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Arthur Dove

Arthur Garfield Dove
Born (1880-08-02)August 2, 1880
Canandaigua, New York
Died November 23, 1946(1946-11-23) (aged 66)
Nationality American
Known for Modernism, Abstract art

Arthur Garfield Dove (August 2, 1880 – November 23, 1946) was an American artist. An early American modernist, he is often considered the first American abstract painter.[1] Arthur Dove used a wide range of media, sometimes in unconventional combinations to produce his abstractions and his abstract landscapes. Me and the Moon[2] from 1937 is a good example of an Arthur Dove abstract landscape and has been referred to as one of the culminating works of his career.[3] Dove did a series of experimental collage works in the 1920s.[4] He also experimented with techniques, combining paints like hand mixed oil or tempera over a wax emulsion as exemplified in Dove's 1938 painting Tanks, in the collection of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.[5]


  • Youth and education 1
  • Europe 2
  • Stieglitz and New York 3
  • Patronage from Duncan Phillips 4
  • Dove and Helen Torr 5
    • Arthur Dove-Helen Torr Cottage 5.1
  • Later life and death 6
  • Selected works 7
  • Selected list of works 8
  • Exhibitions 9
  • References 10
  • Other sources 11
  • External links 12

Youth and education

Arthur Dove, Nature Symbolized No. 2, c.1911,pastel on paper, 45.8 x 55 cm, Art Institute of Chicago

Dove was born to a wealthy family in [6][7] Arthur Dove grew up loving the outdoors on a farm; however, his father was a very successful businessman who owned a brickyard (along with city real estate) and expected his son to become wealthy.[8] Dove's childhood interests included playing the piano, painting lessons, and being a pitcher on a high school baseball team.[8] As a child, he was befriended by a neighbor, Newton Weatherby, a naturalist who helped form Dove's appreciation of nature. Weatherby was also an amateur painter who gave Dove pieces of leftover canvas to work with.

Dove attended Hobart College and Cornell University, and graduated from Cornell in 1903.[1] Dove was chosen to illustrate the Cornell University yearbook. Dove's illustrations proved popular because they brought life to the characters and situations they depicted.[8] After graduation, he became a well known commercial illustrator in New York City, working for Harper's Magazine and The Saturday Evening Post.[1] Dove's parents were upset at his choice to become an artist, instead of a more profitable profession that his Ivy League degree would have enabled, and they would prove unsympathetic to the difficulties that came with a career in art.[9]


Arthur Dove, Cow, 1914, pastel on canvas, 45.1 x 54.6 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

In 1907, Dove and his first wife, Florence, traveled to France and moved to Paris, then the world's art capital.[9] They made short trips to both Italy and Spain.[6] While there, Dove joined a group of experimental artists from the United States, which included [6] His son, William C. Dove, was born on July 4, 1909.[7]

Stieglitz and New York

When Dove returned to America in 1909 he met [6] They found their common ground in the idea that art forms should embody modern spiritual values not materialism and tradition.[9] With Stieglitz's support, Dove produced what are known as the first purely abstract paintings to come out of America. Dove’s works were based on natural forms and he referred to his type of abstraction as “extraction” where, in essence, he extracted the essential forms of a scene from nature.

Dove exhibited his works at Stieglitz’s [6] Dove used a wide range of media over the course of his career, sometimes in unconventional combinations. During the 1920s Dove made many works on paper such as the pastel on paper, Nature Symbolized (or Reefs) from 1924. As stated above Dove did experimental collage works in the 1920s in works like The Critic, 1925, and The Intellectual 1925;[11][12] and he experimented with techniques, combining paints like oil and/or tempera over a wax emulsion. Tanks, 1938 is an example of oil over a wax emulsion; commenting about Tanks, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts says: Set off by a halo of pale gray, the quivering structures almost seem to dematerialize and merge into the surrounding scenery, yet at the same time, they retain their hulking forms. [5]

The Critic (1925), Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.[12] Dove did a series of experimental collage works in the 1920s.

