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Live-action/animated film

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Live-action/animated film

A live-action/animated film is a motion picture, television series, television commercials, or title sequences that features a combination of real actors or elements: live-action and animated elements, typically interacting.

History

The tradition goes back all the way to the earliest days of animation with Winsor McCay's short Gertie the Dinosaur, which shows a live-action narrator (specifically, a "live" actor, instead of a filmed one) interacting with an animated landscape and character (Gertie). In one scene, the narrator appears to throw a real orange which is caught by Gertie (the real orange is replaced by an animated one just as it leaves the narrator's hand), and the film climaxes with a scene in which the narrator enters the animated landscape (again, replaced by an animated version) and takes a ride on the famous dinosaur's back.

In the later days of silent film, the popular animated cartoons of Max Fleischer included a series where his cartoon character Koko the Clown interacted with the live world; for example, having a boxing match with a live kitten. In a variation on this concept, Walt Disney's first directorial efforts (years before Oswald the Lucky Rabbit was born in 1927 and Mickey Mouse in 1928) were the animated Alice Comedies short cartoons, in which a young live-action girl named Alice interacted with animated cartoon characters.

In the era of sound film, the 1940 Warner Bros. cartoon You Ought to Be in Pictures, directed by Friz Freleng, can be seen as a predecessor to Roger Rabbit. The animated sequence in the 1945 film Anchors Aweigh in which Gene Kelly dances with an animated Jerry Mouse is one of the actor's most famous scenes.

The Disney Studio mixed live action and animation in several notable films (which are primarily considered live-action):

With the commercial and technological success of Who Framed Roger Rabbit and Space Jam, a number of live-action/animated films followed from other studios, including Cool World, and Looney Tunes: Back in Action - though none of them have had any major commercial success equal to Roger Rabbit or Space Jam.

There were also many previous films combining live action with stop motion animation using back projection, such as the films of Willis O'Brien and Ray Harryhausen in the United States, and Aleksandr Ptushko, Karel Zeman and more recently Jan Švankmajer in Eastern Europe. The first feature film to do this was The Lost World (1925). In the 1935 Soviet film The New Gulliver, the only character who wasn't animated was Gulliver himself. See also: List of stop-motion films

Ralph Bakshi combined live-action and animation in 1973's Heavy Traffic, 1975's Coonskin (a.k.a. "Streetfight") and 1992's Cool World.

The combination of live action and animation is very common in TV commercials, especially those promoting products appealing to children.

Techniques

Originally, animation was combined with live action in several ways, sometimes as simply as double-printing two negatives onto the same release print. More sophisticated techniques used optical printers or aerial image animation cameras, which enabled more exact positioning, and better interaction of actors and animated characters. Often, every frame of the live action film was traced by rotoscoping, so that the animator could add his drawing in the exact position.

In the penguin sequence in Mary Poppins, they filmed the live action part first, having the actors sitting in front of a painted background. Then the penguins were added, probably by using cel overlay.

With the rise of digital special effects, combining live- action and animation has become more common. The Star Wars saga and the Lord of the Rings trilogy, for example, include substantial amounts of animation, though it may not be recognized as such because of the animation's realistic, non-cartoony appearance. However, critics like Roger Ebert don’t consider this to be animation, saying, “in my mind, it isn't animation, unless it looks like animation.”[1]

Live-action/animated films

1900s

1910s

1920s

1930s

1940s

1950s

1960s

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

2010s

  • 2010 - Alice in Wonderland
  • 2010 - Diary of a Wimpy Kid (animated sequences)
  • 2010 - Surviving Life
  • 2010 - Jackass 3D (Beavis and Butthead make an appearance)
  • 2010 - My Soul to Take (Animation end credits)
  • 2010 - Yogi Bear
  • 2010 - Higglety Pigglety Pop! or There Must Be More to Life (live-action puppetry and stop-motion)
  • 2010 - Ultramarines: The Movie
  • 2010 - Shank
  • 2010 - Tron: Legacy
  • 2011 - Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Rodrick Rules (animated sequences)
  • 2011 - Hop
  • 2010 - Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows - Part 1 (The Tale of the Three Brothers sequence)
  • 2011 - A Fairly Odd Movie: Grow Up, Timmy Turner!
  • 2011 - The Smurfs
  • 2011 - Priest (opening sequence)
  • 2011 - Alvin and the Chipmunks: Chipwrecked
  • 2011 - Paul
  • 2012 - Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Dog Days (animated sequences)
  • 2012 - Life of Pi
  • 2012 - Halo 4: Forward Unto Dawn
  • 2012 - Ted
  • 2013 - The Smurfs 2
  • 2014 - Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
  • 2014 - The Lego Movie
  • 2015 - Monster Trucks
  • 2015 - SpongeBob SquarePants 2
  • 2015 - Alvin and the Chipmunks 4

TBA, in development

  • TBA - Imaginary Enemies
  • TBA - Alf
  • TBA - Manimal
  • TBA - Will Gallows and the Snake-Bellied Troll
  • TBA - Untitled Looney Tunes Reboot

References

External links

  • A Mixed Picture - drawn animation/live action hybrids worldwide from the 1960s to the 1980s (by F. S. Litten)
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