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International Terrorism Since 1945

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International Terrorism Since 1945

International Terrorism Since 1945 is a television propaganda series, shown on UKTV History from 5 January 2009.

Narrated by Robert Powell, it is shown in half-hour episodes at 5:00 pm and 5:30 pm and depicts a history of some major (and minor) terrorist groups since World War 2 and their activities.

Episode 1: Early Israeli Terrorism

Air date: 5 January

On 22 July 1946, a Zionist group Irgun, bombed the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, British Mandate of Palestine, killing 91 people.

Episode 2: The Al-Qaeda Menace

Air date: 5 January

On 11 September 2001, international Islamist group Al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger planes, and deliberately flew two of them into the World Trade Center, one into The Pentagon, and crashed the other in a field in Pennsylvania, killing 2,998 people. It took 105 minutes for both World Trade Center towers to collapse

Episode 3: IRA

Air date: 6 January

A brief history of Irish Republican terrorism.

Episode 4: Fatah/Hamas

Air date: 6 January

Palestinian political violence, including events in Munich, in September 1972, when militant group Black September kidnapped and murdered 11 Israeli sportspeople.

Episode 5: PLO

Air date: 7 January

The hijacking of three passenger planes, in September 1970, by the PLO, accompanied by demands for the release of imprisoned Palestinians.

Episode 6: ETA, Basque Country

Air date: 7 January

The murder of Luis Carrero Blanco. On 20 December 1973, the Prime Minister of Spain

Episode 7: The Moluccan Separatists

Air date: 8 January

South Moluccans hijacked a train in the Netherlands on 23 May 1977, demanding independence for their homeland.

Episode 8: The Baader-Meinhof Gang

Air date: 8 January

Terrorist acts committed by far-left group Baader Meinhof Gang / Red Army Faction in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s.

Episode 9: EOKA

Air date: 9 January

EOKA's attacks on police stations, government offices and military installations on Cyprus in the 1950s.

Episode 10: Nasser and Egyptian Terrorism

Air date: 9 January

The history of Egyptian terrorism, including the 17 November 1997, murder of 59 foreign tourists, three police officers and a tour guide by Egyptian group al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya.

Episode 11: Colonel Gaddafi and Libya

Air date: 12 January

On 21 December 1988, Libya bombed transatlantic Pan Am flight 103 over the small Scottish town of Lockerbie.

Episode 12: Algeria and the OAS

Air date: 12 January

The group OAS committed a series of attacks, killing thousands, in an attempt to keep Algeria governed by France.

Episode 13: The SLA and Patty Hearst

Air date: 13 January

In 1974, left-wing group the Symbionese Liberation Army kidnapped heiress Patty Hearst, exerting pressure on her to make them join in their violent activities.

Episode 14: The Weathermen

Air date: 13 January

Militant student group The Weathermen carried out a series of bombings in the United States from 1969 - 1977.

Episode 15: The Oklahoma Bomber

Air date: 14 January

On 19 April 1995, Timothy McVeigh bombed the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 people.

Episode 16: The Ku Klux Klan

Air date: 14 January

A history of attacks carried out by white, right-wing Christian group KKK.

Episode 17: Japanese Sarin Cult

Main article: Aum Shinrikyo

On 20 March 1995, the members of Aum Shinrikyo cult released sarin(a poisonous substance even deadlier than Cyanide) on several lines of the Tokyo Metro in 5 coordinated attacks. This attack, referred to as the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway or as the Subway Sarin Incident (Chikatetsu Sarin Jiken?), was responsible for killing thirteen people, severely injuring fifty and causing temporary vision problems for nearly a thousand others. The attack was directed against trains passing through Kasumigaseki and Nagatachō, home to the Japanese government and remains Japan's biggest act of Domestic Terrorism since World War II.

Aum Shinrikyo (also known as Aleph) is a Japanese religious movement. The group was founded by Shoko Asahara in 1984. The name "Aum Shinrikyo" (Ōmu Shinrikyō?) derives from the Sanskrit syllable Aum (which represents the universe), followed by Shinrikyo, roughly meaning "religion of Truth". In English "Aum Shinrikyo" is usually translated as "Supreme Truth." In January 2000, the organization changed its name to Aleph in reference to the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet and Phoenician alphabets. It changed its logo as well.

The Sarin gas attack, was and remains the most serious attack to occur in Japan since the end of World War II.

Episode 18: The Mahdi Army

Main article: Mahdi Army

The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia or Jaish al-Mahdi (JAM) (Arabic جيش المهدي), is an Iraqi paramilitary force created by the Iraqi Shi'a cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June 2003.

On April 4, 2004, the group spearheaded the first major armed confrontation against the U.S.-led occupation forces in Iraq from the Shi'ite community in an uprising that followed the banning of al-Sadr's newspaper and attempts to arrest Muqtada al-Sadr. This fight lasted until a truce on June 6 when Muqtada al-Sadr ordered fighters of the Mahdi army to go into a ceasefire unless attacked first. The truce broke down in August 2004 after provocative actions by the Mahdi Army, with new hostilities erupting.

The group is armed with various light weapons, including improvised explosive devices, also called road-side bombs. Many of the bombs used during attacks on Iraqi Security Forces and Coalition Forces have used infra-red sensors as triggers, a technique that was used widely by the IRA in Northern Ireland in the early to mid-1990s.[1]

Episode 19: Che Guevara

Main article: Che Guevara

Ernesto "Che" Guevara (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtʃe ɣeˈβaɾa],born on June 14, 1928, commonly known as El Che or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary and a major figure of the Cuban Revolution.

