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List of historical unrecognized countries

 

List of historical unrecognized countries

These lists of historic unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition. The entries listed here had de facto control over their claimed territory and were self-governing with a desire for full independence, or if they lacked such control over their territory, were recognized by at least one other recognized nation.

Criteria for inclusion

The criteria for inclusion in this list is similar to that of the list of states with limited recognition. To be included here, a polity must have claimed statehood, lacked recognition from at least one state, and either:

  • had a population and an organized government with a capacity to enter into relations with other states; or
  • had de facto control over a territory or a significant portion of the territory of an otherwise recognized sovereign state; or
  • have been recognized as a state by at least one other state.

Historic unrecognized or partially recognized states with de facto control over their territory

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon.

Europe

Name Period Today Notes
Banat Banat Republic 1918 Part of Romania, Serbia, and Hungary Established in the Banat region of modern Serbia by members of ethnic groups in the region, it was only recognized by Hungary. It was invaded by Serbia and in 1919 partitioned between Hungary, Romania, and the newly created Yugoslavia.
Baranya-Baja Serbia Serbian-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic 1921 Part of Hungary and Croatia A short-lived, Soviet-minded state set up by Hungarian communists fleeing the white terror following the collapse of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. It was supported by Yugoslavia but was quickly re-conquered by Hungary.
Belarus Belarus Belarusian People's Republic 1918 Independent Belarus Attempt by Belorussian nationalists but reincorporated into the Soviet Union. Still exists today as a government-in-exile.
Chechnya  Chechen Republic of Ichkeria 1991–2000 Part of Russia Reintegrated into the Russian Federation as the Chechen Republic
Connacht Republic of Connacht 1798 Part of Ireland French client republic
Corsica Corsica Kingdom of Corsica 1736 Part of France Seceded from Republic of Genoa
Corsica Corsican Republic 1755–1769 Part of France Seceded from Republic of Genoa; annexed by France. Recognized only by Bey of Tunis[1]
Corsica Italy Italian Social Republic 1943–1945 Part of Italy German-dominated puppet state under Benito Mussolini, formed in the North of Italy after the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III signed an armistice with the Allies.
Corsica Corsica Anglo-Corsican Kingdom 1794–1796 Part of France Independent kingdom under British King George III, formed on the Irish model[2][3]
Crimea Autonomous Republic Crimea Republic of Crimea 1992, 1994–1995 Part of Ukraine Declared in 1992 and again in 1994, spanning the Crimean peninsula. Was ended through negotiations with Ukraine.[4][5]
Croatia  Independent State of Croatia 1941–1945 Now two independent states, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina Affiliated with the Third Reich.
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia 1992–1994 Part of Bosnia and Herzegovina Attempt by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina to form their own country. The use of ethnic cleansing led to it being unrecognized and eventually it collapsed.
Couto Misto 10th century–1868 Part of Spain and Portugal De facto independent microstate on the border between Galicia (Spain) and Northern Portugal. By the 1864 Treaty of Lisbon, its territory was partitioned between Spain and Portugal.
Gagauzia Gagauzia 1990–1994 Part of Moldova Region in Moldova that declared its independence on 19 August 1991 following the Soviet coup attempt of 1991 which was supported by many in the area. This came as a result of the possibility of a union between Moldova and Romania which was opposed in Gagauzia which abandoned independence after gaining autonomy from the Moldovan government.
East Germany  German Democratic Republic 1949–1990 Part of the Federal Republic of Germany Commonly known as East Germany, the state was not recognized for a time by West Germany and several other countries.
Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic 1918 Part of Finland Lasted only three months during the Finnish Civil War, but was recognized by Soviet Russia.
German Austria Austria Republic of German-Austria 1918-1919 Austria and part of the Czech Republic Brief state declared following the collapse of Austria-Hungary. The Allies of World War I opposed it and it was succeeded by the First Austrian Republic.
Goust  Republic of Goust 1827 Part of France[6] A French hamlet which was considered for a long time independent due to it never being formally annexed by France.
Gozo   Gozo 1798–1800 Part of Malta Provisional government set up by Francesco Saverio Cassar after French troops on the island capitulated to rebels. It became part of the British protectorate of Malta in 1800.
Idel-Ural Idel-Ural State 1917–1918 Part of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan (Russia) Suppressed by the Red Army.
