black; font-size:100%; text-align:center;">  Polyatomic nonmetal
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, although an s-block element, is normally placed above neon (in the p-block) on account of its noble gas properties.]]

In chemistry, a nonmetal or non-metal is a chemical element which mostly lacks metallic attributes. Physically, nonmetals tend to be highly volatile (easily vaporised), have low elasticity, and are good insulators of heat and electricity; chemically, they tend to have high ionisation energy and electronegativity values, and gain or share electrons when they react with other elements or compounds. Seventeen elements are generally classified as nonmetals; most are gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, chlorine, argon, krypton, xenon and radon); one is a liquid (bromine); and a few are solids (carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium and iodine).

Moving rightward across the standard form of periodic table, nonmetals adopt structures which have progressively fewer nearest neighbours. Polyatomic nonmetals have structures with either three nearest neighbours, as is the case (for example) with carbon (in its standard state[n 1] of graphite), or two nearest neighbours (for example) in the case of sulfur. Diatomic metals, such as hydrogen, have one nearest neighbour, and the monatomic noble gases, such as helium, have none. This gradual fall in the number of nearest neighbours is associated with a reduction in metallic character and an increase in nonmetallic character. The distinction between the three categories of nonmetals, in terms of receding metallicity is not absolute. Boundary overlaps occur as outlying elements in each category show (or begin to show) less-distinct, hybrid-like or atypical properties.

Although five times more elements are metals than nonmetals, two of the nonmetals—hydrogen and helium—make up over 99 per cent of the observable Universe,[4] and one—oxygen—makes up close to half of the Earth's crust, oceans and atmosphere.[5] Living organisms are also composed almost entirely of nonmetals,[6] and nonmetals form many more compounds than metals.[7]

Definition and properties

The marvelous variety and infinite subtlety of the non-metallic elements, their compounds, structures and reactions, is not sufficiently acknowledged in the current teaching of chemistry.

JJ Zuckerman and FC Nachod
In Steudel's Chemistry of the non-metals (1977, preface)

There is no rigorous definition of a nonmetal. They show more variability in their properties than do metals.[8] The following are some of the chief characteristics of nonmetals.[9] Physically, they largely exist as monatomic gases, with a few having more substantial (but still open-packed) diatomic or polyatomic forms, unlike metals which are nearly all solid and close-packed; if solid, they generally have a submetallic or dull appearance and are brittle, as opposed to metals, which are lustrous, ductile or malleable; they usually have lower densities than metals; are poor conductors of heat and electricity when compared to metals; and have significantly lower melting points and boiling points than those of metals (with the exception of carbon). Chemically, the nonmetals have relatively high ionisation energy and high electronegativity; they usually exist as anions or oxyanions in aqueous solution; generally form ionic or interstitial compounds when mixed with metals, unlike metals which form alloys; and have acidic oxides whereas the common oxides of the metals are basic.

Applicable elements

The elements generally classified as nonmetals comprise one element each in group 1 and group 14: hydrogen (H) and carbon (C); two elements in group 15 (the pnictogens): nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P); three elements in group 16 (the chalcogens): oxygen (O), sulfur (S) and selenium (Se); most elements in group 17 (the halogens): fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I); and all elements in group 18 (the noble gases), with the possible exception of ununoctium (Uuo).

The distinction between nonmetals and metals is by no means clear.[13] The result is that a few borderline elements lacking a preponderance of either nonmetallic or metallic properties are classified as metalloids;[14] and some elements classified as nonmetals are instead sometimes classified as metalloids, or vice versa. For example, selenium (Se), a nonmetal, is sometimes classified instead as a metalloid, particularly in environmental chemistry;[15] and astatine (At), which is a metalloid and a halogen, is sometimes classified instead as a nonmetal.[16]


Nonmetals have structures in which each atom usually forms (8 − N) bonds with (8 − N) nearest neighbours, where N is the number of valence electrons. Each atom is thereby able to complete its valence shell and attain a stable noble gas configuration. Exceptions to the (8 − N) rule occur with hydrogen (which only needs one bond to complete its valence shell), carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Atoms of the latter three elements are sufficiently small such that they are able to form alternative (more stable) bonding structures, with fewer nearest neighbours.[17] Thus, carbon is able to form its layered graphite structure, and nitrogen and oxygen are able to form diatomic molecules having triple and double bonds, respectively. The larger size of the remaining non-noble nonmetals weakens their capacity to form multiple bonds and they instead form two or more single bonds to two or more different atoms.[18] Sulfur, for example, forms an eight-membered molecule in which the atoms are arranged in a ring, with each atom forming two single bonds to different atoms.