Patronage from Duncan Phillips

In spite of support from various members of the art community, it was often necessary for Dove to earn money through farming, fishing and commercial illustration. Dove’s most consistent supporter was [6] Phillips also purchased “Huntington Harbor 1.”[13] Dove produced about twenty-five assemblages between 1924 and 1930.[7]

Dove and Helen Torr

Tanks (1938), oil over wax emulsion, Boston Museum of Fine Arts

He spent a seven-year period on a houseboat called Mona with Helen Torr, known as "Reds" for the fiery color of her hair. Torr was also a painter. Although the psychological consequences benefited Dove’s art, his life with Torr was difficult. Florence Dove never cared about Dove's passion for art, and was more socially inclined. After 25 years of marriage, Dove left Florence.[6] Florence would not grant him a divorce and flatly refused to let him see his son.[6] When he departed, he left behind everything except his copies of O'Keeffe, in terms of having an "unbridled love of pure, hot color."[14]

Arthur Dove-Helen Torr Cottage

Arthur Dove-Helen Torr Cottage
Arthur Dove is located in New York
Arthur Dove
Location 30 Centershore Rd., Centerport, New York
Area less than one acre
Built 1938
Architectural style Late Victorian
Governing body Private
NRHP Reference # 99001682[15]
Added to NRHP January 28, 2000

In July 1924 when Arthur Dove and Helen Torr sailed into Huntington Harbor aboard their 42-foot yawl, Mona, they could not have anticipated the extent to which Long Island’s North Shore would inspire some of their greatest paintings. They lived in Halesite until the Great Depression when both Dove and Torr moved back to the Dove's estate located in Geneva. Longing to be back on Long Island, in 1938 they moved back into their first home, a former post office and general store on Center Shore Road in Centerport, New York. They purchased the house for $980.00. Their tiny, one-room cottage stood on the edge of the Titus Mill Pond. Almost immediately, Dove was found to have pneumonia; he eventually suffered from a heart attack and was diagnosed with a debilitating kidney disorder. In terrible health for the remainder of his days, he lived quietly, finally about to devote himself entirely to painting, and focusing on the inspiration of his surroundings and his home. Some of the most powerful paintings of his career, including Indian Summer, were painted in Centerport. Red remained in the house on the millpond but never painted again but after her death in 1967, both Red and Dove had their work hung together in The Museum of Modern Art in 1979.[9][16]

The Arthur Dove-Helen Torr Cottage was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2000.[15]

Later life and death

Dove suffered from heart disease and [6] Arthur Dove died on November 23, 1946 following a second heart attack and kidney failure. In October, just before his death, Dove wrote to Phillips for the last time:

You have no idea what sending on those checks to me at this time. After fighting for an idea all your life I realize that your backing has saved it for me and meant to thank you with all my heart and soul for what you have done. It has been marvelous. So many letters have been written and not mailed and owing to having been in bed a great deal of time this summer, the paintings were about all I could muster up enough energy to do what I considered the best of my ability. Just before Stieglitz’s death I took some paintings to him that I considered as having something new in the. He immediately walked right up to them and spoke of the new ideas. His intuition in that way was remarkable and I am so glad to have been allowed to live during his and your lifetimes. It has been a great privilege for which I am truly thankful.

Arthur Dove’s granddaughter is the interactive artist Toni Dove.

The Estate of Arthur Dove is represented by the Terry Dintenfass Gallery.[17]