Ireland Republic of Ireland Irish Republic 1919–1922 Divided into Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland An unrecognized Irish nationalist state during the Irish War for Independence it ceased to exist following the Anglo-Irish Treaty which gave Southern Ireland independence as the Irish Free State while keeping Northern Ireland under British Control.
Kuban Kuban People's Republic Kuban People's Republic 1918–1920 Part of Russia A territory in Russia, it was declared by Kuban Cossacks in 1918. It supported the White Movement and was overrun by the Bolsheviks in 1920.
Latjtabansag Lajtabánság 1921 Part of Austria and Hungary State declared in the Burgenland state of Austria by ethnic Hungarians following the Treaty of Trianon, where Hungary was forced to surrender the territory. It was ceased to exist after a month when Austria annexed it.
Labin  Labin Republic 1921 Part of Croatia Short-lived republic established in Labin, Croatia
Mirdita Republic of Mirdita 1921 Part of Albania Set up by Albanian Catholics trying to break away from Albania which is a mainly Muslim country. It was backed by Yugoslavia but only lasted three months.
Munster Munster Munster Republic 1922 Part of the Republic of Ireland Though never independent it was the informal name given to Munster which was the base of Irish republicans aiming to create a United Ireland during the Irish Civil War.
Pindus-Macedonia Principality of Pindus 1941–1944 Part of Greece Proclaimed during the Italian occupation of Northern Greece it was a proposed puppet state but it never came to exist.
Prekmurje Republic of Prekmurje 1919 Part of Slovenia[7] Existed for 6 days.
Republika Srpska  Republika Srpska 1992–1995 One of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina Transformed into an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, covering 50% of the land with 90%+ ethnic Serbs.
Serbian Krajina Republic of Serbian Krajina Republic of Serbian Krajina 1991–1995 Part of Croatia Suppressed by Croatia. After the Operation Storm of the Croatian army, this territory was ethnically cleansed.[8] A number of Croatian army officers were indicted by the ICTY for the atrocities committed against the civilian Serb population.[9]
Slovakia 1 Slovak Soviet Republic 1919 Part of Slovakia A pro-Hungarian puppet state set up by Red Guards from the Hungarian Soviet Republic in Upper Hungary. After a brief war it was returned to Czechoslovakia as promised by early peace agreements.
Slovakia 2 Slovakia First Slovak Republic 1939–1945 Part of Slovakia Between 1939 and 1945, First Slovak Republic was a puppet state of Nazi Germany.
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs 1918 Part of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbia (Vojvodina) and Montenegro (Boka Kotorska) Temporary state of the Austro-Hungarian South Slavs, declared on October 29, 1918, and merged with the Kingdom of Serbia on December 1, 1918, into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia)
Tamrash Republic of Tamrash 1878–1886 Part of Bulgaria The Republic of Tamrash was a short-lived self-governing administrative structure of the Pomaks, living in the Tamrash region of the Rhodope Mountains.
Tavolara Kingdom of Tavolara 1836–1962? Part of Italy[10] Recognized by the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Italy; acknowledged by Queen Victoria.
Ukraine 1 Ukraine Ukrainian People's Republic 1917–1920 Part of Ukraine Attempt by Ukrainian nationalists to gain independence during the Russian Revolution, it was eventually defeated by the Bolsheviks.
Ukraine 2 Ukraine Ukrainian State 1919 Part of Ukraine Short-lived state set up by Ukrainian Cossacks it favored the Central Powers and was in conflict with the Ukrainian People's Republic until it's leader Pavlo Skoropadskyi abdicated.
Ukraine, West Ukraine West Ukrainian People's Republic 1918–1919 Part of Ukraine Established in eastern Galicia it controlled cities once part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and with large numbers of ethnic Poles leading to a losing war with Poland after which it was partitioned by Poland, the Kingdom of Romania, Czechoslovakia, and the Ukrainian People's Republic.
Ukraine, Free Territory  Free Territory 1918–1921 Part of Ukraine An attempt to create a stateless society built on anarchy. It was originally supported by the Bolsheviks but a falling out led to it being absorbed into the USSR.
Ukraine 3 Ukraine Komancza Republic 1918–1919 Part of Ukraine An association of 30 pro-Ukrainian villages, it planned to merge with the West Ukrainian People's Republic but was suppressed by Poland during the Polish-Ukrainian War
Ukraine 4 Ukraine Hutsul Republic 1919 Part of Ukraine A short-lived state formed from territory in the former Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, it was invaded by the Hungarian Soviet Republic in June 1919 and then became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic. It originally intended to join the Western Ukrainian National Republic[11]
Uzice Republic of Užice 1941 Part of Serbia Area briefly liberated by Yugoslav partisans after the Invasion of Yugoslavia; it was retaken by the German Army during the First anti-Partisan offensive.
Bihać> Bihac Republic 1942–1943 Part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Area liberated by Yugoslav partisans before being recaptured by the German Army.
Western Bosnia Republic of Western Bosnia 1993–1995 Part of Bosnia and Herzegovina Existed during the Bosnian War. It worked with Serbia and Croatia to divide the territories between the two nations. Its leader was later convicted of war crimes.