From left to right across the standard form of periodic table, as metallic character decreases,[21] nonmetals therefore adopt structures which show a gradual reduction in the numbers of nearest neighbours—three or two for the polyatomic nonmetals, through one for the diatomic nonmetals, to zero for the monatomic noble gases. A similar pattern occurs more generally, at the level of the entire periodic table, in comparing metals and nonmetals. There is a transition from metallic bonding amongst the metals on the left of the table through to covalent or Van der Waals (electrostatic) bonding amongst the nonmetals on the right of the table.[22] Metallic bonding tends to involve close-packed centrosymmetric structures with a high number of nearest neighbours.[23] Poor metals and metalloids, sandwiched between the true metals[n 3] and the nonmetals, tend to have more complex structures with an intermediate number of nearest neighbours.[n 4] Nonmetallic bonding, towards the right of the table, features open-packed directional (or disordered) structures with fewer or zero nearest neighbours.[26] As noted, this steady reduction in the number of nearest neighbours, as metallic character decreases and nonmetallic character increases, is mirrored among the nonmetals, the structures of which gradually change from polyatomic, to diatomic, to monatomic.

As is the case with the major categories of metals, metalloids and nonmetals,[27] there is some variation and overlapping of properties within and across each category of nonmetal. Among the polyatomic nonmetals, carbon, phosphorus and selenium—which border the metalloids—begin to show some metallic character. Sulfur (which borders the diatomic nonmetals), is the least metallic of the polyatomic nonmetals but even here shows some discernable metal-like character (discussed below). Of the diatomic nonmetals, iodine is the most metallic. Its number of nearest neighbours is sometimes described as 1+2 hence it is almost a polyatomic nonmetal.[28] Within the iodine molecule, significant electronic interactions occur with the two next nearest neighbours of each atom, and these interactions give rise, in bulk iodine, to a shiny appearance and semiconducting properties.[29] Of the monatomic nometals, radon is the most metallic and begins to show some cationic behaviour, which is unusual for a nonmetal.[30]

Polyatomic nonmetals

Template:Periodic table (micro) Four nonmetals are distinguished by polyatomic bonding in their standard states, in either discrete or extended molecular forms: carbon (C, as graphite sheets); phosphorus (as P4 molecules); sulfur (as S8 molecules); and selenium (Se, as helical chains).[32] Consistent with their higher coordination numbers (2 or 3), the polyatomic nonmetals show more metallic character than the neighbouring diatomic nonmetals; they are all solid, mostly semi-lustrous semiconductors with electronegativity values that are intermediate to moderately high (2.19–2.58). Sulfur is the least metallic of the polyatomic nonmetals given its dull appearance, brittle comportment, and low conductivity—attributes common to all sulfur allotropes. It nevertheless shows some metallic character, either intrinsically or in its compounds with other nonmetals. Examples include the malleability of plastic sulfur[33] and the lustrous-bronze appearance and metallic conductivity of polysulfur nitride (SNx).[34][n 5]

The polyatomic nonmetals are distinguished from the diatomic nonmetals by virtue of having higher coordination numbers, higher melting points (in their thermodynamically most stable forms), and higher boiling points; and having wider liquid ranges and lower room temperature volatility.[55] More generally they show a marked tendency to exist in allotropic forms, and a stronger inclination to catenate;[56] and have a weaker ability to form hydrogen bonds.[57] The ability of carbon to catenate, in particular, is fundamental to the field of organic chemistry and life on Earth.[58][n 6] All of the polyatomic nonmetals are solids, and all are known in either malleable, pliable or ductile forms; most also have lower ionisation energies and electronegativities than those of the diatomic nonmetals.

Diatomic nonmetals

Template:Periodic table (micro)

Seven nonmetals exist as diatomic molecules in their standard states: hydrogen (H2); nitrogen (N2); oxygen (O2); fluorine (F2); chlorine (Cl2); bromine (Br2); and iodine (I2).[60] They are generally highly insulating, highly electronegative, non-reflective gases, noting that bromine, a liquid, and iodine, a solid, are both volatile at room temperature.[61][62] Exceptions to this generalised description occur at the boundaries of the category: hydrogen has a comparatively low electronegativity due to its unique atomic structure;[n 7] iodine, in crystalline form, is semi-lustrous, and a semiconductor in the direction of its layers,[64][n 8] both of these attributes being consistent with incipient metallic character.

