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IPA for Irish

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IPA for Irish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Irish language pronunciations in WorldHeritage articles.

See Irish phonology for detailed discussion of the phonology of Irish.

Consonants
broad[1] slender[2] English approximations
IPA Example IPA Example
bain, scuab béal, cnáib boot; beautiful
d̪ˠ dorn, nead dearg, cuid do (but dental), though in Hiberno-English; dew
fós, graf
pholl
fíon, stuif
phríosún
fool; fuel
ɡ gasúr, bog ɟ geata, carraig goose; argue
ɣ dhorn
ghasúr
j dhearg
gheata
(no equivalent); yellow
h[3] Shasana, shean
thaisce, theanga
hata, na héisc
hand
k cáis, mac c ceist, mic coot; cute
l̪ˠ[4] labhair, balla l̠ʲ[4] leabhair, goilleadh filth; million
[4] fhlaith, bealach [4] fhleasc, goile pool; leaf
mór, am milis, im moot; mute
n̪ˠ[5] naoi, donna n̠ʲ[5] ní, bainne tenth; inch
[5] dona [5] bainis noon; new
ŋ ngasúr ɲ ngeata long; angular
poll, stop príosún, truip poor; pure
ɾˠ rí, cuairt, barr, cairr ɾʲ fhréamh, tirim rule (but tapped); real (but tapped)
Sasana, tús, speal ʃ sean, cáis soon; sheet
t̪ˠ taisce, ceart tír, beirt tool (but dental), thorn in Hiberno-English; tune
w[6] bhain, dubh
mhór, léamh
vóta
bhéal, sibh
mhilis, nimh
veidhlín
woo; view
x cháis, taoiseach ç cheist, deich loch (no lock–loch merger); hue (pronounced strongly)
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a mac trap
tá father
ɛ ceist best
mé, Gael pay
ɪ ith, duine kit
mín mean
ɔ olc, deoch cloth
bó, ceol roll
ʊ dubh, fliuch good
tú too
ə solas, milis sofa
[7] bia idea
[7] fuar truant
əi[7] saghas light
əu[7] leabhar about
Suprasegmentals
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable);
usually the first syllable except in Munster
ˌ Secondary stress (usually found only in compounds)

Comparison to other phonetic transcription schemes

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at WorldHeritage. For example, it is a longstanding tradition to leave velarized ("broad") consonants unmarked and mark palatalized ("slender") consonants with the prime, although this is not standard IPA usage.

This section compares the IPA system used at WorldHeritage (which is based on that used by Ailbhe Ní Chasaide in her description of Irish in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, ISBN 0-521-63751-1) with the system used in some other works.

IPA Ní Chasaide (1999)[8]
(Gweedore)
Quiggin (1906)[9]
(Glenties)
Breatnach (1947)[10]
(Ring)
Ó Sé (2000)[11]
(Dingle Peninsula)
Mhac an Fhailigh (1968)[12]
(Erris)
Ó Siadhail (1988)[13]
(Cois Fhairrge)
Foclóir Póca (1993)[14]
(Lárchanúint)
a a æ, α a a a æ:, a: a
æ α: a: ɑː a: ɑ: a:
b b b b b b
b′ b′ b′ b′ b′ b′
c c k′ k′ k′ k′ k′ k′
ç ç ç ç x′ ç x′ x′
d̪ˠ d̪ˠ d d d d d d
d̠ʲ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′
e e: e: e: e: e:
ɛ ɛ ɛ, e e e e e e
ə ə ə ə ə, ɪ ə ə ə
əi αi əi ai əi ai ai
əu au αu əu ou əu au au
f f f f f f
f′ f′ f′ f′ f′ f′
ɡ ɡ g g ɡ g g g
ɣ ɣ γ ɣ ɣ ɣ γ
h h h h, h′ h h h h
i i: i: i: i: i:
ɪ ɪ ï, i, y i i i i i
ia iːə i:ə
j j j j ɣ′ j ɣ′ γ′
ɟ ɟ g′ g′ ɡ′ g′ g′ g′
k k k k k k k k
l̪ˠ l̪ˠ L l l L L l
l l
l̠ʲ l̠ʲ L′ l′ l′ L′ L′ l′
l l′ l′ l′
m m m m m m
m′ m′ m′ m′ m′ m′
n̪ˠ n̪ˠ N n n N N n
n n n
n̠ʲ n̠ʲ N′ n′ n′ N′ N′ n′
n′ n′ n′
ɲ ɲ ɲ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′
ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ
o o:, ɔ: o: o: o: o:
ɔ ʌ ɔ, o̤ o o o o o
p p p p p p
p′ p′ p′ p′ p′ p′
ɾˠ ɾˠ r, R r r r r r
ɾʲ ɾʲ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′
s s s s s s
ʃ ɕ ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ s′ s′
t̪ˠ t̪ˠ t t t t t t
t̠ʲ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′
u u: u: u: u: u:
ʊ ɤ U u u u u u
ua uːə u:ə
v v′ v′ v′ w′ v′
w w w v v w w v
x x χ x x x x x

Notes

  1. ^ Irish makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ˠ›, are pronounced with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like RP and General American, but not in Hiberno-English. In Irish orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹a›, ‹o›, ‹u›. Note that the superscript character ‹ˠ› is not a capital "Y" but a Greek lowercase gamma, ‹γ›.
  2. ^ "Slender" (palatalized) consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ʲ›, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the ‹y› sound in yes. In Irish orthography, slender consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹e›, ‹i›.
  3. ^ /h/ is neither broad nor slender.
  4. ^ a b c d Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "l" sound. Most dialects have merged /l̪ˠ/ and /lˠ/ as /l̪ˠ/, and some have also merged /l̠ʲ/ and /lʲ/ as /lʲ/. Still others have merged /lˠ/ and /lʲ/ as /l/.
  5. ^ a b c d Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "n" sound. Most dialects have merged /n̪ˠ/ and /nˠ/ as [n̪ˠ], and some have also merged /n̠ʲ/ and /nʲ/ as [nʲ]. Still others have merged /nˠ/ and /nʲ/ as [n]. In parts of Munster, /n̠ʲ/ has merged with /ɲ/ in non-initial position.
  6. ^ Also /vˠ/ as in the word van for some positions in some dialects.
  7. ^ a b c d All Irish diphthongs have falling sonority; they could therefore more precisely be transliterated as iə̯, uə̯, əi̯, əu̯.
  8. ^ Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999). "Irish". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111–16.  
  9. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906). A Dialect of Donegal: Being the Speech of Meenawannia in the Parish of Glenties. Cambridge University Press. 
  10. ^ Breatnach, Risteard B. (1947). The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.  
  11. ^ Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000). Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish). Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann.  
  12. ^ Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968). The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.  
  13. ^ Ó Siadhail, Mícheál (1988). Learning Irish: An Introductory Self-tutor. New Haven: Yale University Press.  
  14. ^ Foclóir póca: English-Irish/Irish-English dictionary. Dublin: An Gúm. 1993.  
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