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List of heads of state of Pakistan

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List of heads of state of Pakistan

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Pakistan
Constitution

This is a list of the heads of state of Pakistan, from the foundation of Pakistan in 1947 to the present day.

From 1947 to 1956 the head of state under the Indian Independence Act 1947 was the monarch, who was the same person as the monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other Dominions of the Commonwealth of Nations. The monarch was represented in Pakistan by the Governor-General. Pakistan became a republic under the Constitution of 1956 and the monarch and Governor-General were replaced by a ceremonial President.

Monarch (1947–1956)

The succession to the throne of Pakistan was the same as the succession to the throne of the United Kingdom, governed by the Act of Settlement 1701.

Monarch Reign Royal House Prime Minister(s)
# Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
1 King George VI
(1895–1952)
15 August 1947 6 February 1952 4 years, 175 days House of Windsor Ali Khan
Nazimuddin
2 Queen Elizabeth II
(1926–)
6 February 1952 23 March 1956 4 years, 46 days House of Windsor Nazimuddin
Bogra
Ali

Governors-General

The Governor-General was the representative of the monarch in Pakistan and exercised most of the powers of the monarch. The Governor-General was appointed for an indefinite term, serving at the pleasure of the monarch. After the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Governor-General was appointed solely on the advice of the Cabinet of Pakistan without the involvement of the British government. In the event of a vacancy the Chief Justice served as Officer Administering the Government.

Status
  Denotes Chief Justice acting as Officer Administering the Government
Governor-General Term of office Monarch(s) Prime Minister(s)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(1876–1948)
15 August 1947 11 September 1948
(Died in Office)
1 year, 27 days George VI Liaquat Ali Khan
2 Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin
(1894–1964)
11 September 1948 17 October 1951 3 years, 33 days George VI
3 Malik Ghulam Muhammad
(1895–1956)
17 October 1951 7 August 1955 3 years, 294 days George VI
Elizabeth II
4 Major-General Iskander Mirza
(1899–1969)
7 August 1955 23 March 1956 229 days Elizabeth II

First Republic (1956–1958)

Under the 1956 Constitution, the first constitution of the Republic of Pakistan, the President replaced the monarch as ceremonial head of state. The President was elected by Electoral College for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Speaker of the National Assembly served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Speaker of the National Assembly acting as President
President Term of office Political party Prime Minister(s)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Major-General Iskander Mirza
(1899–1969)
23 March 1956 27 October 1958
(Deposed)
2 years, 218 days Republican Party

Military rule (1958–1971)

General Ayub Khan led a coup d'état which overthrown the President Mirza and his government. In 1962 there was a new Constitution which the President was given executive powers. The President was elected by the public for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Speaker of the National Assembly served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Speaker of the National Assembly acting as President
Head of State Term of Office Military
# Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Duration
Field Marshal Ayub Khan
(1907–1974)
27 October 1958 8 June 1962 10 years, 149 days Military
2
8 June 1962 25 March 1969
(Resigned)
Pakistan Muslim League (C)
3 General Yahya Khan
(1907–1974)
23 March 1969 20 December 1971
(Resigned)
2 years, 272 days Military

Second Republic (1971–1977)

Military rule ended in Pakistan in 1971 after the 1971 War and the rules of the President was the same as the 1962 Constitution. Under the 1973 Constitution, the third and current constitution of the Republic of Pakistan, the President is the ceremonial head of state. The President was elected by Electoral College for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
President Term of office Political party Prime Minister(s)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
4 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
(1928–1979)
20 December 1971 13 August 1977
(Resigned)
6 year, 236 days Pakistan Peoples Party
5 Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
(1904–1982)
14 August 1973 16 September 1978
(Resigned)
5 years, 33 days Pakistan Peoples Party

Military rule (1978–1988)

General Zia led a coup d'état which overthrown the Prime Minister Bhutto and his government. In 1978 Haq was given the presidency. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
Head of State Term of Office Military
# Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Duration
6 General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
(1924–1988)
16 September 1978 17 August 1988
(Died in Office)
9 years, 336 days Military

Third Republic (1988–2001)

Military rule ended in Pakistan in 1988 after the Death of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and the civilian government was restored. There was two periods of Semi-presidential rule, 1988–1993 and 1999–2007 and Parliamentary republic rule 1993–1997. In 1999 a coup d'état deposed Nawaz Sharif and his government, but the President was still in power until 2001. The President was elected by Electoral College for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
President Term of office Political party Prime Minister(s)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
7 Ghulam Ishaq Khan
(1915–2006)
17 August 1988 13 December 1988 4 years, 335 days Independent
13 December 1988 18 July 1993
(Resigned)
Wasim Sajjad
(1941–)
18 July 1993 14 November 1993 119 days Pakistan Muslim League (N)
8 Farooq Leghari
(1940–2010)
14 November 1993 2 December 1997
(Resigned)
4 years, 18 days Pakistan Muslim League (N)
Wasim Sajjad
(1941–)
2 December 1997 1 January 1998 30 days Pakistan Muslim League (N)
9 Muhammad Rafiq Tarar
(1929–)
1 January 1998 20 June 2001
(Resigned)
3 years, 170 days Pakistan Muslim League (N)

Military rule (2001–2008)

General Pervez Musharraf led a coup d'état which overthrew Prime Minister Sharif and his government. In 2001 Haq was given the presidency. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
Head of State Term of Office Military
# Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Duration
General Pervez Musharraf
(1943–)
20 June 2001 6 October 2007 6 years, 296 days Military
10
6 October 2007 8 August 2008
(Resigned)
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)

Fourth Republic

Military rule ended in Pakistan in 2008 after the resignation Pervez Musharraf and the civilian government was restored. The President was elected by Electoral College for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
President Term of office Political party Prime Minister(s)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
Muhammad Mian Soomro
(1950–)
18 August 2008 9 September 2008 22 days Pakistan Muslim League (Q)
11 Asif Ali Zardari
(1955–)
9 September 2008 8 September 2013 4 years, 364 days Pakistan Peoples Party
12 Mamnoon Hussain
(1940–)
9 September 2013 Incumbent 2 years, 133 days
(as of 20 January 2016)
Pakistan Muslim League (N)

Living former heads of state

Name Term/Reign Office Date of birth
Elizabeth II 1952–1956 Queen of Pakistan 21 April 1926
Muhammad Rafiq Tarar 1998–2001 President of Pakistan 2 November 1929
Pervez Musharraf 2001–2008 President of Pakistan 11 August 1943
Asif Ali Zardari 2008–2013 President of Pakistan 26 July 1955
Wasim Sajjad 1993
1997–1998
Acting President 30 March 1941
Muhammad Mian Soomro 2008 Acting President 19 August 1950

External links

  • World Statesmen – Pakistan
  • Rulers.org – Pakistan
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