Module:Citation/CS1

Module:Citation/CS1/doc
local z = {
    error_categories = {};
    error_ids = {};
    message_tail = {};
}

-- Include translation message hooks, ID and error handling configuration settings.
--local cfg = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration/sandbox' );

-- Contains a list of all recognized parameters
--local whitelist = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Whitelist/sandbox' );

--local dates = require('Module:Citation/CS1/Date_validation/sandbox').dates		-- location of date validation code

-- Whether variable is set or not
function is_set( var )
    return not (var == nil or var == '');
end

-- First set variable or nil if none
function first_set(...)
    local list = {...};
    for _, var in pairs(list) do
        if is_set( var ) then
            return var;
        end
    end
end

-- Whether needle is in haystack
function inArray( needle, haystack )
    if needle == nil then
        return false;
    end
    for n,v in ipairs( haystack ) do
        if v == needle then
            return n;
        end
    end
    return false;
end

--
function deprecated_parameter()
	if true ~= Page_in_deprecated_cat then	-- if we haven't been here before then set a 
		Page_in_deprecated_cat=true;		-- sticky flag so that if there are more than one deprecated parameter the category is added only once
--		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'deprecated_params', {error_message}, true ) } );		-- add error message
		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'deprecated_params', {}, true ) } );		-- add error message
	end
end

-- Populates numbered arguments in a message string using an argument table.
function substitute( msg, args )
--	return args and tostring( mw.message.newRawMessage( msg, args ) ) or msg;
	return args and mw.message.newRawMessage( msg, args ):plain() or msg;
end

--
function kern_quotes (str)
	local left='%1';		-- spacing to use when title contains leading single or double quote mark
	local right='%1';		-- spacing to use when title contains trailing single or double quote mark
	
	if  str:match ("^[\"\'][^\']") then
		str = string.gsub( str, "^[\"\']", left, 1 );				-- replace (captured) leading single or double quote with left-side 
	end
	if str:match ("[^\'][\"\']$") then
		str = string.gsub( str, "[\"\']$", right, 1 );			-- replace (captured) trailing single or double quote with right-side 
	end
	return str;
end

-- Wraps a string using a message_list configuration taking one argument
function wrap( key, str, lower )
    if not is_set( str ) then
        return "";
    elseif inArray( key, { 'italic-title', 'trans-italic-title' } ) then
        str = safeforitalics( str );
    end
    if lower == true then
        return substitute( cfg.messages[key]:lower(), {str} );
    else
        return substitute( cfg.messages[key], {str} );
    end        
end

--
function argument_wrapper( args )
    local origin = {};
    
    return setmetatable({
        ORIGIN = function( self, k )
            local dummy = self[k]; --force the variable to be loaded.
            return origin[k];
        end
    },
    {
        __index = function ( tbl, k )
            if origin[k] ~= nil then
                return nil;
            end
            
            local args, list, v = args, cfg.aliases[k];
            
            if type( list ) == 'table' then
                v, origin[k] = selectone( args, list, 'redundant_parameters' );
                if origin[k] == nil then
                    origin[k] = ''; -- Empty string, not nil
                end
            elseif list ~= nil then
                v, origin[k] = args[list], list;
            else
                -- maybe let through instead of raising an error?
                -- v, origin[k] = args[k], k;
                error( cfg.messages['unknown_argument_map'] );
            end
            
            -- Empty strings, not nil;
            if v == nil then
                v = cfg.defaults[k] or '';
                origin[k] = '';
            end
            
            tbl = rawset( tbl, k, v );
            return v;
        end,
    });
end

--
function validate( name )
	local name = tostring( name );
	local state = whitelist.basic_arguments[ name ];
	
	-- Normal arguments
	if true == state then return true; end		-- valid actively supported parameter
	if false == state then
		deprecated_parameter ();				-- parameter is deprecated but still supported
		return true;
	end
	
	-- Arguments with numbers in them
	name = name:gsub( "%d+", "#" );				-- replace digit(s) with # (last25 becomes last#
	state = whitelist.numbered_arguments[ name ];
	if true == state then return true; end		-- valid actively supported parameter
	if false == state then
		deprecated_parameter ();				-- parameter is deprecated but still supported
		return true;
	end
	
	return false;								-- Not supported because not found or name is set to nil
end

-- Formats a comment for error trapping
function errorcomment( content, hidden )
    return wrap( hidden and 'hidden-error' or 'visible-error', content );
end

--
function seterror( error_id, arguments, raw, prefix, suffix )
    local error_state = cfg.error_conditions[ error_id ];
    
    prefix = prefix or "";
    suffix = suffix or "";
    
    if error_state == nil then
        error( cfg.messages['undefined_error'] );
    elseif is_set( error_state.category ) then
        table.insert( z.error_categories, error_state.category );
    end
    
    local message = substitute( error_state.message, arguments );
    
    message = message .. " ()";
    
    z.error_ids[ error_id ] = true;
    if inArray( error_id, { 'bare_url_missing_title', 'trans_missing_title' } )
            and z.error_ids['citation_missing_title'] then
        return '', false;
    end
    
    message = table.concat({ prefix, message, suffix });
    
    if raw == true then
        return message, error_state.hidden;
    end        
        
    return errorcomment( message, error_state.hidden );
end

-- Formats a wiki style external link
function externallinkid(options)
    local url_string = options.id;
    if options.encode == true or options.encode == nil then
        url_string = mw.uri.encode( url_string );
    end
    return mw.ustring.format( '%s[%s%s%s %s]',
        options.link, options.label, options.separator or " ",
        options.prefix, url_string, options.suffix or "",
        mw.text.nowiki(options.id)
    );
end

-- Formats a wiki style internal link
function internallinkid(options)
    return mw.ustring.format( '%s',
        options.link, options.label, options.separator or " ",
        options.prefix, options.id, options.suffix or "",
        mw.text.nowiki(options.id)
    );
end

-- Format an external link with error checking
function externallink( URL, label, source )
    local error_str = "";
    if not is_set( label ) then
        label = URL;
        if is_set( source ) then
            error_str = seterror( 'bare_url_missing_title', { wrap( 'parameter', source ) }, false, " " );
        else
            error( cfg.messages["bare_url_no_origin"] );
        end            
    end
    if not checkurl( URL ) then
        error_str = seterror( 'bad_url', {}, false, " " ) .. error_str;
    end
    return table.concat({ "[", URL, " ", safeforurl( label ), "]", error_str });
end

-- Formats a link to Amazon
function amazon(id, domain)
    if not is_set(domain) then 
        domain = "com"
    elseif ( "jp" == domain or "uk" == domain ) then
        domain = "co." .. domain
    end
    local handler = cfg.id_handlers['ASIN'];
    return externallinkid({link = handler.link,
        label=handler.label , prefix="//www.amazon."..domain.."/dp/",id=id,
        encode=handler.encode, separator = handler.separator})
end

--
function lccn(id)
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['LCCN'];
	local err_cat =  '';								-- presume that LCCN is valid

	local len = id:len();								-- get the length of the lccn

	if 8 == len then
		if id:match("[^%d]") then						-- if LCCN has anything but digits (nil if only digits)
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- set an error message
		end
	elseif 9 == len then								-- LCCN should be adddddddd
		if nil == id:match("%a%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d") then			-- does it match our pattern?
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- set an error message
		end
	elseif 10 == len then								-- LCCN should be aadddddddd or dddddddddd
		if id:match("[^%d]") then							-- if LCCN has anything but digits (nil if only digits) ...
			if nil == id:match("^%a%a%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d") then	-- ... see if it matches our pattern
				err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- no match, set an error message
			end
		end
	elseif 11 == len then								-- LCCN should be aaadddddddd or adddddddddd
		if not (id:match("^%a%a%a%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d") or id:match("^%a%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d")) then	-- see if it matches one of our patterns
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- no match, set an error message
		end
	elseif 12 == len then								-- LCCN should be aadddddddddd
		if not id:match("^%a%a%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d") then	-- see if it matches our pattern
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- no match, set an error message
		end
	else
		err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );		-- wrong length, set an error message
	end

	return externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
			prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode}) .. err_cat;
end

