World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Itzcoatl

ItzcoatI
4th Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan
Ruler of the Aztec Triple Alliance
Bronze casting done of Itzcoatl by Jesus Contraras in the Garden of the Triple Alliance located in the historic center of Mexico City.
Reign 1427–1440
Predecessor Chimalpopoca
Successor Moctezuma I
Died 1440
Wife
Issue Tezozomoc
Father Acamapichtli
Mother Tepanec woman from Azcapotzalco

Itzcoatl (Classical Nahuatl: Itzcōhuātl , "Obsidian Serpent") was the fourth king of the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan and the first emperor, ruling from 1427 (or 1428) to 1440, the period when the Mexica[1] threw off the domination of the Tepanecs and laid the foundations for the eventual Aztec Empire.

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • Family 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Biography

Itzcoatl was an illegitimate son of tlàtoāni Acamapichtli and an unknown Tepanec princess.[2] He was elected as the king when his predecessor, his nephew Chimalpopoca, was killed by Maxtla of the nearby Tepanec āltepētl (city-state) of Azcapotzalco. Allying with Nezahualcoyotl of Texcoco, Itzcoatl went on to defeat Maxtla and end the Tepanec domination of central Mexico.

After this victory, Itzcoatl, Nezahualcoyotl, and Aztec Triple Alliance, forming the basis of the eventual Aztec Empire.

Itzcoatl next turned his attention to the chinampas districts on the south shores of Lakes Xochimilco and Chalco. Fresh water springs lining these shores had allowed the development of extensive raised gardens, or chinampas, set on the shallow lake floors. Successful campaigns against Xochimilco (1430), Mixquic (1432), Cuitlahuac (1433), and Tezompa would secure agricultural resources for Tenochtitlan and, along with the conquest of Culhuacan and Coyoacán, would cement the Triple Alliance's control over the southern half of the Valley of Mexico.

With this string of victories, Itzcoatl took the title Culhua teuctli, "Lord of the Culhua" while Totoquilhuaztli, king of Tlacopan, took the title Tepaneca teuctli, "Lord of the Tepanecs".

In 1439, Itzcoatl undertook a campaign outside the Valley of Mexico against Cuauhnahuac (Cuernavaca).

According to the Florentine Codex, Itzcoatl ordered the burning of all historical codices because it was "not wise that all the people should know the paintings".[3] Among other purposes, this allowed the Aztec state to develop a state-sanctioned history and mythos that venerated Huitzilopochtli.

Itzcoatl also continued the building of Tenochtitlan: during his reign temples, roads, and a causeway were built. Itzcoatl established the religious and governmental hierarchy that was assumed by his nephew Moctezuma I upon his death in 1440.

Map showing the expansion of the Aztec empire showing the areas conquered by the Aztec rulers. The conquests of Itzcoatl are marked by the colour red.[4]

Family

Itzcoatl was a son of Acamapichtli and half-brother of Huitzilihuitl. He was an uncle of Chimalpopoca and Moctezuma I.

He married princess Huacaltzintli and had a son Tezozomoc and was a grandfather of Axayacatl, Tizoc and Ahuitzotl.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The dominant ethno-political group within the later Aztec political sphere.
  2. ^ Itzcoatl's mother is given as a Tepanec woman from Azcapotzalco; see for example Aguilar-Moreno (2007, p. 39).
  3. ^ Madrid Codex, VIII, 192v, as quoted in León-Portilla, p. 155. Note that León-Portilla finds Tlacaelel to be the instigator of this burning, despite lack of specific historical evidence.
  4. ^ Based on the maps by Ross Hassig in "Aztec Warfare"

References

Aguilar-Moreno, Manuel (2007). Handbook to Life in the Aztec World. Oxford and New York:  
 
 
 
Weaver, Muriel Porter (1993). The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors: Archaeology of Mesoamerica (3rd ed.). San Diego, California:  

External links

  •  "Izcohuatl".  
Preceded by
Chimalpopoca
Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan
1427–1440
Succeeded by
Moctezuma I
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.