The diatomic nonmetals are distinguished from the polyatomic nonmetals by virtue of having lower coordination numbers, lower melting points (compared to the polyatomic nonmetals in their thermodynamically most stable forms), and lower boiling points; and having narrower liquid ranges[n 9] and greater room temperature volatility. More generally, they show less inclination to exist in allotropic forms, and to catenate; and have a stronger ability to form hydrogen bonds. Most are also gases, and have higher ionisation energies and higher electronegativities than those of the polyatomic nonmetals.

Noble gases

Main article: Noble gas

Template:Periodic table (micro) Six nonmetals occur naturally as monatomic noble gases: helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). They comprise a group of chemical elements with very similar properties. In their standard states they are all colorless, odourless, nonflammable gases with characteristically very low chemical reactivity.

With their closed valence shells, the noble gases have the highest first ionization potentials in each of their periods, and feeble interatomic forces of attraction, with the latter property resulting in very low melting and boiling points.[67] That is why they are all gases under standard conditions, even those with atomic masses larger than many normally solid elements.[68]

The status of the period 7 congener of the noble gases, element 118 (temporary name ununoctium) is not known—it may or may not be a noble gas. It was originally predicted to be a noble gas[69] but may instead be a fairly reactive solid with an anomalously low first ionisation potential, due to relativistic effects.[70] On the other hand, if relativistic effects peak in period 7 at element 112 (as is thought to be the case), element 118 may turn out to be a noble gas after all[71] albeit more reactive than either xenon or radon.

Elemental gases

The known primordial chemical elements which are gaseous nonmetals are hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, plus the noble gases are collectively referred to by chemists as the "elemental gases". They are distinguished by having the lightest densities, lowest melting and boiling points, strongest insulating properties, and highest electronegativity and ionization energy values in the periodic table. It is possible that synthetic elements such as copernicium and flerovium may be confirmed to be gaseous metals at or near room temperature, as some calculations have suggested. If so this non-metal category of elemental gases may need to be redefined as "primordial elemental gases".

Comparison of properties

Characteristic and other properties of polyatomic nonmetals, diatomic nonmetals, and the monatomic noble gases are summarized in the following table. Physical properties are listed in loose order of ease of determination; chemical properties run from general to specific, and then to descriptive.

Some properties of polyatomic, diatomic, and monatomic (noble gases) nonmetals
Physical property Polyatomic nonmetals Diatomic nonmetals Monatomic noble gases
Form solid mostly gaseous gaseous
Appearance most are lustrous several colourless; others dull red, yellow, green or intermediate shades; iodine is grey or bluish-black and shows some lustre colourless
Bulk coordination number 2–3 1 0
Allotropy marked tendency less inclination nil
Elasticity most are brittle; all are known in malleable (C), pliable (P) or ductile (C, S, Se) forms[n 10] brittle if solid soft and easily crushed when frozen[76]
Electrical conductivity (S•cm−1) poor to good (from 5.2 × 10−18 for S[77] to 3 × 104 for graphitic C)[78] poor to low (from ~10−18 for the diatomic gases[79] to 1.7 × 10−8 for iodine)[80] poor (~10−18)[79]
Melting point (° K) higher (389–3,800) lower (15–387) mostly lowest (1–202)
Boiling point higher (718–4,300) lower (21–458) mostly lowest (5–212)
Liquid range (° K) relatively narrow (232–505) narrower still (6–70) mostly narrowest (2–9)
Volatility (room temperature) lower higher highest (on average)[55]
Chemical property Polyatomic nonmetals Diatomic nonmetals Monatomic noble gases
General chemical behaviour nonmetallic to incipient metallic nonmetallic; iodine shows incipient metallic behaviour inert to nonmetallic; Rn shows some cationic behaviour[81]
Ionization energy (kJ•mol−1) mostly lower (9.75–11.26) mostly higher (10.45–17.42) mostly highest (10.75–24.59)
Electronegativity (Allen scale) mostly lower (2.253–2.589) mostly higher (2.300–4.193) mostly highest (2.582–4.789)
Oxidation states negative and positive oxidation states known for all
from ‒4 for C to +6 for S and Se
negative oxidation states known for all, but for H this is an unstable state
positive oxidation states known for all bar F, and only exceptionally for O
from ‒3 for N to +7 for Cl, Br and I
only positive oxidation states known, and only for heavier noble gases
from +2 for Kr, Xe, and Rn to +8 for Xe
Catenation marked tendency less inclination least inclination
Hydrogen bonds weaker ability stronger ability known for Ar, Kr, Xe[82]
Oxides all known in at least one polymeric form
most (P, S, Se) are glass formers; CO2 forms a glass at 40 GPa
iodine oxides known in polymeric forms[83]
no known glass formers
XeO2 is polymeric;[84] other noble gas oxides are molecular
no glass formers