--
function pmid(id)
	local test_limit = 30000000;						-- update this value as PMIDs approach
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['PMID'];
	local err_cat =  '';								-- presume that PMID is valid
	
	if id:match("[^%d]") then							-- if PMID has anything but digits
		err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_pmid' );		-- set an error message
	else												-- PMID is only digits
		local id_num = tonumber(id);					-- convert id to a number for range testing
		if 1 > id_num or test_limit < id_num then		-- if PMID is outside test limit boundaries
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_pmid' );	-- set an error message
		end
	end
	
	return externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
			prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode}) .. err_cat;
end

--
function is_embargoed(embargo)
	if is_set(embargo) then
		local lang = mw.getContentLanguage();
		local good1, embargo_date, good2, todays_date;
		good1, embargo_date = pcall( lang.formatDate, lang, 'U', embargo );
		good2, todays_date = pcall( lang.formatDate, lang, 'U' );
	
		if good1 and good2 and tonumber( embargo_date ) >= tonumber( todays_date ) then	--is embargo date is in the future?
			return true;	-- still embargoed
		end
	end
	return false;			-- embargo expired or |embargo= not set
end

--
function pmc(id, embargo)
	local test_limit = 5000000;							-- update this value as PMCs approach
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['PMC'];
	local err_cat =  '';								-- presume that PMC is valid
    
	local text;

	if id:match("[^%d]") then							-- if PMC has anything but digits
		err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_pmc' );			-- set an error message
	else												-- PMC is only digits
		local id_num = tonumber(id);					-- convert id to a number for range testing
		if 1 > id_num or test_limit < id_num then		-- if PMC is outside test limit boundaries
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_pmc' );		-- set an error message
		end
	end
	
	if is_embargoed(embargo) then
		text=":" .. handler.separator .. id .. err_cat;	--still embargoed so no external link
	else
		text = externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,			--no embargo date, ok to link to article
			prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode}) .. err_cat;
	end
	return text;
end

-- Formats a DOI and checks for DOI errors.

-- DOI names contain two parts: prefix and suffix separated by a forward slash.
--  Prefix: directory indicator '10.' followed by a registrant code
--  Suffix: character string of any length chosen by the registrant

-- This function checks a DOI name for: prefix/suffix.  If the doi name contains spaces or endashes,
-- or, if it ends with a period or a comma, this function will emit a bad_doi error message.

-- DOI names are case-insensitive and can incorporate any printable Unicode characters so the test for spaces, endash,
-- and terminal punctuation may not be technically correct but it appears, that in practice these characters are rarely if ever used in doi names.

function doi(id, inactive)
    local cat = ""
    local handler = cfg.id_handlers['DOI'];
    
    local text;
	if is_set(inactive) then
		local inactive_year = inactive:match("%d%d%d%d") or '';		-- try to get the year portion from the inactive date
		text = ":" .. id;
		if is_set(inactive_year) then
			table.insert( z.error_categories, "Pages with DOIs inactive since " .. inactive_year );
		else
			table.insert( z.error_categories, "Pages with inactive DOIs" );	-- when inactive doesn't contain a recognizable year
		end
		inactive = " (" .. cfg.messages['inactive'] .. " " .. inactive .. ")" 
	else 
		text = externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
			prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode})
		inactive = "" 
	end

	if nil == id:match("^10%.[^%s–]-/[^%s–]-[^%.,]$") then	-- doi must begin with '10.', must contain a fwd slash, must not contain spaces or endashes, and must not end with period or comma
		cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_doi' );
	end
	return text .. inactive .. cat 
end

-- Formats an OpenLibrary link, and checks for associated errors.
function openlibrary(id)
    local code = id:sub(-1,-1)
    local handler = cfg.id_handlers['OL'];
    if ( code == "A" ) then
        return externallinkid({link=handler.link, label=handler.label,
            prefix="http://openlibrary.org/authors/OL",id=id, separator=handler.separator,
            encode = handler.encode})
    elseif ( code == "M" ) then
        return externallinkid({link=handler.link, label=handler.label,
            prefix="http://openlibrary.org/books/OL",id=id, separator=handler.separator,
            encode = handler.encode})
    elseif ( code == "W" ) then
        return externallinkid({link=handler.link, label=handler.label,
            prefix= "http://openlibrary.org/works/OL",id=id, separator=handler.separator,
            encode = handler.encode})
    else
        return externallinkid({link=handler.link, label=handler.label,
            prefix= "http://openlibrary.org/OL",id=id, separator=handler.separator,
            encode = handler.encode}) .. 
            ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_ol' );
    end
end

--
function issn(id)
	local issn_copy = id;		-- save a copy of unadulterated issn; use this version for display if issn does not validate
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['ISSN'];
	local text;
	local valid_issn = true;

	id=id:gsub( "[%s-–]", "" );									-- strip spaces, hyphens, and ndashes from the issn

	if 8 ~= id:len() or nil == id:match( "^%d*X?$" ) then		-- validate the issn: 8 didgits long, containing only 0-9 or X in the last position
		valid_issn=false;										-- wrong length or improper character
	else
		valid_issn=is_valid_isxn(id, 8);						-- validate issn
	end

	if true == valid_issn then
		id = string.sub( id, 1, 4 ) .. "-" .. string.sub( id, 5 );	-- if valid, display correctly formatted version
	else
		id = issn_copy;											-- if not valid, use the show the invalid issn with error message
	end
	
	text = externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
		prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode})
 
	if false == valid_issn then
		text = text .. ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_issn' )			-- add an error message if the issn is invalid
	end 
	
	return text
end

--
function set_titletype(cite_class, title_type)
	if is_set(title_type) then
		if "none" == title_type then
			title_type = "";					-- if |type=none then type parameter not displayed
		end
		return title_type;						-- if |type= has been set to any other value use that value
	end

	if "AV media notes" == cite_class or "DVD notes" == cite_class then		-- if this citation is cite AV media notes or cite DVD notes
		return "Media notes";					-- display AV media notes / DVD media notes annotation

	elseif "podcast" == cite_class then			-- if this citation is cite podcast
		return "Podcast";						-- display podcast annotation

	elseif "pressrelease" == cite_class then	-- if this citation is cite press release
		return "Press release";					-- display press release annotation

	elseif "techreport" == cite_class then		-- if this citation is cite techreport
		return "Technical report";				-- display techreport annotation
	
	elseif "thesis" == cite_class then			-- if this citation is cite thesis (degree option handled after this function returns)
			return "Thesis";					-- display simple thesis annotation (without |degree= modification)
	end
end

--
function checkurl( url_str )
    -- Protocol-relative or URL scheme
    return url_str:sub(1,2) == "//" or url_str:match( "^[^/]*:" ) ~= nil;
end

-- Removes irrelevant text and dashes from ISBN number
-- Similar to that used for Special:BookSources
function cleanisbn( isbn_str )
    return isbn_str:gsub( "[^-0-9X]", "" );
end

-- Extract page numbers from external wikilinks in any of the |page=, |pages=, or |at= parameters for use in COinS.
function get_coins_pages (pages)
	if not is_set (pages) then return pages; end			-- if no page numbers then we're done
	
    while true do
		pattern = pages:match("%[([%w/:\.]+%s+)[%w%d].*%]");	-- pattern is the opening bracket, the url and following space(s): "[url "
		if nil == pattern then break; end					-- no more urls
		pages = pages:gsub(pattern, "");					-- remove as many instances of pattern as possible
	end
	pages = pages:gsub("[%[%]]", "");						-- remove the brackets
	pages = pages:gsub("–", "-" );							-- replace endashes with hyphens
	pages = pages:gsub("&%w+;", "-" );						-- and replace html entities (– etc) with hyphens; do we need to replace numerical entities like   and the like?
	return pages;
end