Asia

Name Period Today Notes
Aceh Sultanate of Aceh 1874–1904 Now part of Indonesia A sultanate in modern Indonesia it was later conquered by the Dutch after four hundred years.
Alash Alash Autonomy 1917–1920 Now part of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan De facto self-governing autonomous region.
Ararat Republic of Ararat 1927–1930 Now part of Turkey One of the first Kurdish republics in history, founded in Ağrı Province, Turkey.
Republic of Aras  Republic of Aras 1918-1919 Now part of Azerbaijan Established during the Russian Civil War, this state only last several months.[12]
Azerbaijan People's Government Azerbaijan People's Government 1945–1946 Now part of Iran Soviet puppet state set up in Iranian Azerbaijan but later reclaimed by Iran.
Bangsamoro Republik Bangsamoro Republik 2013 Now part of the Philippines Following the defeat in Zamboanga City by the Philippines on September 28, 2013, the Moro National Liberation Front no longer controls any territory openly anywhere and the Bangsamoro Republic has ceased to exist.
Republic of Biak-na-Bato Republic of Biak-na-Bato 1897 Now part of the Philippines Secessionist state that later joined the First Philippine Republic.
Chinese Soviet Republic Chinese Soviet Republic 1931 - 1937 Now part of China Recognised by the People's Republic of China (1949 - ) as a "rehearsal" of the PRC and a "cradle" in which the Communist Party seized power.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1954 - 1961 Now part of India Territory made up of two former exclaves of the Portuguese district of Daman (Portuguese India). In 1954, it was invaded and occupied by supporters of their integration in the Indian Union. Thereafter and until formal annexation by India in 1961, it enjoyed a de facto independence. Portugal continued to consider Dadra and Nagar Haveli as Portuguese territory until 1974. The native citizens of the territory continued to be entitled to the grant of Portuguese citizenship until 2006.
Democratic Republic of Yemen Democratic Republic of Yemen 1994 Now part of Yemen Breakaway state formed during the 1994 civil war in Yemen. It only lasted six weeks before being reconquered.
East Timor East Timor Democratic Republic of East Timor 1975 Now independent Former overseas province of Portugal. Declaration of independence in November, 28, 1975, recognized by six states (Albania, Cape Verde, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe). Invaded and annexed by Indonesia in December, 1975. United Nations, Portugal and most of the states didn't recognized Indonesian annexation and continued to consider East Timor as Portuguese territory until its definitive independence in 2002.
East Turkestan 1 First East Turkestan Republic 1933–1934 Now part of China Set up as part of the movement for an independent East Turkestan it was defeated by the Nationalists.
East Turkestan 2 Second East Turkestan Republic 1944–1949 Now part of China Soviet satellite state set up in East Turkestan; the Soviets later turned against it and approved its annexation by China.
Ezo Republic of Ezo 1869 Now part of Japan Set up in Hokkaido by supporters of the Tokugawa clan following the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate after the Boshin War and Meiji Restoration; they received support from France but only lasted five months.
Formosa Republic of Formosa 1895 Now base of the Taiwan, Republic of China Declared independence upon cession of Taiwan to Japan following the First Sino-Japanese War.
Independent Free Lebanon 1979-2000 Now part of Lebanon In 1976, as a result of the ongoing civil war, the Lebanese army began to break up.