Selected works

Selected list of works

  • 1910 Abstraction No. 1 - 6
  • 1911 Movement No. 1
  • 1911 Nature Symbolized
  • ca. 1911 Nature Symbolized, No. 2
  • 1911 - 2 Sails
  • ca. 1912 Plant Forms
  • ca. 1912 - 3 A Walk: Poplars
  • 1915 Plant Form
  • 1917 - 20 Gear
  • 1917 - 20 Thunderstorm
  • 1920 Dark Abstraction (Woods)
  • ca. 1921 Thunderstorm
  • 1923 Moon and Sea II
  • 1923 Chinese Music
  • 1924 Sunrise
  • 1924 "Huntington Harbor"
  • 1924 Starry Heavens
  • 1924 Nature Symbolized or Reefs
  • 1925 The Intellectual
  • 1925 Goin’ Fishin’
  • 1925 The Critic
  • 1926 Portrait of Alfred Stieglitz
  • 1927 George Gershwin, Rhapsody in Blue Part 1
  • 1928 "Snow and Water"
  • 1928 Composition
  • 1928 Sea Gull Motive (also known as Sea Thunder or The Wave)
  • 1929 "Alfie’s Delight"
  • 1929 "Silver Sun"
  • 1929 Foghorns
  • 1929 Wind (number 1)
  • 1929 Harbor in Light
  • 1929 Moth Dance
  • 1930 - ? Brick Barge with Landscape
  • 1931 Ice and Clouds
  • 1931 Fields of Grain as Seen from Train
  • 1931 Ferry Boat Wreck
  • 1931 Pine Tree
  • 1931 Two Forms
  • 1931 Abstract from Threshing Engine
  • 1931 Steam Boat - Northport
  • 1932 Gale
  • 1932 Dawn III
  • 1932 Sunday
  • ca. 1933 Sun Drawing Water
  • 1934 Trees
  • 1934 Trees II
  • 1934 Brickyard Shed
  • 1934 - ? Sowing Wheat
  • 1935 "Moon"
  • 1935 "Corn Crib"
  • 1935 Red Sun
  • 1935 " Cow #1"
  • 1935 Snowstorm
  • 1935 Barns
  • 1935 Tree I
  • 1936 Windy Morning
  • 1937 Me and the Moon
  • 1937 Happy Landscape
  • 1937 - ? Water Swirl, Canandaigua Outlet
  • 1938 "City Moon"
  • 1938 Shore Front
  • 1938 Tanks
  • 1938 Holbrook’s Bridge to the Northwest
  • 1938 Swing Music (Louis Armstrong)
  • 1939 Continuity
  • 1940 Abstract Still Life
  • 1940 Syosset
  • 1940 Black and White
  • 1941 Our House
  • 1941 Pyramid Formation
  • 1941 The Brothers #1 Honolulu Museum of Art
  • 1941 Landscape
  • 1942 The Brothers
  • 1943 Space Divided by Line Motive (U.S.A.)
  • 1943 Sun
  • 1943 Sand and Sea
  • 1936 - 44 Fire the Sauerkraut Factory, West X, New York
  • 1944 That Red One
  • 1944 High Noon
  • 1945 Figure 4
  • ca. 1946 Untitled (Abstraction)


  • 1940-1946 Untitled from Sketchbook “E” Arkansas Arts Center American
  • 1941 "Across the Road" oil on canvas Des Monies Art Center American
  • 1941 "Centerport Series #16" watercolor and gouac Hirshhorn Museum American
  • 1941 "Indian Summer" oil on canvas Heckscher Museum of Art
  • 1943 "Space Divided" by Line Motive oil on canvas Corcoran Gallery of Art American


  1. ^ a b c d e Roberts, Norma J., ed. (1988), The American Collections,  .
  2. ^ , The Phillips Collection, Washington DCMe and the Moon
  3. ^ Archives of American Art
  4. ^ Phillips Collection
  5. ^ a b Boston Museum of Fine Arts
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Morgan, Ann Lee (1984), Arthur Dove: Life and Work, with a Catalogue Raisonné,  .
  7. ^ a b c d Haskell, Barbara (1974), Arthur Dove,  .
  8. ^ a b c Newman, Sasha M. (1981), Arthur Dove and Duncan Phillips: Artist and Patron,  .
  9. ^ a b c d Depietro, Anne Cohen (1989), Arthur Dove and Helen Torr: The Huntington Years,  .
  10. ^ a b Balken, Debra Bricker (1997), Arthur Dove: A Retrospective,  .
  11. ^ MoMA
  12. ^ a b Whitney Museum of American Art
  13. ^ a b c Turner, Elizabeth Hutton (1995), In the American Grain: Dove, Hartley, Marin, O'Keeffe, and Stieglitz: The Stieglitz Circle at the Phillips Collection, Counterpoint,  .
  14. ^ Ann Landi (2006-07-01). "Reviews: New York; Julian Hatton / Elizabeth Harris Gallery". ARTnews. Retrieved 2010-01-01. unbridled love of pure, hot color, 
  15. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places.  
  16. ^ James Warren (n.d.). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Arthur Dove-Helen Torr Cottage".  
  17. ^ Terry Dintenfass, Inc.

Other sources

  • Raynor, Vivien (1983-10-16). "Out of History's Mists Comes Arthur Dove". The New York Times. Retrieved 2006-06-03. 
  • Harnsberger, R. Scott (2002), Four Artists of the Stieglitz Circle: A Sourcebook on Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, John Marin, and Max Weber, Greenwood Press,  .

External links

  • Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
  • Arthur G. Dove Biography: Hollis Taggart Galleries
  • Arthur and Helen Torr Dove papers online at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art
  • Arthur Dove (1880 - 1946) Artwork Images, Exhibitions, Reviews at
  • Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute 2009 exhibition "Dove/O'Keeffe: Circles of Influence"
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