--
function is_valid_isxn (isxn_str, len)
	local temp = 0;
	isxn_str = { isxn_str:byte(1, len) };	-- make a table of bytes
	len = len+1;							-- adjust to be a loop counter
	for i, v in ipairs( isxn_str ) do		-- loop through all of the bytes and calculate the checksum
		if v == string.byte( "X" ) then		-- if checkdigit is X
			temp = temp + 10*( len - i );	-- it represents 10 decimal
		else
			temp = temp + tonumber( string.char(v) )*(len-i);
		end
	end
	return temp % 11 == 0;					-- returns true if calculation result is zero
end

-- Determines whether an ISBN string is valid
function checkisbn( isbn_str )
	if nil ~= isbn_str:match("[^%s-0-9X]") then return false; end		-- fail if isbn_str contains anything but digits, hyphens, or the uppercase X
	isbn_str = isbn_str:gsub( "-", "" ):gsub( " ", "" );	-- remove hyphens and spaces
	local len = isbn_str:len();
 
	if len ~= 10 and len ~= 13 then
		return false;
	end

	if len == 10 then
		if isbn_str:match( "^%d*X?$" ) == nil then return false; end
		return is_valid_isxn(isbn_str, 10);
	else
		local temp = 0;
		if isbn_str:match( "^97[89]%d*$" ) == nil then return false; end	-- isbn13 begins with 978 or 979
		isbn_str = { isbn_str:byte(1, len) };
		for i, v in ipairs( isbn_str ) do
			temp = temp + (3 - 2*(i % 2)) * tonumber( string.char(v) );
		end
		return temp % 10 == 0;
	end
end

-- Gets the display text for a wikilink like  or  gives B
function removewikilink( str )
    return (str:gsub( "%[%[([^%[%]]*)%]%]", function(l)
        return l:gsub( "^[^|]*|(.*)$", "%1" ):gsub("^%s*(.-)%s*$", "%1");
    end));
end

-- Escape sequences for content that will be used for URL descriptions
function safeforurl( str )
    if str:match( "%[%[.-%]%]" ) ~= nil then 
        table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'wikilink_in_url', {}, true ) } );
    end
    
    return str:gsub( '[%[%]\n]', {    
        ['['] = '[',
        [']'] = ']',
        ['\n'] = ' ' } );
end

-- Converts a hyphen to a dash
function hyphentodash( str )
    if not is_set(str) or str:match( "[%[%]{}<>]" ) ~= nil then
        return str;
    end    
    return str:gsub( '-', '–' );
end

-- Protects a string that will be wrapped in wiki italic markup '' ... ''
function safeforitalics( str )
    --
    
    if not is_set(str) then
        return str;
    else
        if str:sub(1,1) == "'" then str = "" .. str; end
        if str:sub(-1,-1) == "'" then str = str .. ""; end
        
        -- Remove newlines as they break italics.
        return str:gsub( '\n', ' ' );
    end
end

--
function safejoin( tbl, duplicate_char )
    --
    
    local str = '';
    local comp = '';
    local end_chr = '';
    local trim;
    for _, value in ipairs( tbl ) do
        if value == nil then value = ''; end
        
        if str == '' then
            str = value;
        elseif value ~= '' then
            if value:sub(1,1) == '<' then
                -- Special case of values enclosed in spans and other markup.
                comp = value:gsub( "%b<>", "" );
            else
                comp = value;
            end
            
            if comp:sub(1,1) == duplicate_char then
                trim = false;
                end_chr = str:sub(-1,-1);
                -- str = str .. ")" .. dup2, "%1", 1 )
                    else
                        value = value:sub( 2, -1 );
                    end
                end
            end
            str = str .. value;
        end
    end
    return str;
end  

-- Attempts to convert names to initials.
function reducetoinitials(first)
    local initials = {}
    for word in string.gmatch(first, "%S+") do
        table.insert(initials, string.sub(word,1,1)) -- Vancouver format does not include full stops.
    end
    return table.concat(initials) -- Vancouver format does not include spaces.
end

-- Formats a list of people (e.g. authors / editors) 
function listpeople(control, people)
    local sep = control.sep;
    local namesep = control.namesep
    local format = control.format
    local maximum = control.maximum
    local lastauthoramp = control.lastauthoramp;
    local text = {}
    local etal = false;
    
    if sep:sub(-1,-1) ~= " " then sep = sep .. " " end
    if maximum ~= nil and maximum < 1 then return "", 0; end
    
    for i,person in ipairs(people) do
        if is_set(person.last) then
            local mask = person.mask
            local one
            local sep_one = sep;
            if maximum ~= nil and i > maximum then
                etal = true;
                break;
            elseif (mask ~= nil) then
                local n = tonumber(mask)
                if (n ~= nil) then
                    one = string.rep("—",n)
                else
                    one = mask;
                    sep_one = " ";
                end
            else
                one = person.last
                local first = person.first
                if is_set(first) then 
                    if ( "vanc" == format ) then first = reducetoinitials(first) end
                    one = one .. namesep .. first 
                end
                if is_set(person.link) then one = "" end
                if is_set(person.link) and nil ~= person.link:find("//") then one = one .. " " .. seterror( 'bad_authorlink' ) end	-- check for url in author link;
            end
            table.insert( text, one )
            table.insert( text, sep_one )
        end
    end

    local count = #text / 2;
    if count > 0 then 
        if count > 1 and is_set(lastauthoramp) and not etal then
            text[#text-2] = " & ";
        end
        text[#text] = nil; 
    end
    
    local result = table.concat(text) -- construct list
    if etal then 
        local etal_text = cfg.messages['et al'];
        result = result .. " " .. etal_text;
    end
    
    -- if necessary wrap result in  tag to format in Small Caps
    if ( "scap" == format ) then result = 
        '' .. result .. '';
    end 
    return result, count
end

-- Generates a CITEREF anchor ID.
function anchorid( options )
    return "CITEREF" .. table.concat( options );
end

-- Gets name list from the input arguments
function extractnames(args, list_name)
    local names = {};
    local i = 1;
    local last;
    
    while true do
        last = selectone( args, cfg.aliases[list_name .. '-Last'], 'redundant_parameters', i );
        if not is_set(last) then
            -- just in case someone passed in an empty parameter
            break;
        end
        names[i] = {
            last = last,
            first = selectone( args, cfg.aliases[list_name .. '-First'], 'redundant_parameters', i ),
            link = selectone( args, cfg.aliases[list_name .. '-Link'], 'redundant_parameters', i ),
            mask = selectone( args, cfg.aliases[list_name .. '-Mask'], 'redundant_parameters', i )
        };
        i = i + 1;
    end
    return names;
end

-- Populates ID table from arguments using configuration settings
function extractids( args )
    local id_list = {};
    for k, v in pairs( cfg.id_handlers ) do    
        v = selectone( args, v.parameters, 'redundant_parameters' );
        if is_set(v) then id_list[k] = v; end
    end
    return id_list;
end

