley in Germany. The region is home to many castles, historic towns and vineyards and has been an inspirition for many writers, artists and composers.[135]
Vézelay, Church and Hill A grey stone church with a tower on the right side of the building. FranceVézelay,
(i), (vi)
7002183000000000000183 (450) 1979 The Benedictine abbey of Vézelay has existed since the 9th century and has been an important pilgrimage site since that time. Bernard of Clairvaux preached the crowd into a frenzy to start the Second Crusade in 1146 at Vézelay. Leaders in the Third Crusade Richard the Lion-Hearted and Philip II of France assembled at the abbey before they left on the Crusade.[136]
Völklingen Ironworks View from a train of numerous smoke stacks, tanks and pipes. GermanyVölklingen,
(ii), (iv)
1994 The recently closed ironworks are the only intact example in western Europe and North America of an intact ironworks built in the 19th and 20th centuries.[137]
Wachau Cultural Landscape A large oranate church with an enclosed forecourt.  The west façade is topped by two towers and the transept crossing is topped by a large round tower.  The entire building is decorated with horizontal white and yellow bands. AustriaWachau,
(ii), (iv)
700418387000000000018,387 (45,440) 2000 The Wachau is a 40 km (25 mi) long valley along the Danube river between Melk and Krems. The valley was settled in prehistoric times and has been an important region since then. It is home to a number of historic towns, villages, monasteries, castles and ruins.[138]
The Wadden Sea A map showing the coast of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The land is green, the Wadden Sea is dark blue and the ocean is light blue. Germany Germany*,
(viii), (ix), (x)
7005968393000000000968,393 (2,392,950) 2009 The Wadden Sea contains the Dutch Wadden Sea Conservation Area and the German Wadden Sea National Parks of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. The coast line is generally flat and has may mudflats, marshes and dunes. The site covers two-thirds of the entire Wadden Sea and is home to many plant and animal species. It is a breeding ground for up to 12 millions birds annually and supports more than 10 percent of the population of 29 species.[139]
Wartburg Castle A castle perched along the edge of a wooded hill. The castle has grown in several stages and consists of sections in dark stone, lighter stone, white plaster and half-timber. GermanyEisenach,
(iii), (vi)
1999 Wartburg Castle is located on a 410 m (1230 ft) precipice above Eisenach. It expanded in several sections and only a few of the medieval structures still remain. The castle was rebuilt in the 19th century to its present appearance. Martin Luther translated the New Testament into German while in exile at Wartburg.[140]
Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church Neo-gothic Westminister palace and Big Ben clock tower stand above a river and bridge. United KingdomLondon, England,
 United Kingdom
(i), (ii), (iv)
700110000000000000010 (25) 1987 The site has been involved in the administration of England since the 11th century, and later the United Kingdom. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror, all English and British monarchs have been crowned at Westminster Abbey. Westminster Palace, home to the British Parliament, is an example of Gothic Revival architecture; St Margaret's Church is the palace's parish church, and although it pre-dates the palace and was built in the 11th century, it has been rebuilt since.[141][142][143]
Würzburg Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square An ornate building on the left side of the picture. In the midground the center of the building projects out, with columns surrounding the main entrance. The right side of the picture is covered in gardens. GermanyWürzburg,
(i), (iv)
700115000000000000015 (37) 1981 The large and ornate Baroque palace was created under the patronage of the prince-bishops Lothar Franz and Friedrich Carl von Schönborn. It is one of the largest palaces in Germany.[144]
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex A orange metal tower with several flywheels above a building with Zollverein written in golden gothic script letters. GermanyEssen,
(ii), (iii)
2001 The Zollverein industrial complex in Nordrhein-Westfalen contains all the equipment of a historic coal mine which started operation about 150 years ago. Some of the 20th century buildings are also notable.[145]

See also


  1. ^ "Number of World Heritage Properties by region".  
  2. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". Geographical region and composition of each region.  
  3. ^ "Number of World Heritage properties inscribed each Year".  
  4. ^ a b "The Criteria for Selection".  
  5. ^ a b c d "World Heritage List Nominations".  
  6. ^ a b "World Heritage in Danger".  
  7. ^ "Cologne Cathedral (Germany), Djoudj Bird Sanctuary (Senegal), Ichkeul National Park (Tunisia), and Hampi (India) removed from List of World Heritage in Danger".  
  8. ^ "World Heritage Committee threatens to remove Dresden Elbe Valley (Germany) from World Heritage List".  
  9. ^ "World Heritage Committee keeps Dresden Elbe Valley on UNESCO World Heritage List, urging an end to building of bridge".  
  10. ^ "Dresden is deleted from UNESCO’s World Heritage List".  
  11. ^ "Aachen Cathedral".  
  12. ^ "Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch".  
  13. ^ "Abbey Church of Saint-Savin sur Gartempe".  
  14. ^ "Amiens Cathedral".  
  15. ^ "Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne".  
  16. ^ "Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments".  
  17. ^ "Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau".  
  18. ^ "Droogmakerij de Beemster (Beemster Polder)".  
  19. ^ "Belfries of Belgium and France".  
  20. ^ "Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair".  
  21. ^ "Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe".  
  22. ^ "Berlin Modernism Housing Estates".  
  23. ^ "Blaenavon Industrial Landscape".  
  24. ^ "Blenheim Palace".  
  25. ^ "Bordeaux, Port of the Moon".  
  26. ^ "Bourges Cathedral".  
  27. ^ "Canal du Midi".  
  28. ^ "Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church".  
