World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Archaic Southwest

Article Id: WHEBN0003213407
Reproduction Date:

Title: Archaic Southwest  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Archaic period in North America, Hawkins Preserve, Archaeology of the Americas, Lee's Ferry, History of North America
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Archaic Southwest

The Archaic Southwest was the culture of the southwestern United States between 6500 BC and 200 AD (approximately).

The Paleo-Indian tradition before that dates from 10,500 BC to 7500 BC. The Southwestern United States during the Archaic time frame can be identified or defined culturally in two separate ways:

  1. Agriculture, pottery styles and public architecture – People of the southwest had a variety of subsistence strategies, all using their own specific techniques. Crops included maize, beans, and squash. The earliest known maize cultivation in the Southwest is about 2100 BC. Settlements grew larger as agriculture became more important in subsistence.[1]
  2. The absence of Formal Social Stratification, large cities, writing, and major architecture.

Archaic cultural traditions include:

  1. Archaic–Early Basketmaker Era (7000 BC – 1500 BC)
  2. Sand-Dieguito-Pinto (6500 BC – 200 AD)
  3. Oshara (5500 BC – 600 AD)
  4. The Cochise (before 5000 BC – 200 BC)
  5. Chihuahua (6000 BC – 250 AD)
  6. Oasisamerica cultures (3500 BC – 1300 AD).

Many contemporary cultural traditions exist within the southwest, but there are four major ones.

  1. Yuman-speaking peoples, including the Paipai, Havasupai, Yavapai, Walapai, Mohave, Quechan, Maricopa, Tipai-Ipai, Cocopa, and Kiliwa people They inhabit the Colorado River valley, the uplands, and Baja California.
  2. O'odham peoples, including the Akimel O'odham and Tohono O'odham. They inhabit Southern Arizona, and northern Sonora.
  3. Pueblo peoples: They inhabit the Rio Grande valley in New Mexico and areas to the west in Arizona and New Mexico.
  4. Southern Athabaskan: Apache and the Navajo peoples: Their ancestral roots trace back to Athabaskan-speaking peoples in Canada and eastern Alaska. They probably entered the southwest from the 12th to 16th centuries.[2]

See also


  1. ^ Herr, Sarah H. "The Latest Research on the Earliest Farmers." Archaeology Southwest. Vol. 23, No. 1, Winter 2009, p. 1
  2. ^ "Navajo." Encyclopedia Britannica. 10 April 2012.


  • Fagan, Brian M., "Ancient North America". London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 2005
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.