-- Takes a table of IDs and turns it into a table of formatted ID outputs.
function buildidlist( id_list, options )
    local new_list, handler = {};
    
    function fallback(k) return { __index = function(t,i) return cfg.id_handlers[k][i] end } end;
    
    for k, v in pairs( id_list ) do
        -- fallback to read-only cfg
        handler = setmetatable( { ['id'] = v }, fallback(k) );
        
        if handler.mode == 'external' then
            table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, externallinkid( handler ) } );
        elseif handler.mode == 'internal' then
            table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, internallinkid( handler ) } );
        elseif handler.mode ~= 'manual' then
            error( cfg.messages['unknown_ID_mode'] );
        elseif k == 'DOI' then
            table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, doi( v, options.DoiBroken ) } );
        elseif k == 'ASIN' then
            table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, amazon( v, options.ASINTLD ) } ); 
        elseif k == 'LCCN' then
            table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, lccn( v ) } );
        elseif k == 'OL' then
            table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, openlibrary( v ) } );
        elseif k == 'PMC' then
            table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, pmc( v, options.Embargo ) } );
        elseif k == 'PMID' then
            table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, pmid( v ) } );
        elseif k == 'ISSN' then
        	table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, issn( v ) } );
        elseif k == 'ISBN' then
            local ISBN = internallinkid( handler );
            if not checkisbn( v ) and not is_set(options.IgnoreISBN) then
                ISBN = ISBN .. seterror( 'bad_isbn', {}, false, " ", "" );
            end
            table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, ISBN } );                
        else
            error( cfg.messages['unknown_manual_ID'] );
        end
    end
    
    function comp( a, b )	-- used in following table.sort()
        return a[1] < b[1];
    end
    
    table.sort( new_list, comp );
    for k, v in ipairs( new_list ) do
        new_list[k] = v[2];
    end
    
    return new_list;
end
  
-- Chooses one matching parameter from a list of parameters to consider
-- Generates an error if more than one match is present.
function selectone( args, possible, error_condition, index )
    local value = nil;
    local selected = '';
    local error_list = {};
    
    if index ~= nil then index = tostring(index); end
    
    -- Handle special case of "#" replaced by empty string
    if index == '1' then
        for _, v in ipairs( possible ) do
            v = v:gsub( "#", "" );
            if is_set(args[v]) then
                if value ~= nil and selected ~= v then
                    table.insert( error_list, v );
                else
                    value = args[v];
                    selected = v;
                end
            end
        end        
    end
    
    for _, v in ipairs( possible ) do
        if index ~= nil then
            v = v:gsub( "#", index );
        end
        if is_set(args[v]) then
            if value ~= nil and selected ~=  v then
                table.insert( error_list, v );
            else
                value = args[v];
                selected = v;
            end
        end
    end
    
    if #error_list > 0 then
        local error_str = "";
        for _, k in ipairs( error_list ) do
            if error_str ~= "" then error_str = error_str .. cfg.messages['parameter-separator'] end
            error_str = error_str .. wrap( 'parameter', k );
        end
        if #error_list > 1 then
            error_str = error_str .. cfg.messages['parameter-final-separator'];
        else
            error_str = error_str .. cfg.messages['parameter-pair-separator'];
        end
        error_str = error_str .. wrap( 'parameter', selected );
        table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( error_condition, {error_str}, true ) } );
    end
    
    return value, selected;
end

-- COinS metadata (see ) allows automated tools to parse
-- the citation information.
function COinS(data)
    if 'table' ~= type(data) or nil == next(data) then
        return '';
    end
    
    local ctx_ver = "Z39.88-2004";
    
    -- treat table strictly as an array with only set values.
    local OCinSoutput = setmetatable( {}, {
        __newindex = function(self, key, value)
            if is_set(value) then
                rawset( self, #self+1, table.concat{ key, '=', mw.uri.encode( removewikilink( value ) ) } );
            end
        end
    });
    
    if is_set(data.Chapter) then
        OCinSoutput.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book";
        OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "bookitem";
        OCinSoutput["rft.btitle"] = data.Chapter;
        OCinSoutput["rft.atitle"] = data.Title;
    elseif is_set(data.Periodical) then
        OCinSoutput.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal";
        OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "article";
        OCinSoutput["rft.jtitle"] = data.Periodical;
        OCinSoutput["rft.atitle"] = data.Title;
    else
        OCinSoutput.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book";
        OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "book"
        OCinSoutput["rft.btitle"] = data.Title;
    end
    
    OCinSoutput["rft.place"] = data.PublicationPlace;
    OCinSoutput["rft.date"] = data.Date;
    OCinSoutput["rft.series"] = data.Series;
    OCinSoutput["rft.volume"] = data.Volume;
    OCinSoutput["rft.issue"] = data.Issue;
    OCinSoutput["rft.pages"] = data.Pages;
    OCinSoutput["rft.edition"] = data.Edition;
    OCinSoutput["rft.pub"] = data.PublisherName;
    
    for k, v in pairs( data.ID_list ) do
        local id, value = cfg.id_handlers[k].COinS;
        if k == 'ISBN' then value = cleanisbn( v ); else value = v; end
        if string.sub( id or "", 1, 4 ) == 'info' then
            OCinSoutput["rft_id"] = table.concat{ id, "/", v };
        else
            OCinSoutput[ id ] = value;
        end
    end
    
    local last, first;
    for k, v in ipairs( data.Authors ) do
        last, first = v.last, v.first;
        if k == 1 then
            if is_set(last) then
                OCinSoutput["rft.aulast"] = last;
            end
            if is_set(first) then 
                OCinSoutput["rft.aufirst"] = first;
            end
        end
        if is_set(last) and is_set(first) then
            OCinSoutput["rft.au"] = table.concat{ last, ", ", first };
        elseif is_set(last) then
            OCinSoutput["rft.au"] = last;
        end
    end
    
    OCinSoutput.rft_id = data.URL;
    OCinSoutput.rfr_id = table.concat{ "info:sid/", mw.site.server:match( "[^/]*$" ), ":", data.RawPage };
    OCinSoutput = setmetatable( OCinSoutput, nil );
    
    -- sort with version string always first, and combine.
    table.sort( OCinSoutput );
    table.insert( OCinSoutput, 1, "ctx_ver=" .. ctx_ver );  -- such as "Z39.88-2004"
    return table.concat(OCinSoutput, "&");
end

--
function citation0( config, args)
    --
    local A = argument_wrapper( args );

    local i 
    local PPrefix = A['PPrefix']
    local PPPrefix = A['PPPrefix']
    if is_set( A['NoPP'] ) then PPPrefix = "" PPrefix = "" end
    
    -- Pick out the relevant fields from the arguments.  Different citation templates
    -- define different field names for the same underlying things.    
    local Authors = A['Authors'];
    local a = extractnames( args, 'AuthorList' );

    local Coauthors = A['Coauthors'];
    local Others = A['Others'];
    local Editors = A['Editors'];
    local e = extractnames( args, 'EditorList' );

    local Year = A['Year'];
    local PublicationDate = A['PublicationDate'];
    local OrigYear = A['OrigYear'];
    local Date = A['Date'];
    local LayDate = A['LayDate'];
    ------------------------------------------------- Get title data
    local Title = A['Title'];
    local BookTitle = A['BookTitle'];
    local Conference = A['Conference'];
    local TransTitle = A['TransTitle'];
    local TitleNote = A['TitleNote'];
    local TitleLink = A['TitleLink'];
    local Chapter = A['Chapter'];
    local ChapterLink = A['ChapterLink'];
    local TransChapter = A['TransChapter'];
    local TitleType = A['TitleType'];
    local Degree = A['Degree'];
    local Docket = A['Docket'];
    local ArchiveURL = A['ArchiveURL'];
    local URL = A['URL']
    local URLorigin = A:ORIGIN('URL');
    local ChapterURL = A['ChapterURL'];
    local ChapterURLorigin = A:ORIGIN('ChapterURL');
    local ConferenceURL = A['ConferenceURL'];
    local ConferenceURLorigin = A:ORIGIN('ConferenceURL');
    local Periodical = A['Periodical'];

	local Series = A['Series'];
    local Volume = A['Volume'];
    local Issue = A['Issue'];
    local Position = '';
    local Page = A['Page'];
    local Pages = hyphentodash( A['Pages'] );	
    local At = A['At'];

    local Edition = A['Edition'];
    local PublicationPlace = A['PublicationPlace']
    local Place = A['Place'];
    
    local PublisherName = A['PublisherName'];
    local RegistrationRequired = A['RegistrationRequired'];
    local SubscriptionRequired = A['SubscriptionRequired'];
    local Via = A['Via'];
    local AccessDate = A['AccessDate'];
    local ArchiveDate = A['ArchiveDate'];
    local Agency = A['Agency'];
    local DeadURL = A['DeadURL']
    local Language = A['Language'];
    local Format = A['Format'];
    local Ref = A['Ref'];
	local DoiBroken = A['DoiBroken'];
	local ID = A['ID'];
    local ASINTLD = A['ASINTLD'];
    local IgnoreISBN = A['IgnoreISBN'];
    local Embargo = A['Embargo'];

    local ID_list = extractids( args );
    
    local Quote = A['Quote'];
    local PostScript = A['PostScript'];

    local LayURL = A['LayURL'];
    local LaySource = A['LaySource'];
    local Transcript = A['Transcript'];
    local TranscriptURL = A['TranscriptURL'] 
    local TranscriptURLorigin = A:ORIGIN('TranscriptURL');
    local sepc = A['Separator'];

    local LastAuthorAmp = A['LastAuthorAmp'];
    local no_tracking_cats = A['NoTracking'];