Major Saad Haddad, commanding an army battalion in the south which had been part of the Army of Free Lebanon, broke away and founded a group known as the Free Lebanon Army (FLA). The FLA fought against various groups including the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Amal Movement and (after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon) the emerging Hezbollah. The 1978 Israeli invasion allowed the Free Lebanon Army to gain control over a much wider area in southern Lebanon. On April 18, 1979 Haddad proclaimed the area controlled by his force "Independent Free Lebanon" (Dawlet Lebnaan El Horr El Mest’ell) with the capital Beirut. In May 1980, " Free Lebanon Army" was renamed "South Lebanon Army". The war lasted until 2000. May 24, 2000 Lebanese forces occupied the small town Marjayoun, who was the last "capital" of southern Lebanon.

Hyderabad Hyderabad State 1947–1948 Now is split up among Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka states of India One of Britain's numerous client rulers in central India, the Prince of Hyderabad, being Muslim, refused to acknowledge the new Indian government following independence in 1947. Indian troops invaded Hyderabad and rapidly forced its capitulation in 1948.
Kalat Khanate of Kalat 1947–1948 Now part of Balochistan province in Pakistan Kalat was a princely state in Baluchistan Agency, the one of the agencies of British India. The Khan of Baluchistan declared his nation's independence on August 15, 1947, one day after India and Pakistan declared independence. From 15 August 1947 to 27 March 1948, the region was de facto independent before acceding to Pakistan on 27 March 1948. After intense diplomatic pressure, the Khan relented and acceeded Baluchistan to Pakistan in 1948.
Kurdistan Kingdom of Kurdistan 1921–1924 Now part of Iraq Establishment by Kurdish nationalists following the collapse of Ottoman Turkey but were defeated by Britain and incorporated into the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
Lanfang  Lanfang Republic 1777–1784 Now part of Indonesia Established by Chinese in Indonesia as the Dutch began to conquer Indonesia to protect the ethnic Chinese it was a tributary state of the Qing Dynasty in Imperial China; but the Qing Dynasty weakened and it was conquered by the Dutch who added it to colonies.
Mahabad Iraqi Kurdistan Republic of Mahabad 1946–1947 Now part of Iran Declared independence from Iran, but then occupied by Iran after the withdraw of the Soviet Red Army from northern Iran and Demolishing of Azerbaijan People's Government.
Manchukuo  Manchukuo 1932–1945 Part of China Puppet state under Japanese control.
Mongolian People's Republic  Mongolia 1932–1945 Now independent Was not recognized by several countries from 1940 to 1960 due to being claimed as an integral part of the Republic of China.[13]
Morac-Songhrati-Meads Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads 1878-1972 Spratly Islands dispute In 1877, Captain James George Meads, Master of the ship "Modeste" was exploring the South China Sea and laid claim to the Spratly Islands. Captain Meads named the island group the "Kingdom of Humanity" and, upon proclamation as King James I in 1878, formed a colony on the islands. Descendants of Meads have continued to posit legitimacy over the islands, and ownership of the island's resources. The Kingdom of Humanity transformed into the Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads in 1963. People leaving the islands in 1972, because the UN does not recognize their right to their own state.[14]
Negros Cantonal Republic of Negros 1898–1901 Now part of the Philippines. Declared independence and aligned itself with the First Philippine Republic. Later, it was recognized by the United States, however the government was dissolved by the Americans in 1901.
Persian SSR Persian Socialist Soviet Republic 1920–1921 Now Gilan province in Iran Created by local guerilleros (Jangali) when Red Army troops entered Iran, but failed to spread the revolutionary movement over the whole Iran
Philippines First Philippine Republic 1899–1901 Now part of the Philippines Existed as an unrecognized independent state from its declaration on June 12, 1898, up to the Treaty of Paris on December 10, by which Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899, in Malolos, Bulacan, and pursued an unsuccessful war of independence against the United States in the Philippine-American War
Philippines Second Philippine Republic 1943–1945 Now the Philippines The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.
Sedang Kingdom of Sedang 1888–1889 Now part of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Charles David Mayréna was born in France in 1842, he stopped in Vietnam 1884 and started a plantation. In 1888, the King of Siam began claiming territory west of French territory. Anxious, the Governor of the Indochinese Union agreed to Mayréna's proposed expedition to the interior. When Mayréna reached the central highlands, he organized the local tribes into the Kingdom of Sedang, and declared himself King Marie I. He offered to cede his kingdom to France in exchange for monopoly rights. When the French government became understandably chilly, Mayréna approached the English at Hong Kong. When he was rebuffed there, Mayréna went to Belgium. In 1889, a Belgian financier named Somsy offered arms and money to Mayréna in exchange for mineral rights. Unfortunately, the French Navy blockaded Vietnamese ports to prevent his return, and his arms were seized as contraband at Singapore.
South Moluccas Republic of South Maluku