  29. ^ Church of St Martin,  
  30. ^ St Augustine's Abbey, Pastscape, retrieved 2009-08-16 
  31. ^ "Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd".  
  32. ^ Liddiard (2005), p. 9.
  33. ^ "Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl".  
  34. ^ "Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Former Abbey of Saint-Rémi and Palace of Tau, Reims".  
  35. ^ "The Causses and the Cévennes".  
  36. ^ "Chartres Cathedral".  
  37. ^ "La Chaux-de-Fonds / Le Locle, Watchmaking Town Planning".  
  38. ^ "Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay".  
  39. ^ "City of Bath".  
  40. ^ "City of Graz – Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg".  
  41. ^ "City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications".  
  42. ^ "Classical Weimar".  
  43. ^ "Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg".  
  44. ^ "Cologne Cathedral Number 1 Attraction" (PDF) (Press release). Cologne Tourist Board. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  45. ^ "Cologne Cathedral".  
  46. ^ "Convent of St Gall".  
  47. ^ "Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape".  
  48. ^ "Defence Line of Amsterdam".  
  49. ^ "Derwent Valley Mills".  
  50. ^ Derwent Valley Mills Partnership (2000), pp. 30–31, 96.
  51. ^ "Dorset and East Devon Coast".  
  52. ^ "Durham Castle and Cathedral".  
  53. ^ "Episcopal City of Albi".  
  54. ^ "Fagus Factory in Alfeld".  
  55. ^ "Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape".  
  56. ^ "Flemish Béguinages".  
  57. ^ "Fortifications of Vauban".  
  58. ^ "The Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs, La Louvière and Le Roeulx (Hainault)".  
  59. ^ "Frontiers of the Roman Empire".  
  60. ^ "Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz".  
  61. ^ "Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast".  
  62. ^ "La Grand-Place, Brussels".  
  63. ^ "Gulf of Porto: Calanche of Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve".  
  64. ^ "Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape".  
  65. ^ "Hanseatic City of Lübeck".  
  66. ^ "Heart of Neolithic Orkney".  
  67. ^ "Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge".  
  68. ^ "Historic Centre of Brugge".  
  69. ^ "Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg".  
  70. ^ "Historic Centre of Vienna".  
  71. ^ "Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar".  
  72. ^ "Ironbridge Gorge".  
  73. ^ "Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion".  
  74. ^ "Mill Network at Kinderdijk-Elshout".  
  75. ^ "Lavaux, Vineyard Terraces".  
  76. ^ "Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret".  
  77. ^ "Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City".  
  78. ^ "The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes".  
  79. ^ "Maritime Greenwich".  
  80. ^ "Maulbronn Monastery Complex".  
  81. ^ "Messel Pit Fossil Site".  
  82. ^ "Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar and Upper Harz Water Management System".  
  83. ^ "Monastic Island of Reichenau".  
  84. ^ "Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay".  
  85. ^ "Monte San Giorgio".  
  86. ^ "Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin".  
  87. ^ "Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski".  
  88. ^ "Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes (Mons)".  
  89. ^ "New Lanark".  
  90. ^ "Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai".  
  91. ^ "Old City of Bern".  
  92. ^ "Old and New Towns of Edinburgh".  
  93. ^ "Old Town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof".  
  94. ^ "Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn".  
  95. ^ "Palace and Park of Fontainebleau".  
  96. ^ "Palace and Park of Versailles".  
  97. ^ "Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin".  
  98. ^ "Paris, Banks of the Seine".  
  99. ^ "Pilgrimage Church of Wies".  
  100. ^ "Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance in Nancy".  
  101. ^ "Plantin-Moretus House-Workshops-Museum Complex".  
  102. ^ "Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal".  
  103. ^ "Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct)".  
  104. ^ "Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps".  
  105. ^ "Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley".  
  106. ^ "Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany".  
  107. ^ "Provins, Town of Medieval Fairs".  
  108. ^ "Pyrénées - Mont Perdu".  
  109. ^ "Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes".  
  110. ^ "Rietveld Schröder House".  
  111. ^ "Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier".  
  112. ^ "Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the "Triumphal Arch" of Orange".  
  113. ^ "Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France".  
  114. ^ "Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew".  
  115. ^ "From the Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains to the Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans, the Production of Open-pan Salt".  
  116. ^ "Saltaire".  
  117. ^ "Schokland and Surroundings".  
  118. ^ "Semmering railway".  
  119. ^ "Seventeenth-century canal ring area of Amsterdam inside the Singelgracht".  
  120. ^ "Skellig Michael".  
  121. ^ "Speyer Cathedral".  
  122. ^ "St Kilda".  
  123. ^ Benvie (2000).
  124. ^ "St Mary's Cathedral and St Michael's Church at Hildesheim".  
  125. ^ "Stoclet House".  
  126. ^ "Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites".  
  127. ^ "Strasbourg – Grande île".  
  128. ^ "Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey".  
  129. ^ "Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch".  
  130. ^ "Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona".  
  131. ^ "Three Castles of Bellinzona".  
  132. ^ "Tower of London".  
  133. ^ "Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen".  
  134. ^ "Town of Bamberg".  
  135. ^ "Upper Middle Rhine Valley".  
  136. ^ "Vézelay, Church and Hill".  
  137. ^ "Völklingen Ironworks".  
  138. ^ "Wachau Cultural Landscape".  
  139. ^ "The Wadden Sea".  
  140. ^ "Wartburg Castle".  
  141. ^ "Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church".  
  142. ^ "History". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  143. ^ Thornbury (1878), p. 567.
  144. ^ "Würzburg Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square".  
  145. ^ "Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen".  
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