--these are used by cite interview
	local Callsign = A['Callsign'];
	local City = A['City'];
	local Cointerviewers = A['Cointerviewers'];			-- deprecated
	local Interviewer = A['Interviewer'];				-- deprecated
	local Program = A['Program'];

--local variables that are not cs1 parameters
    local page_type;									-- is this needed?  Doesn't appear to be used anywhere;
    local use_lowercase = ( sepc ~= '.' );
    local this_page = mw.title.getCurrentTitle();		--Also used for COinS and for language
	local anchor_year;									-- used in the CITEREF identifier
	local COinS_date;									-- used in the COinS metadata

-- Set postscript default.
	if not is_set (PostScript) then						-- if |postscript= has not been set (Postscript is nil which is the default for ) and
		if (config.CitationClass ~= "citation") then	-- this template is not a citation template
			PostScript = '.';							-- must be a cite xxx template so set postscript to default (period)
		end
	else
		if PostScript:lower() == 'none' then			-- if |postscript=none then
			PostScript = '';							-- no postscript
		end
	end

--check this page to see if it is in one of the namespaces that cs1 is not supposed to add to the error categories.
	if not is_set(no_tracking_cats) then				-- ignore if we are already not going to categorize this page
		for k, v in pairs( cfg.uncategorized_namespaces ) do	-- otherwise, spin through the list of namespaces we don't include in error categories
			if this_page.nsText == v then				-- if we find one
				no_tracking_cats = "true";				-- set no_trackin_cats
				break;									-- and we're done
            end
        end
    end

-- check for extra |page=, |pages= or |at= parameters. 
    if is_set(Page) then
        if is_set(Pages) or is_set(At) then
            Page = Page .. " " .. seterror('extra_pages');	-- add error message
            Pages = '';										-- unset the others
            At = '';
        end
    elseif is_set(Pages) then
        if is_set(At) then
            Pages = Pages .. " " .. seterror('extra_pages');	-- add error messages
            At = '';											-- unset
        end
    end    

-- both |publication-place= and |place= (|location=) allowed if different
    if not is_set(PublicationPlace) and is_set(Place) then
        PublicationPlace = Place;							-- promote |place= (|location=) to |publication-place
    end
    
    if PublicationPlace == Place then Place = ''; end		-- don't need both if they are the same
    
--
	if ( config.CitationClass == "encyclopaedia" ) then
		if is_set(Periodical) then					-- Periodical is set when |encyclopedia is set
			if is_set(Title) then
				if not is_set(Chapter) then
					Chapter = Title;				-- |encyclopedia and |title are set so map |title to |article and |encyclopedia to |title
					TransChapter = TransTitle;
					Title = Periodical;
					Periodical = '';				-- redundant so unset
					TransTitle = '';				-- redundant so unset
				end
			else									-- |title not set
				Title = Periodical;					-- |encyclopedia set and |article set or not set so map |encyclopedia to |title
				Periodical = '';					-- redundant so unset
			end
		end
	end

--special cases for citation.
	if (config.CitationClass == "citation") then		-- for citation templates
		if not is_set (Ref) then						-- if |ref= is not set
			Ref = "harv";								-- set default |ref=harv
		end
		if not is_set (sepc) then						-- if |separator= is not set
			sepc = ',';									-- set citation separator to its default (comma)
		end
	else												-- not a citation template
		if not is_set (sepc) then						-- if |separator= has not been set
			sepc = '.';									-- set cite xxx separator to its default (period)
		end
	end

-- check for specital case where |separator=none
	if 'none' == sepc:lower() then						-- if |separator=none
		sepc = '';										-- then set it to a empty string
	end

-- Special case for cite techreport.
	if (config.CitationClass == "techreport") then	-- special case for cite techreport
		if is_set(Issue) then						-- cite techreport uses 'number', which other citations aliase to 'issue'
			if not is_set(ID) then					-- can we use ID for the "number"?
				ID = Issue;							-- yes, use it
				Issue = "";							-- unset Issue so that "number" isn't duplicated in the rendered citation or COinS metadata
			else									-- can't use ID so emit error message
				ID = ID .. " " .. seterror('redundant_parameters', '|id= and |number=');
			end
		end	
	end

-- special case for cite interview
	if (config.CitationClass == "interview") then
		if is_set(Program) then
			ID = ' ' .. Program;
		end
		if is_set(Callsign) then
			if is_set(ID) then
				ID = ID .. sepc .. ' ' .. Callsign;
			else
				ID = ' ' .. Callsign;
			end
		end
		if is_set(City) then
			if is_set(ID) then
				ID = ID .. sepc .. ' ' .. City;
			else
				ID = ' ' .. City;
			end
		end

		if is_set(Interviewer) then
			if is_set(TitleType) then
				Others = ' ' .. TitleType .. ' with ' .. Interviewer;
				TitleType = '';
			else
				Others = ' ' .. 'Interview with ' .. Interviewer;
			end
			if is_set(Cointerviewers) then
				Others = Others .. sepc .. ' ' .. Cointerviewers;
			end
		else
			Others = '(Interview)';
		end
	end

--Account for the oddity that is  with |pmc= set and |url= not set
	if config.CitationClass == "journal" and not is_set(URL) and is_set(ID_list['PMC']) then
		if not is_embargoed(Embargo) then
			URL=cfg.id_handlers['PMC'].prefix .. ID_list['PMC'];	-- set url to be the same as the PMC external link if not embargoed
			URLorigin = cfg.id_handlers['PMC'].parameters[1];		-- set URLorigin to parameter name for use in error message if citation is missing a |title=
		end
	end

-- Account for the oddity that is , before generation of COinS data.
--TODO: if this is only for , shouldn't we be checking? (if config.CitationClass=='conference' then ...)
	if is_set(BookTitle) then
		Chapter = Title;
		ChapterLink = TitleLink;
		TransChapter = TransTitle;
		Title = BookTitle;
		TitleLink = '';
		TransTitle = '';
	end

-- Account for the oddity that is , before generation of COinS data.
-- is not currently supported by this module
	if config.CitationClass == "episode" then
		local AirDate = A['AirDate'];
		local SeriesLink = A['SeriesLink'];
		local Season = A['Season'];
		local SeriesNumber = A['SeriesNumber'];
		local Network = A['Network'];
		local Station = A['Station'];
		local s, n = {}, {};
		local Sep = (first_set(A["SeriesSeparator"], A["Separator"]) or "") .. " ";
		
		if is_set(Issue) then table.insert(s, cfg.messages["episode"] .. " " .. Issue); Issue = ''; end
		if is_set(Season) then table.insert(s, cfg.messages["season"] .. " " .. Season); end
		if is_set(SeriesNumber) then table.insert(s, cfg.messages["series"] .. " " .. SeriesNumber); end
		if is_set(Network) then table.insert(n, Network); end
		if is_set(Station) then table.insert(n, Station); end
		