Republic of South Moluccas

1950 Now part of Indonesia the Moluccas formed part of the short-lived United States of Indonesia (27 December 1949- 17 August 1950), but declared independence in April 1950 in reaction of centralizing tendencies from Jakarta. It was quickly conquered by Indonesian troops, but maintains a government in exile in the Netherlands.
Suvadive Islands United Suvadive Republic Suvadive Islands 1959–1963 Now part of the Maldives Attempted break-away state it was supported by Britain briefly before being abandoned.
Syria Kingdom of Syria 1920 Now independent Lasted 4 months at the end of World War I until dissolved by the French who took control.
Tagalog Republic (Bonifacio) Sovereign Tagalog Nation 1896–1897 Now part of the Philippines. Succeeded by the First Philippine Republic.
Tagalog Republic (Sacay) Tagalog Republic 1902–1906 Now part of the Philippines. Revolutionary body set up during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War.
Tamil Eelam Tamil Eelam 1983–2009 Now part of Sri Lanka See Sri Lankan Civil War
Tannu Tuva  Tannu Tuva 1921–1944 Now part of Russia Attempt by Tuvans to gain independence following years of domination by China and Imperial Russia it was put under Soviet control and later formally annexed.
Tibet Tibet Tibet 1913–1951 Now part of China, Nepal, and India In 1913, Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet declared independence from China,[15] which was only recognized by Mongolia[16][17] (however, there have been doubts over the authority of the Tibetan representative to sign the treaty, and thus its validity).[18] One year later the Dalai Lama signed a UK-drafted treaty accepting Chinese suzerainty and adjusting the border in favor of British India.[19] The 14th Dalai Lama acknowledged Chinese sovereignty in the Seventeen Point Agreement of 1951,[20] but China continues to reject the 1914 UK-drafted treaty and claims South Tibet (now part of India's Arunachal Pradesh).
Wang Jingwei Wang Jingwei Government 1940–1945 Part of China Puppet government dissolved at the end of World War II. Recognized by Imperial Japan and its allies.
Zamboanga Republic of Zamboanga 1899–1903 Now part of the Philippines. República de Zamboanga was a short-lived revolutionary republic, founded shortly after the collapse of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines.

