World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Aleatory

Article Id: WHEBN0021037885
Reproduction Date:

Title: Aleatory  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Constrained writing, Aleksandar Obradović, Randomness
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Aleatory

For the legal term, see Aleatory contract.

Aleatoricism is the incorporation of chance into the process of creation, especially the creation of art or media. The word derives from the Latin word alea, the rolling of dice. It should not be confused with either improvisation or indeterminacy.[1]

Literature

Charles Hartman discusses several methods of automatic generation of poetry in his book The Virtual Muse.[2]

Art

A small group of international artists have formed a group called MAMA or the Movement of Aleatoric Modern Artists, a worldwide collaboration of chance-based artists who promote the principles and techniques of aleatoric methods in the execution of contemporary art in modern times.

Music

Main article: Aleatoric music

The term aleatory music was first coined by Werner Meyer-Eppler in 1955 to describe a course of sound events that is "determined in general but depends on chance in detail".[3] When his article was published in English, the translator mistakenly rendered his German noun Aleatorik as an adjective, and so inadvertently created a new English word, "aleatoric".[4] Pierre Boulez applied the term in this sense to his own pieces to distinguish them from the indeterminate music of John Cage.[5] While Boulez purposefully composed his pieces to allow the performer certain liberties with regard to the sequencing and repetition of parts, Cage often composed through the application of chance operations without allowing the performer liberties. Another prolific composer of aleatory music was Karlheinz Stockhausen.[6]

Aleatoric techniques are sometimes used in contemporary film music. Examples can be found in John Williams's scores as well as, for example, Mark Snow's music for X-Files: Fight the Future.[7]

Film

In film-making, there are several avant-garde examples; one is Allison Knowles' computer poem "House of Dust",[8]

Fred Camper's SN (1984, first screening 2002)[9] uses coin-flipping for one section to determine which three of 16 possible reels to screen and what order they should go in (3360 permutations).

Film scholar Barry Salt directed the 1971 film Six Reels of Film to Be Shown in Any Order,[10][11] where the projectionist was provided with a customized die to roll to determine the reel order.

See also

References

pl:Aleatoryzm
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.