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Title: Caenogastropoda  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005), Perunelidae, Peruneloidea, Freshwater snail, Vetigastropoda
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Temporal range: Carboniferous – Recent[1]:355
Various examples of Caenogastropoda
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
Cox, 1960[2]

Caenogastropoda (from Ancient Greek caeno- meaning "recent") is a taxonomic clade, a large diverse group which are mostly sea snails and other marine gastropod mollusks, but also includes some freshwater snails and some land snails.

Caenogastropoda contains many families of shelled marine molluscs including the periwinkles, cowries, wentletraps, moon snails, murexes, cone snails and turrids.

About 60% of all living gastropods belong to the Caenogastropoda.[3]

The clade Caenogastropoda is, based on optimal phylogenetic analysis, deemed monophyletic.[4]


  • Biology 1
  • Taxonomy 2
    • 1997 taxonomy 2.1
    • 2005 taxonomy 2.2
    • 2006 taxonomy 2.3
    • Latest views by the World Register of Marine Species 2.4
  • References 3
  • External links 4


The Caenogastropoda exhibit torsion and thus, are included in what was previously been called the Streptoneura (meaning twisted nerves), also known as Prosobranchia (meaning gills forward). Specifically, they are characterized by having only a single auricle in the heart and a single pair of gill leaflets, and are equivalent to the Monotocardia or Pectinobranchia of older authors.


The taxon Caenogastropoda was first established by Leslie Reginald Cox in 1960 as a superorder[5] but now sometimes it is retained as a clade. This group combines the older taxa Mesogastropoda and Stenoglossa from classification by Johannes Thiele[6] and is equivalent to the Monotocardia as defined by Mörch in 1865, as revised.

Caenogastropoda can be divided into two major groups based on the anatomy of the radula:

1997 taxonomy

Ponder & Lindberg, 1997 and others since (e.g. Vega et al., 2006;[7] Harzhauser, 2004;[8] and Pina, 2002.[9]) show Caenogastropoda as a superorder, following the sense of Cox, 1960. More recently Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005 revised Caenogastropoda as a clade.

2005 taxonomy

The following classification was laid out in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005):[6]

2006 taxonomy

Colgan et al. (2006)[10] provided further insight into the phylogeny of Caenogastropoda.[2]

Latest views by the World Register of Marine Species

Sorbeoconcha should be considered an alternate representation of Caenogastropoda.

Sorbeoconcha should include [Cerithioidea + Campaniloidea + all Hypsogastropoda (i.e. the remaining Caenogastropoda)], see definition in Ponder & Lindberg, 1997: 225, not only [Cerithioidea + Campaniloidea] as suggested by the indent pattern in Bouchet & Rocroi. Neotaenioglossa Haller, 1892 suggested in Ruud Bank’s draft for Fauna Europaea is not retained because it would need severe emendation to remove Pyramidellids, Cerithioids, etc.. included in its original definition, and therefore would be too far from Haller's concept if it were to fit the concept of Sorbeoconcha. Although cladistically sound, the taxon Sorbeoconcha is skipped in the classification scheme because (1) ten years after its publication, the name still sounds unfamiliar to most and (2) it is not very helpful in the classification because it includes the bulk of Caenogastropoda (only keeping out small stem groups Abyssochrysidae, Provannidae, and the architaenioglossate taxa). This is not final, opinions are welcome.[11]


  1. ^ Ponder, W. F.; Colgan, D. J.; Healy, J.; Nützel, A.; Simone, L. R. L.; Strong, E. E. (2008). "Caenogastropoda". In Ponder, W. F. and Lindberg, D. L. Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca. Berkeley: U. California Press. pp. 331–383.  
  2. ^ a b Cox L. R. (1960). In: Moore R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part I., Mollusca 1, Gastropoda. The Geological Society of America, University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. xxiii + 351 pp., page 311.
  3. ^ Hayes K. A., Cowie R. H. & Thiengo S. C. (2009). "A global phylogeny of apple snails: Gondwanan origin, generic relationships, and the influence of outgroup choice (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98(1): 61-76. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01246.x.
  4. ^ Stephanie W. Aktipis, Gonzalo Giribet (2010), A phylogeny of Vetigastropoda and other “archaeogastropods”: re-organizing old gastropod clades, Invertebrate Biology > Vol 129 Issue 3; p. 220-240
  5. ^ Caenogastropoda, Paleobiology
  6. ^ a b  
  7. ^ F. J. Vega et al. 2006. El Espinal, a new plattenkalk facies locality from the Lower Cretaceous Sierra Madre Formation, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 23(3):323-333
  8. ^ Harzhauser M. (2004). "Oligocene gastropod faunas for the Eastern Mediterranean (Mesohellenic Trough/Greece and Esfahan-Sirjan Basin/Central Iran)". Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 248: 93-181.
  9. ^ A.Pina -Caenogastropoda
  10. ^ Colgan D. J., Ponder W. F., Beacham E. & Macaranas J. (2006). "Molecular phylogenetics of Caenogastropoda (Gastropoda: Mollusca)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42(3): 717-737. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.009 PDF
  11. ^ Gofas, S. (2013). Sorbeoconcha. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2013-06-28

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