Africa

Name Period Today Notes
Anjouan  Anjouan 1997–2002,
2008
Now part of Comoros Joined with the Comoros then seceded twice to gain independence. Anjouan rejoined the Comoros after talks during the first secession. After the second event, the secessionist government was forcefully removed.
Azawad 2012–2013 Now part of Mali Controlled territory in Northern Mali, it wasn't recognized by any state
Biafra  Biafra 1967–1970 Part of Nigeria Controlled territory in eastern Nigeria, recognized by five states (Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, Zambia)
Boer Republics Boer Republics in Southern Africa 1795–1902 Now part of South Africa The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent self-governed republics created by the northeastern frontier branch of the Dutch-speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants of the north eastern Cape Province and their descendants (variously named Trekboers, Boers, Afrikaners and Voortrekkers) in mainly the northern and eastern parts of what is now the country of South Africa. Although some of these republics were already founded from 1795 onwards during the period of Dutch colonial rule at the Cape, most of these states were established after Britain took over from the Netherlands as the colonial power at the Cape of Good Hope. While some of these were mini-states which were relatively short-lived, some, especially the Transvaal/South African Republic (1856–1902) and the Orange Free State (1854–1902), developed into successful independent countries which along with Britain were also officially recognized by the Netherlands, France, Germany, Belgium and the United States. These two countries continued to exist for several decades, despite the First Boer War with Britain. Short-lived mini-states were: Andries Ohrigstad Republic (1845–1849), Goshen (1884–1885), Graaff-Reinet (1795), Klein Vrystaat (Little Republic (1886–1890), Klipdrift Republic (1870), Lydenburg Republic (1856–1857), Natalia Republic (1838–1843), Nieuwe Republiek (New Republic, 1884–1887), Potchefstroom (1838), Stellaland (1882–1883), Swellendam (1795; 2011), United States of Stellaland (1883–1885), Utrecht Republic (1854–1858), Winburg (1837), Winburg-Potchefstroom (1838–1840), Zoutpansberg (1857) ua.

States were also established by other population groups, most notably the Griqua, a subgroup of South Africa's heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people. Most notable among these were Griqualand West (1870–1880) and Griqualand East (1861).

Bophuthatswana  Bophuthatswana,
 Ciskei,
 Transkei,
 Venda
1977–1994,
1981–1994,
1976–1994,
1979–1994
Now all part of South Africa Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa. Israel extended marginal recognition to Bophuthatswana and Ciskei by allowing both polities to build trade missions in Tel Aviv. In 1993 Bophuthatswana opened an information center in Latvia, so that the Latvian song festival was also attended by a chorus of this country (Bop Arts Council Chorus).
Cabinda Republic of Cabinda 1975 Now part of Angola Cabinda was a Portuguese protectorate known as the Portuguese Congo. During the Portuguese Colonial War period, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought for the independence of Cabinda from the Portuguese. The independence was proclaimed on 1 August 1975. After the Angolan independence came in effect in November 1975, Cabinda was invaded by forces of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) with support of troops from Cuba.
Jubaland Jubaland 1998–2001 Now part of Southwestern Somalia Briefly declared independence in 1998 it rejoined the Transitional Federal Government in 2001.
Katanga State of Katanga Katanga 1960–1964 Part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Controlled the state of the same name within the former Belgian Congo after decolonisation
Moheli Mohéli 1997–1998 Now part of the Comoros Seceded in 1997 but quietly rejoined the next year.
M'Simbati  M'Simbati Sultanate 1959–1962 Now part of Tanzania Mr. Latham Leslie-Moore, a retired civil servant, declared the secession of the "Sultanate of M'Simbati" from the then colony of Tanganyika. The "secession" was suppressed in 1962 by Tanzanian government troops.
Zanzibar and Pemba People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba 1964 Now part of Tanzania Following the 17 January 1964 coup which deposed the Sultan of Zanzibar, the revolutionary group purporting to represent the island’s Negro majority proclaimed a Peoples’ Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba, its immediately made an offer of union with the government of Tanganyika.
Rhodesia  Rhodesia 1965–1979 Now Zimbabwe British Colony that unilaterally declared independence
Rif  Republic of the Rif 1921–1926 Part of Morocco Founded in September 1921, when the people of the Rif (the Riffians) revolted and declared their independence from Spanish Morocco. It was dissolved by Spanish and French forces on 27 May 1926.
Rwenzururu Kingdom of Rwenzururu 1963–1982 Now part of Uganda Was based in the Rwenzori Mountains between Uganda and Congo.
Somaliland  State of Somaliland 1960 Now part of Somalia A short lived stated declared after the end of British rule came to an end. It only lasted five days before joining Somalia.[21]
South Kasai South Kasai 1960–1961 Part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Controlled the state of the same name within the former Belgian Congo after decolonisation
Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979 Now Zimbabwe Short-lived version of Rhodesia (see above) that ended the white minority government and introduced a biracial government.

