World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Intramolecular force

Article Id: WHEBN0006176600
Reproduction Date:

Title: Intramolecular force  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Intermolecular force, Chemical bonds, Three-center four-electron bond, Superaromaticity, Σ-bishomoaromaticity
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Intramolecular force

An intramolecular force is any force that holds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound.[1] They contain all types of chemical bond. They are stronger than intermolecular forces, which are present between atoms or molecules that are not actually bonded.

Types of intramolecular force

There are several types of intramolecular forces, distinguished by the types of constituent atoms and the behavior of electrons:

  • Ionic, which generally form between a metal and nonmetal, such as sodium and chlorine in NaCl. Electrons in an ionic bond tend to mostly be found around one of the two constituent atoms due to the large electronegativity difference between the two atoms; this is often described as one atom giving electrons to the other. In the case of NaCl, sodium would give an electron to chlorine.
  • Covalent, which generally form between two nonmetals. Examples include nitrogen dioxide. Electrons in a covalent bond are essentially shared between the constituent atoms. There are several types of covalent bond: in polar covalent bonds, electrons are more likely to be found around one of the two atoms, whereas in nonpolar covalent bonds, electrons are evenly shared. Homonuclear diatomic molecules are pure covalent. The polarity of a covalent bond is determined by the electronegativities of each atom, and a polar covalent bond usually creates a dipole moment.
  • Metallic, which generally forms within a pure metal or metal alloy. Metallic electrons are generally delocalized; the result is a large number of free electrons around positive nuclei, sometimes called an electron sea.

They differ in the magnitude of their bond enthalpies, and thus affect the physical and chemical properties of compounds in different ways.

See also


  1. ^ Zumdahl, Stephen S., & Zumdahl, Susan A. Chemistry. Houghton Mifflin, 2007, ISBN 0618713700

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.