		Date = Date or AirDate;
		Chapter = Title;
		ChapterLink = TitleLink;
		TransChapter = TransTitle;
		Title = Series;
		TitleLink = SeriesLink;
		TransTitle = '';
		
		Series = table.concat(s, Sep);
		ID = table.concat(n, Sep);
	end
-- end of  stuff]]

-- legacy: promote concatenation of |day=, |month=, and |year= to Date if Date not set; or, promote PublicationDate to Date if neither Date nor Year are set.
	if not is_set(Date) then
		Date = Year;						-- promote Year to Date
		Year = nil;							-- make nil so Year as empty string isn't used for CITEREF
		if is_set(Date) then
			local Month = A['Month'];
			if is_set(Month) then
				Date = Month .. " " .. Date;
				local Day = A['Day']
				if is_set(Day) then Date = Day .. " " .. Date end
			end
		elseif is_set(PublicationDate) then	-- use PublicationDate when |date= and |year= are not set
			Date = PublicationDate;			-- promonte PublicationDate to Date
			PublicationDate = '';			-- unset, no longer needed
		end
	end

	if PublicationDate == Date then PublicationDate = ''; end	-- if PublicationDate is same as Date, don't display in rendered citation


--
	anchor_year, COinS_date, error_message = dates(";
    end
    if is_set(Periodical) and is_set(Title) then
        Chapter = wrap( 'italic-title', Chapter );
        TransChapter = wrap( 'trans-italic-title', TransChapter );
    else
		Chapter = kern_quotes (Chapter);				-- if necessary, separate chapter title's leading and trailing quote marks from Module provided quote marks
        Chapter = wrap( 'quoted-title', Chapter );
        TransChapter = wrap( 'trans-quoted-title', TransChapter );
    end
    
    local TransError = ""
    if is_set(TransChapter) then
        if not is_set(Chapter) then
            TransError = " " .. seterror( 'trans_missing_chapter' );
        else
            TransChapter = " " .. TransChapter;
        end
    end
    
    Chapter = Chapter .. TransChapter;
    
    if is_set(Chapter) then
        if not is_set(ChapterLink) then
            if is_set(ChapterURL) then
                Chapter = externallink( ChapterURL, Chapter ) .. TransError;
                if not is_set(URL) then
                    Chapter = Chapter .. Format;
                    Format = "";
                end
            elseif is_set(URL) then 
                Chapter = externallink( URL, Chapter ) .. TransError .. Format;
                URL = "";
                Format = "";
            else
                Chapter = Chapter .. TransError;
            end            
        elseif is_set(ChapterURL) then
            Chapter = Chapter .. " " .. externallink( ChapterURL, nil, ChapterURLorigin ) .. 
                TransError;
        else
            Chapter = Chapter .. TransError;
        end
        Chapter = Chapter .. sepc .. " " -- with end-space
    elseif is_set(ChapterURL) then
        Chapter = " " .. externallink( ChapterURL, nil, ChapterURLorigin ) .. sepc .. " ";
    end        
    
    -- Format main title.
    if is_set(TitleLink) and is_set(Title) then
        Title = ""
    end
    
    if is_set(Periodical) then
		Title = kern_quotes (Title);				-- if necessary, separate title's leading and trailing quote marks from Module provided quote marks
        Title = wrap( 'quoted-title', Title );
        TransTitle = wrap( 'trans-quoted-title', TransTitle );
    elseif inArray(config.CitationClass, {"web","news","pressrelease","conference","podcast"}) and
            not is_set(Chapter) then
		Title = kern_quotes (Title);				-- if necessary, separate title's leading and trailing quote marks from Module provided quote marks
        Title = wrap( 'quoted-title', Title );
        TransTitle = wrap( 'trans-quoted-title', TransTitle );
    else
        Title = wrap( 'italic-title', Title );
        TransTitle = wrap( 'trans-italic-title', TransTitle );
    end
    
    TransError = "";
    if is_set(TransTitle) then
        if not is_set(Title) then
            TransError = " " .. seterror( 'trans_missing_title' );
        else
            TransTitle = " " .. TransTitle;
        end
    end
    
    Title = Title .. TransTitle;
    
    if is_set(Title) then
        if not is_set(TitleLink) and is_set(URL) then 
            Title = externallink( URL, Title ) .. TransError .. Format       
            URL = "";
            Format = "";
        else
            Title = Title .. TransError;
        end
    end
    
    if is_set(Place) then
        Place = " " .. wrap( 'written', Place, use_lowercase ) .. sepc .. " ";
    end
    
    if is_set(Conference) then
        if is_set(ConferenceURL) then
            Conference = externallink( ConferenceURL, Conference );
        end
        Conference = sepc .. " " .. Conference
    elseif is_set(ConferenceURL) then
        Conference = sepc .. " " .. externallink( ConferenceURL, nil, ConferenceURLorigin );
    end
    
    if not is_set(Position) then
        local Minutes = A['Minutes'];
        if is_set(Minutes) then
            Position = " " .. Minutes .. " " .. cfg.messages['minutes'];
        else
            local Time = A['Time'];
            if is_set(Time) then
                local TimeCaption = A['TimeCaption']
                if not is_set(TimeCaption) then
                    TimeCaption = cfg.messages['event'];
                    if sepc ~= '.' then
                        TimeCaption = TimeCaption:lower();
                    end
                end
                Position = " " .. TimeCaption .. " " .. Time;
            end
        end
    else
        Position = " " .. Position;
        At = '';
    end
    
    if not is_set(Page) then
        if is_set(Pages) then
            if is_set(Periodical) and
                not inArray(config.CitationClass, {"encyclopaedia","web","book","news","podcast"}) then
                Pages = ": " .. Pages;
            elseif tonumber(Pages) ~= nil then
                Pages = sepc .." " .. PPrefix .. Pages;
            else
                Pages = sepc .." " .. PPPrefix .. Pages;
            end
        end
    else
        if is_set(Periodical) and
            not inArray(config.CitationClass, {"encyclopaedia","web","book","news","podcast"}) then
            Page = ": " .. Page;
        else
            Page = sepc .." " .. PPrefix .. Page;
        end
    end
    
    At = is_set(At) and (sepc .. " " .. At) or "";
    Position = is_set(Position) and (sepc .. " " .. Position) or "";
    if config.CitationClass == 'map' then
        local Section = A['Section'];
        local Inset = A['Inset'];
        if first_set( Pages, Page, At ) ~= nil or sepc ~= '.' then
            if is_set( Section ) then
                Section = ", " .. wrap( 'section', Section, true );
            end
            if is_set( Inset ) then
                Inset = ", " .. wrap( 'inset', Inset, true );
            end
        else
            if is_set( Section ) then
                Section = sepc .. " " .. wrap( 'section', Section, use_lowercase );
                if is_set( Inset ) then
                    Inset = ", " .. wrap( 'inset', Inset, true );
                end
            elseif is_set( Inset ) then
                Inset = sepc .. " " .. wrap( 'inset', Inset, use_lowercase );
            end            
        end            
        At = At .. Section .. Inset;        
    end    

	-- templates - categorizes only mainspace citations and only when the language code is not 'en' (English).
	]]
	if is_set (Language) then
--		local name = mw.language.fetchLanguageName( Language:lower(), "en" );	-- experiment: this seems to return correct ISO 639-1 language names
		local name = cfg.iso639_1[Language:lower()];		-- get the language name if Language parameter has a valid iso 639-1 code
		if nil == name then
			Language=" " .. wrap( 'language', Language );	-- no match, use parameter's value
		else
			if 0 == this_page.namespace and 'en' ~= Language:lower() then	--found a match; is this page main / article space and English not the language?
				Language=" " .. wrap( 'language', name .. '' );	-- in main space and not English: categorize
			else
				Language=" " .. wrap( 'language', name );	--not in mainspace or language is English so don't categorize
			end
		end
	else
		Language="";	-- language not specified so make sure this is an empty string;
	end