Americas

Name Period Today Notes
Acre Republic of Acre 1899–1903 Now part of Brazil A trio of attempts to free Acre from Bolivia. Each attempt was defeated, but part of Acre was turned over to Brazilian control after the final attempt.
Airrecú  Republic of Airrecú 1993 Now part of Nicaragua Relations between Costa Rica and Nicaragua have traditionally been strained. This situation was not improved when the Costa Rican government granted land rights to settlers along the San Juan River, which forms part of the border between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. A short dispute ended with Costa Rica acknowledging that the territory in fact belonged to Nicaragua, and promising to remove the settlers. The settlers, however, refused to leave. In June of 1993, they declared their independence as the Republic of Airrecú, which means "friendship" in a local Indian language. The Nicaraguan Army immediately descended upon the area and escorted the Republic into Costa Rica.
Anguilla Republic of Anguilla 1967–1969 Now a British overseas territory Created due to opposition to a union with modern St. Kitts and Nevis. It ceased to exist after being occupied by the British Army.
Anguilla Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia 1860–1862 Now part of Argentina and Chile Set up by a French adventurer who tried to gain legitimacy for his state only to be denied. The self-proclaimed kingdom was conquered and partitioned by Chile and Argentina.
California California Republic 1846 Now part of the United States Formed during an Anglo-American revolt in Mexican California during the Mexican-American War. This "state" never actually possessed a high level of organization, and was only in existence for a matter of weeks before the rebels deferred to the US government and American troops.
Confederate States of America  Confederate States of America 1861–1865 Now part of the United States Originally formed by seven states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and Louisiana). After the American Civil War began, the states of Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina joined. Though not recognized as a sovereign nation, the Confederacy was recognized by some nations as a "belligerent power". Reintegrated into the United States.
Independent Guyana Republic of Independent Guyana 1886–1891 Part of Amapa, Brazil Established by French settlers in defiance of both France and Brazil
Indian Stream  Republic of Indian Stream 1832–1835 Now part of the United States Annexed by the United States. Within the state of New Hampshire.
Juliana Juliana Republic 1839 Part of Brazil Today's Santa Catarina
Los Altos  Republic of Los Altos 1837–1840, 1847 Now part of Guatemala The United Provinces of Central America were riven by strife for much of their existence. Guatemala’s ruling class was appalled by the thought of an illiterate and brutish peasant Governor Rafael Carrera, and led the six western provinces into secession. The new state of Los Altos, under Liberal leadership, appealed for recognition to the UPCA. In January of 1840, Carrera reconquered Los Altos, and then defeated the UPCA’s army in March, sounding the death knell for the United Provinces. Los Altos rebelled again when Carrera declared Guatemala an independent republic in 1847, but was again rapidly crushed.
Madawaska Republic of Madawaska 1827–1842 Now divided between Canada and the United States Within the provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec and the state of Maine
Manitobah  Republic of Manitobah 1867–1869 Now part of Canada Within the province of Manitoba
Muskogee State of Muskogee 1799–1832 Part of the United States A short-lived Native American state in Florida; consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. Annexed by the United States.
Piratini Piratini Republic 1836–1845 Part of Brazil Today's Rio Grande do Sul
Redonda Kingdom of Redonda 1865-2012(?) Now part of Antigua and Barbuda Matthew Dowdy Shiell, who was a trader and Methodist lay preacher from the nearby island of Montserrat, claimed the island of Redonda when his son, Matthew Phipps Shiell, was born. Supposedly the father felt he could legitimately do this, because it appeared to be the case that no country had officially claimed the islet as territory. Shiell senior is also said to have requested the title of King of Redonda from Queen Victoria, and as legend has it, it was granted to him, by the British Colonial Office rather than by Victoria herself, provided there was no revolt against colonial power.
Rio Grande Republic of the Río Grande 1840 Now part of the United States and Mexico Consisted part of southern Texas and the 3 Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas
South Haiti  Republic of South Haiti 1810 Now part of Haiti Haiti declared its independence in 1804 under Jean Jacques Dessalines. That same year, Dessalines declared himself Emperor. After his assassination in 1806, Haiti was divided between the Republic of Haiti in the south and the Kingdom of Haiti, under Henry Christophe, in the north. The situation was further complicated by the secession of South Haiti in the southwest corner of the country under André Rigaud in 1810. His own republic contained the former Maroon enclave of La Grande'Anse under Goman, who was allied with King Henry. A few months after Rigaud seized power, he died, and South Haiti rejoined the Republic. In 1820, Henry Christophe committed suicide. Haiti was reunited soon afterwards.
South Peru, North Peru and Confederacy