While living in Mexico City, he met Raúl and Fidel Castro, joined their 26th of July Movement, and invaded Cuba aboard the Granma with the intention of overthrowing U.S.-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista.[2] Guevara soon rose to prominence among the insurgents, was promoted to second-in-command, and played a pivotal role in the successful two-year guerrilla campaign that deposed the Batista regime.[3]

He also played a central role in training the militia forces who repelled the Bay of Pigs Invasion[4] and bringing to Cuba the Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles which precipitated the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.[5]

Guevara left Cuba in 1965 to incite revolutions, first unsuccessfully in Congo-Kinshasa and later in Bolivia, where he was captured by CIA-assisted Bolivian forces and executed.[6]

Episode 20: Fidel Castro

Main article: Fidel Castro
Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) is a communist Cuban politician, one of the primary leaders of the Cuban Revolution, the Prime Minister of Cuba from February 1959 to December 1976, and then the President of the Council of State of Cuba until his resignation from the office in February 2008. He currently serves as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, a position he has held since its inception in 1965.

His political career continued with nationalist critiques of the president, Fulgencio Batista, and of the United States' political and corporate influence in Cuba.

He then led the failed 1953 attack on the Moncada Barracks, after which he was captured, tried, incarcerated, and later released. He then traveled to Mexico[7][8] to organize and train for an invasion of Cuba to overthrow Batista's government, which began in December 1956.

Castro subsequently came to power as a result of the Cuban revolution that overthrew the U.S.-backed[9] dictatorship of Batista,[10] and shortly thereafter became Prime Minister of Cuba.[11]

'The Bay of Pigs Invasion (known as La Batalla de Girón, or Playa Girón in Cuba), was an unsuccessful attempt by a US-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba with support from US government armed forces, to overthrow Castro's Cuban government in April 1961. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants humiliatingly in three days.

In 1965 he became First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba and led the transformation of Cuba into a one-party socialist republic. In 1976 he became President of the Council of State as well as of the Council of Ministers. he also held the supreme military rank of Comandante en Jefe ("Commander in Chief") of the Cuban armed forces.

On February 24, 2008, the National Assembly elected Raúl Castro to succeed him as the President of Cuba.[12]

Episode 21: Somali Warlords

An attempt to capture two Lituenants of Mohammad Farah Aidid leaves 18 American soldiers killed and two Black Hawks destroyed by Aidid's Millitia. Who are these people ? Why are they doing this ? And who is Mohammad Farah Aidid and what motives does he have?. Somalia is a country whose people are continuously fighting a civil war . From 1993 more than 300,000 people have died either of starvation or either during the fights. Mohammad Farah Aidid one of the strongest warolrd controls Mogadishu and his millitia attack places like hospitals and airfields. In 1993 US President Bill Clinton sends American's most elite forces the Rangers,Deltas and the 160 SOAR. The mission was planned for three weeks and their main task was to capture Mohammad Farah Aidid . On October 3, 1993, The Americans launch an attack on the Bakara market which is the stronghold of Aidid. They are pinned down in the city for a whole day and the dead soldiers bodies are dragged in the city by angry Somali mobs. After week of this the American soldiers withdrew from Somalia.

Episode 22: The Taliban

Main article: Taliban

The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان ṭālibān, meaning "students"), also Taleban, is a Sunni Islamist political movement that governed Afghanistan from 1996 until it was overthrown in late 2001 during Operation Enduring Freedom.

It has regrouped since 2004 and revived as a strong insurgency movement governing local Pashtun areas and fighting a guerrilla war against the governments of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force(ISAF).

The Taliban operates in Afghanistan and Pakistan, mostly around the Durand Line regions. U.S. officials say their headquarters is in or near Quetta, Pakistan, and that Pakistan and Iran provide support,[13][14][15][16] although both nations deny this.[17][18]

Mullah Mohammed Omar, in hiding, leads the movement.[19] Omar's original commanders were "a mixture of former small-unit military commanders and madrassa teachers,"[20] while its rank-and-file was made up mostly of Afghan refugees who had studied at Islamic religious schools in Pakistan. The Taliban received valuable training, supplies and arms from the Pakistani government, particularly the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI),[21] and many recruits from madrasas for Afghan refugees in Pakistan, primarily ones established by the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI).[22]

Although in control of Afghanistan's capital, Kabul and most of the country for five years, the Taliban regime, which called itself the "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan", gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

It has regained some amount of political control and acceptance in Pakistan's border region, but recently lost one of its Pakistani leaders, Baitullah Mehsud, in a CIA missile strike.[23] However Pakistan has launched an offensive to force the Taliban from its territory.[24]

The Taliban enforced one of the "strictest interpretation[s] of Sharia law ever seen in the Muslim world", but occasionally modifies its code of conduct.[25]

Episode 23: The Tamil Tigers

This episode tells about the notorious LTTE (Tamil Tigers), also known as Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam from Sri Lanka and why and how they managed to terrorize the country. This episode takes us to the Tamil Tigers and why they wanted to establish their own government.

The Tigers, at the height of their power, possessed a well-developed militia as well as an aerial wing and carried out many high profile attacks including the assassinations of several high-ranking Sri Lankan and Indian politicians like Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa in 1993, and former list of Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1991.

External links

  • UKTV History

References

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