	Others = is_set(Others) and (sepc .. " " .. Others) or "";

-- handle type parameter for those CS1 citations that have default values

	if inArray(config.CitationClass, {"AV media notes", "DVD notes", "podcast", "pressrelease", "techreport", "thesis"}) then
		TitleType = set_titletype (config.CitationClass, TitleType);
		if is_set(Degree) and "Thesis" == TitleType then	-- special case for cite thesis
			TitleType = Degree .. " thesis";
		end
	end

	if is_set(TitleType) then					-- if type parameter is specified
		TitleType = " (" .. TitleType .. ")";	-- display it in parentheses
	end

	TitleNote = is_set(TitleNote) and (sepc .. " " .. TitleNote) or "";
    Edition = is_set(Edition) and (" " .. wrap( 'edition', Edition )) or "";
    Issue = is_set(Issue) and (" (" .. Issue .. ")") or "";
    Series = is_set(Series) and (sepc .. " " .. Series) or "";
    OrigYear = is_set(OrigYear) and (" [" .. OrigYear .. "]") or "";
    Agency = is_set(Agency) and (sepc .. " " .. Agency) or "";

    if is_set(Volume) then
        if ( mw.ustring.len(Volume) > 4 )
          then Volume = sepc .." " .. Volume;
          else Volume = " " .. hyphentodash(Volume) .. "";
        end
    end

--    
    ------------------------------------ totally unrelated data
    -- template; Via parameter identifies a delivery source that is not the publisher; these sources often, but not always, exist
    behind a registration or paywall.  So here, we've chosen to decouple via from subscription (via has never been part of the registration required template).
    
    Subscription implies paywall; Registration does not.  If both are used in a citation, the subscription required link note is displayed. There are no error messages for this condition.
    ]]
    if is_set(Via) then
        Via = " " .. wrap( 'via', Via );
    end

	if is_set(SubscriptionRequired) then
        SubscriptionRequired = sepc .. " " .. cfg.messages['subscription']; --here when 'via' parameter not used but 'subscription' is
    elseif is_set(RegistrationRequired) then
        SubscriptionRequired = sepc .. " " .. cfg.messages['registration']; --here when 'via' and 'subscription' parameters not used but 'registration' is
    end

    if is_set(AccessDate) then
        local retrv_text = " " .. cfg.messages['retrieved']
        if (sepc ~= ".") then retrv_text = retrv_text:lower() end
        AccessDate = '' .. sepc
            .. substitute( retrv_text, {AccessDate} ) .. ''
    end
    
    if is_set(ID) then ID = sepc .." ".. ID; end
   	if "thesis" == config.CitationClass and is_set(Docket) then
		ID = sepc .." Docket ".. Docket .. ID;
	end

    
    ID_list = buildidlist( ID_list, {DoiBroken = DoiBroken, ASINTLD = ASINTLD, IgnoreISBN = IgnoreISBN, Embargo=Embargo} );

    if is_set(URL) then
        URL = " " .. externallink( URL, nil, URLorigin );
    end

    if is_set(Quote) then
        if Quote:sub(1,1) == '"' and Quote:sub(-1,-1) == '"' then
            Quote = Quote:sub(2,-2);
        end
        Quote = sepc .." " .. wrap( 'quoted-text', Quote ); 
        PostScript = "";							-- CS1 does not supply terminal punctuation when |quote= is set
    end
    
    local Archived
    if is_set(ArchiveURL) then
        if not is_set(ArchiveDate) then
            ArchiveDate = seterror('archive_missing_date');
        end
        if "no" == DeadURL then
            local arch_text = cfg.messages['archived'];
            if sepc ~= "." then arch_text = arch_text:lower() end
            Archived = sepc .. " " .. substitute( cfg.messages['archived-not-dead'],
                { externallink( ArchiveURL, arch_text ), ArchiveDate } );
            if not is_set(OriginalURL) then
                Archived = Archived .. " " .. seterror('archive_missing_url');                               
            end
        elseif is_set(OriginalURL) then
            local arch_text = cfg.messages['archived-dead'];
            if sepc ~= "." then arch_text = arch_text:lower() end
            Archived = sepc .. " " .. substitute( arch_text,
                { externallink( OriginalURL, cfg.messages['original'] ), ArchiveDate } );
        else
            local arch_text = cfg.messages['archived-missing'];
            if sepc ~= "." then arch_text = arch_text:lower() end
            Archived = sepc .. " " .. substitute( arch_text, 
                { seterror('archive_missing_url'), ArchiveDate } );
        end
    else
        Archived = ""
    end
    
    local Lay
    if is_set(LayURL) then
        if is_set(LayDate) then LayDate = " (" .. LayDate .. ")" end
        if is_set(LaySource) then 
            LaySource = " – ''" .. safeforitalics(LaySource) .. "''";
        else
            LaySource = "";
        end
        if sepc == '.' then
            Lay = sepc .. " " .. externallink( LayURL, cfg.messages['lay summary'] ) .. LaySource .. LayDate
        else
            Lay = sepc .. " " .. externallink( LayURL, cfg.messages['lay summary']:lower() ) .. LaySource .. LayDate
        end            
    else
        Lay = "";
    end
    
    if is_set(Transcript) then
        if is_set(TranscriptURL) then Transcript = externallink( TranscriptURL, Transcript ); end
    elseif is_set(TranscriptURL) then
        Transcript = externallink( TranscriptURL, nil, TranscriptURLorigin );
    end
    
    local Publisher;
    if is_set(Periodical) and
        not inArray(config.CitationClass, {"encyclopaedia","web","pressrelease","podcast"}) then
        if is_set(PublisherName) then
            if is_set(PublicationPlace) then
                Publisher = PublicationPlace .. ": " .. PublisherName;
            else
                Publisher = PublisherName;  
            end
        elseif is_set(PublicationPlace) then
            Publisher= PublicationPlace;
        else 
            Publisher = "";
        end
        if is_set(PublicationDate) then
            if is_set(Publisher) then
                Publisher = Publisher .. ", " .. wrap( 'published', PublicationDate );
            else
                Publisher = PublicationDate;
            end
        end
        if is_set(Publisher) then
            Publisher = " (" .. Publisher .. ")";
        end
    else
        if is_set(PublicationDate) then
            PublicationDate = " (" .. wrap( 'published', PublicationDate ) .. ")";
        end
        if is_set(PublisherName) then
            if is_set(PublicationPlace) then
                Publisher = sepc .. " " .. PublicationPlace .. ": " .. PublisherName .. PublicationDate;
            else
                Publisher = sepc .. " " .. PublisherName .. PublicationDate;  
            end            
        elseif is_set(PublicationPlace) then 
            Publisher= sepc .. " " .. PublicationPlace .. PublicationDate;
        else 
            Publisher = PublicationDate;
        end
    end
    
    -- Several of the above rely upon detecting this as nil, so do it last.
    if is_set(Periodical) then
        if is_set(Title) or is_set(TitleNote) then 
            Periodical = sepc .. " " .. wrap( 'italic-title', Periodical ) 
        else 
            Periodical = wrap( 'italic-title', Periodical )
        end
    end

--
	if "speech" == config.CitationClass then				-- cite speech only
		TitleNote = " (Speech)";							-- annotate the citation
		if is_set (Periodical) then							-- if Periodical, perhaps because of an included |website= or |journal= parameter 
			if is_set (Conference) then						-- and if |event= is set
				Conference = Conference .. sepc .. " ";		-- then add appropriate punctuation to the end of the Conference variable before rendering
			end
		end
	end

    -- Piece all bits together at last.  Here, all should be non-nil.
    -- We build things this way because it is more efficient in LUA
    -- not to keep reassigning to the same string variable over and over.