Republic of South Peru, Republic of North Peru and Peru–Bolivian Confederation

1836–1839 Now part of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Ecuador and Peru The Peru–Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) was a short-lived confederate state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839. Its first and only head of state, titled “Supreme Protector”, was the Bolivian president, Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz. The confederation was a loose union between the states of Peru (by this time divided into a Republic of North Peru and a Republic of South Peru, which included the capital Tacna) and Bolivia.
Trinidad Principality of Trinidad 1893-1895 Part of Brazil American James Harden-Hickey divorced his wife in 1893 (1894?) and announced his intention to move to India and take up a life of Hindu asceticism. On the trip there, a storm forced his ship aground on the island of Trinidad (no relation to the Caribbean Trinidad) in the South Atlantic. Seeing that the island was uninhabited, Harden-Hickey declared himself Prince James I of Trinidad and advertised for settlers in the London Times. The following year, the United Kingdom annexed the island in order to anchor a transatlantic telegraph cable. Prince James was encouraged, hoping that the cable would bring the attention he needed to start his reign. Unfortunately, the plan was scrapped and Brazil annexed the island again in 1897.
Vermont Vermont Republic 1777–1791 Now part of the United States Became the State of Vermont
Watauga  Watauga Association 1772–1778 Now part of the United States Annexed into the State of North Carolina
West Florida Free and Independent Republic of West Florida 1810 Now part of the United States Short-lived republic consisting of parts of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. Annexed during the presidency of James Madison.
Yucatán 1841–1843 & 1846–1848 Part of Mexico A short-lived state from 1841 to 1848, it was proclaimed after the Mexican government tried to centralize and tried to join the US during the Mexican-American War it was rejected and joined a federal Mexico after the war ended.

Oceania

Name Period Today Notes
Empire of Australia 1804 Part of Australia The Empire of Australia collapsed after the defeat at the Battle of Vinegar Hill.[22]
Bougainville Autonomous Region of Bougainville Bougainville Interim Government 1990–1998 Part of Papua New Guinea Signed a peace deal with Papua New Guinea giving the island autonomy pending an independence referendum within a decade
Franceville Independent Commune of Franceville 1889–1890 Part of Vanuatu Its independence guaranteed by France, this community of Melanesian natives and European settlers experimented with universal suffrage until France and Britain intervened in the New Hebrides[23]
Republic of Minerva 1972 Part of Tonga, but claim disputed by Fiji and a Minerva "principality" group Several previously unclaimed reefs that were occupied and raised in a minor way by a group of libertarian establishmentarians until Tonga laid claim to the territory
North Solomons Autonomous Region of Bougainville Republic of North Solomons 1975–1976 Part of Papua New Guinea Seceded twice and returned after peace negotiations both times.
Rotuma Republic of Rotuma 1987-1988 Dependency of Fiji Following the second coup, when Fiji left the British Commonwealth of Nations, a segment of the Rotuman population, known as the "Mölmahao Clan" of Noa’tau rejected the council's decision to remain with the newly declared republic. Arguing that Rotuma had been ceded to Great Britain and not to Fiji, these rebels declared in 1987 independence of Republic of Rotuma and were charged with sedition. It did not have any substantive support, majority opinion appears to favor remaining with Fiji, but rumblings of discontent remain.
Tafea Tafea Nation 1980 Part of Vanuatu Opposed to the Anglo-French condominium that ruled it but which ended the secessionist state.
Tanna Tanna Nation 1974 Part of Vanuatu Declared independence but was suppressed by the Anglo-French condominium.
Vemerana Republic of Vemerana 1980 Part of Vanuatu Central power of Vanuatu restored with assistance of army from Papua New Guinea

See also

References

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