World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Abessive case

Article Id: WHEBN0000042846
Reproduction Date:

Title: Abessive case  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ergative case, Grammatical case, Delative case, Distributive case, Temporal case
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Abessive case

In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated ABE or ABESS), caritive and privative (abbreviated PRIV) are names for a grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun. In English, the corresponding function is expressed by the preposition without or by the suffix -less.

The name abessive is derived from Latin abesse "to be away/absent", and is especially used in reference to Uralic languages. The name caritive is derived from Latin carere "to lack", and is especially used in reference to Caucasian languages. The name privative is derived from Latin privare "to deprive".

Contents

  • In Afro-Asiatic Languages 1
    • Somali 1.1
  • In Australian languages 2
    • Martuthunira 2.1
  • In Caucasian languages 3
  • In Uralic languages 4
    • Finnish 4.1
    • Estonian 4.2
    • Skolt Sami 4.3
    • Inari Sami 4.4
    • Other Sami languages 4.5
    • Hungarian 4.6
  • In Turkic Languages 5
    • Bashkir 5.1
    • Turkish 5.2
    • Azeribaijani 5.3
    • Chuvash 5.4
    • Kyrgyz 5.5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

In Afro-Asiatic Languages

Somali

In the Somali language, the abessive case is marked by -laa or -la and dropping all but the first syllable on certain words. For example:

jeceylaa "love"
jeelaa "loveless"
dar "clothes"
dharla'aan "clothesless," i.e., naked

In Australian languages

Martuthunira

In Martuthunira, the privative case is formed with two suffixes, -wirriwa and -wirraa. What determines which suffix is used in a given situation is unclear.
Parla-wirraa nganarna.
money-PRIV 1PL.EX
We've got no money.

In Caucasian languages

In Uralic languages

Finnish

In the Finnish language, the abessive case is marked by -tta for back vowels and -ttä for front vowels according to vowel harmony. For example:

raha "money"
rahatta "without money"

An equivalent construction exists using the word ilman and the partitive:

ilman rahaa "without money"

or, more uncommonly:

rahaa ilman "without money"

The abessive case of nouns is rarely used in writing and even less in speech, although some abessive forms are more common than their equivalent ilman forms:

tuloksetta "unsuccessfully, fruitlessly"
Itkin syyttä. "I cried for no reason."

The abessive is, however, commonly used in nominal forms of verbs (formed with the affix -ma- / -mä-), such as puhu-ma-tta "without speaking", osta-ma-tta "without buying," välittä-mä-ttä "without caring:"

Juna jäi tulematta. "The train didn't show up."

This form can often be replaced by using the negative form of the verb:

Juna ei tullut.

It is possible to occasionally hear what is considered wrong usage of the abessive in Finnish, where the abessive and ilman forms are combined:

ilman rahatta

There is debate as to whether this is interference from Estonian.

Estonian

Estonian also uses the abessive, which is marked by -ta in both the singular and the plural:

(ilma) autota "without a car" (the preposition ilma "without" is optional)

Unlike in Finnish, the abessive is commonly used in both written and spoken Estonian.

The nominal forms of verbs are marked with the affix -ma- and the abessive marker -ta:

Rong jäi tulemata. "The train didn't show up."

Tallinn has a pair of bars that play on the use of the comitative and abessive, the Nimeta baar[1] (the nameless bar) and the Nimega baar[2] (the bar with a name).

Skolt Sami

The abessive marker for nouns in Skolt Sámi is -tää in both the singular and the plural:

Riâkkum veä'rtää. "I cried for no reason."

The abessive-like non-finite verb form (converb) is -ǩâni or -kani:

Son vuõ'lji domoi mainsteǩâni mõ'nt leäi puättam. "He/she went home without saying why he/she had come."

Unlike in Finnish, the abessive is still commonly used in Skolt Sámi.

Inari Sami

The abessive marker for nouns in Inari Sámi is -táá. The corresponding non-finite verb form is -hánnáá, -hinnáá or -hennáá.

Other Sami languages

The abessive is not used productively in the Western Sámi languages, although it may occur as a cranberry morpheme.

Hungarian

In Hungarian, the abessive case is marked by -talan for back vowels and -telen for front vowels according to vowel harmony. Sometimes, with certain roots, the suffix becomes -tlan or -tlen. For example:

pénz "money"
pénztelen "without money"
haza "home(land)"
hazátlan "(one) without a homeland"

There is also the postposition nélkül, which also means without, but is not meant for physical locations.[3]

Cukor nélkül iszom a teát. "I drink tea withot sugar."
Testvér nélkül éltem. "I lived without siblings."
Eljöttél Magyarországra a testvéred nélkül? "Did you come to Hungary without your sibling?"

In Turkic Languages

Bashkir

In Bashkir the suffix is -һыҙ/-һеҙ (-hïð/-hĭð).

Turkish

The suffix -siz (variations: -sız, -suz, -süz) is used in Turkish.

Ex: evsiz (ev = house, houseless/homeless), barksız, görgüsüz (görgü = good manners, ill-bred), yurtsuz.

Azeribaijani

The same suffix is used in the Azeribaijani language.

Chuvash

In Chuvash the suffix is -сĂр.

Kyrgyz

In Kyrgyz the suffix is -сIз.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.nimetabaar.ee/English.html Nimeta baar, English page
  2. ^ http://www.baarid.ee/en/NimegaBar/programm.php Nimega baar
  3. ^ http://www.hungarianreference.com/postpositions-prepositions-personal-pronomial-before-after-between-instead-without.aspx
  •  

External links

  • Glossary of linguistic terms - What is abessive case?
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.