    local tcommon
    if inArray(config.CitationClass, {"journal","citation"}) and is_set(Periodical) then
        if is_set(Others) then Others = Others .. sepc .. " " end
        tcommon = safejoin( {Others, Title, TitleNote, Conference, Periodical, Format, TitleType, Scale, Series, 
            Language, Cartography, Edition, Publisher, Agency, Volume, Issue}, sepc );
    else 
        tcommon = safejoin( {Title, TitleNote, Conference, Periodical, Format, TitleType, Scale, Series, Language, 
            Volume, Issue, Others, Cartography, Edition, Publisher, Agency}, sepc );
    end
    
    if #ID_list > 0 then
        ID_list = safejoin( { sepc .. " ",  table.concat( ID_list, sepc .. " " ), ID }, sepc );
    else
        ID_list = ID;
    end
    
    local idcommon = safejoin( { ID_list, URL, Archived, AccessDate, Via, SubscriptionRequired, Lay, Quote }, sepc );
    local text;
    local pgtext = Position .. Page .. Pages .. At;
    
    if is_set(Authors) then
        if is_set(Coauthors) then
            Authors = Authors .. A['AuthorSeparator'] .. " " .. Coauthors
        end
        if is_set(Date) then
            Date = " ("..Date..")" .. OrigYear .. sepc .. " "
        elseif string.sub(Authors,-1,-1) == sepc then
            Authors = Authors .. " "
        else
            Authors = Authors .. sepc .. " "
        end
        if is_set(Editors) then
            local in_text = " ";
            local post_text = "";
            if is_set(Chapter) then
                in_text = in_text .. cfg.messages['in'] .. " "
            else
                if EditorCount <= 1 then
                    post_text = ", " .. cfg.messages['editor'];
                else
                    post_text = ", " .. cfg.messages['editors'];
                end
            end 
            if (sepc ~= '.') then in_text = in_text:lower() end
            Editors = in_text .. Editors .. post_text;
            if (string.sub(Editors,-1,-1) == sepc)
                then Editors = Editors .. " "
                else Editors = Editors .. sepc .. " "
            end
        end
        text = safejoin( {Authors, Date, Chapter, Place, Editors, tcommon }, sepc );
        text = safejoin( {text, pgtext, idcommon}, sepc );
    elseif is_set(Editors) then
        if is_set(Date) then
            if EditorCount <= 1 then
                Editors = Editors .. ", " .. cfg.messages['editor'];
            else
                Editors = Editors .. ", " .. cfg.messages['editors'];
            end
            Date = " (" .. Date ..")" .. OrigYear .. sepc .. " "
        else
            if EditorCount <= 1 then
                Editors = Editors .. " (" .. cfg.messages['editor'] .. ")" .. sepc .. " "
            else
                Editors = Editors .. " (" .. cfg.messages['editors'] .. ")" .. sepc .. " "
            end
        end
        text = safejoin( {Editors, Date, Chapter, Place, tcommon}, sepc );
        text = safejoin( {text, pgtext, idcommon}, sepc );
    else
        if is_set(Date) then
            if ( string.sub(tcommon,-1,-1) ~= sepc )
              then Date = sepc .." " .. Date .. OrigYear
              else Date = " " .. Date .. OrigYear
            end
        end
        if config.CitationClass=="journal" and is_set(Periodical) then
            text = safejoin( {Chapter, Place, tcommon}, sepc );
            text = safejoin( {text, pgtext, Date, idcommon}, sepc );
        else
            text = safejoin( {Chapter, Place, tcommon, Date}, sepc );
            text = safejoin( {text, pgtext, idcommon}, sepc );
        end
    end
    
	if is_set(PostScript) and PostScript ~= sepc then
		text = safejoin( {text, sepc}, sepc );  --Deals with italics, spaces, etc.
		text = text:sub(1,-sepc:len()-1);
--		text = text:sub(1,-2);	--Remove final separator (assumes that sepc is only one character)
	end    
    
    text = safejoin( {text, PostScript}, sepc );

    -- Now enclose the whole thing in a  element
    local options = {};
    
    if is_set(config.CitationClass) and config.CitationClass ~= "citation" then
        options.class = "citation " .. config.CitationClass;
    else
        options.class = "citation";
    end
    
    if is_set(Ref) and Ref:lower() ~= "none" then
        local id = Ref
        if ( "harv" == Ref ) then
            local names = {} --table of last names & year
            if #a > 0 then
                for i,v in ipairs(a) do 
                    names[i] = v.last 
                    if i == 4 then break end
                end
            elseif #e > 0 then
                for i,v in ipairs(e) do 
                    names[i] = v.last 
                    if i == 4 then break end                
                end
            end
			names[ #names + 1 ] = first_set(Year, anchor_year);	-- Year first for legacy citations
            id = anchorid(names)
        end
        options.id = id;
    end
    
    if string.len(text:gsub("/]*>.-", ""):gsub("%b<>","")) <= 2 then
        z.error_categories = {};
        text = seterror('empty_citation');
        z.message_tail = {};
    end
    
    if is_set(options.id) then 
        text = '' .. text .. "";
    else
        text = '' .. text .. "";
    end        

    local empty_span = ' ';
    
    -- Note: Using display: none on then COinS span breaks some clients.
    local OCinS = '' .. empty_span .. '';
    text = text .. OCinS;
    
    if #z.message_tail ~= 0 then
        text = text .. " ";
        for i,v in ipairs( z.message_tail ) do
            if is_set(v[1]) then
                if i == #z.message_tail then
                    text = text .. errorcomment( v[1], v[2] );
                else
                    text = text .. errorcomment( v[1] .. "; ", v[2] );
                end
            end
        end
    end
    
    no_tracking_cats = no_tracking_cats:lower();
    if inArray(no_tracking_cats, {"", "no", "false", "n"}) then
        for _, v in ipairs( z.error_categories ) do
            text = text .. '';
        end
    end
    
    return text
end

-- This is used by templates such as  to create the actual citation text.
function z.citation(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    
    if nil ~= string.find( frame:getTitle(), 'sandbox', 1, true ) then				-- did the  use sandbox version?
    	cfg = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration/sandbox' );	-- load sandbox versions of Configuration and Whitelist and ...
    	whitelist = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Whitelist/sandbox' );
    	dates = require('Module:Citation/CS1/Date_validation/sandbox').dates	-- ... sandbox version of date validation code
    else																	-- otherwise
    	cfg = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration' );			-- load live versions of Configuration and Whitelist and ...
    	whitelist = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Whitelist' );
    	dates = require('Module:Citation/CS1/Date_validation').dates		-- ... live version of date validation code
	end
	
    local args = {};
    local suggestions = {};
    local error_text, error_state;

    local config = {};
    for k, v in pairs( frame.args ) do
        config[k] = v;
        args[k] = v;       
    end    

    for k, v in pairs( pframe.args ) do
        if v ~= '' then
            if not validate( k ) then            
                error_text = "";
                if type( k ) ~= 'string' then
                    -- Exclude empty numbered parameters
                    if v:match("%S+") ~= nil then
                        error_text, error_state = seterror( 'text_ignored', {v}, true );
                    end
                elseif validate( k:lower() ) then 
                    error_text, error_state = seterror( 'parameter_ignored_suggest', {k, k:lower()}, true );
                else
                    if #suggestions == 0 then
                        suggestions = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' );
                    end
                    if suggestions[ k:lower() ] ~= nil then
                        error_text, error_state = seterror( 'parameter_ignored_suggest', {k, suggestions[ k:lower() ]}, true );
                    else
                        error_text, error_state = seterror( 'parameter_ignored', {k}, true );
                    end
                end                  
                if error_text ~= '' then
                    table.insert( z.message_tail, {error_text, error_state} );
                end                
            end
            args[k] = v;
        elseif args[k] ~= nil or (k == 'postscript') then
            args[k] = v;
        end        
    end    
    
    return citation0( config, args)
end

return z
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