Main article: Allotropes of nonmetals

Many nonmetals have less stable allotropes, with either nonmetallic or metallic properties. Graphite, the standard state of carbon, has a lustrous appearance and is a fairly good electrical conductor. The diamond allotrope of carbon is clearly nonmetallic however, being translucent and having a relatively poor electrical conductivity. Carbon is also known in several other allotropic forms, including semiconducting buckminsterfullerene (C60). Nitrogen can form gaseous tetranitrogen (N4), an unstable polyatomic molecule with a lifetime of about one microsecond.[85] Oxygen is a diatomic molecule in its standard state; it also exists as ozone (O3), an unstable polyatomic nonmetallic allotrope with a half-life of around half an hour.[86] Phosphorus, uniquely, exists in several allotropic forms that are more stable than that of its standard state as white phosphorus (P4).[n 11] The red and black allotropes are probably the best known; both are semiconductors; black phosphorus, in addition, has a lustrous appearance. Phosphorus is also known as diphosphorus (P2), an unstable diatomic allotrope.[90] Sulfur has more allotropes than any other element;[91] all of these, bar plastic sulfur which is malleable, have nonmetallic properties. Selenium has several nonmetallic allotropes, all of which are much less electrically conducting than its standard state of grey 'metallic' selenium.[92] Iodine is also known in a semiconducting amorphous form.[93] Under sufficiently high pressures, just over half of the nonmetals, starting with phosphorus at 1.7 GPa,[94] have been observed to form metallic allotropes.

Abundance and extraction

Hydrogen and helium are estimated to make up approximately 99 per cent of all ordinary matter in the universe. Less than five per cent of the Universe is believed to be made of ordinary matter, represented by stars, planets and living beings. The balance is made of dark energy and dark matter, both of which are poorly understood at present.[95]

Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and constitute the great bulk of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, crust, and biosphere; the remaining nonmetals have abundances of 0.5 per cent or less. In comparison, 35 per cent of the crust is made up of the metals sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium and iron; together with a metalloid, silicon. All other metals and metalloids have abundances within the crust, oceans or biosphere of 0.2 per cent or less.[96]

Nonmetals, in their elemental forms, are extracted from:[97] brine: Cl, Br, I; liquid air: N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe; minerals: C (coal; diamond; graphite); F (fluorite); P( phosphates); I (in sodium iodate NaIO3 and sodium iodide NaI); natural gas: H, He, S; and from ores, as processing byproducts: Se (especially copper ores); and Rn (uranium bearing ores).

Applications in common

For prevalent and speciality applications of individual nonmetals see the main article for each element.

Nonmetals do not have any universal or near-universal applications. This is not the case with metals, most of which have structural uses; nor the metalloids, the typical uses of which extend to (for example) oxide glasses, alloying components, and semiconductors.

Shared applications of different subsets of the nonmetals instead encompass their presence in, or specific uses in the fields of: cryogenics and refrigerants: H, He, N, O, F and Ne; fertilisers: H, N, P, S, Cl (as a micronutrient) and Se; household accoutrements: H (primary constituent of water), He (party balloons), C (in pencils, as graphite), N (beer widgets), O (as peroxide, in detergents), F (as fluoride, in toothpaste), Ne (lighting), P (matches), S (garden treatments), Cl (bleach constituent), Ar (insulated windows), Se (glass; solar cells), Br (as bromide, for purification of spa water), Kr (energy saving fluorescent lamps), I (in antiseptic solutions), Xe (in plasma TV display cells) and Rn (as an unwanted, potentially hazardous indoor pollutant);[99] industrial acids: C, N, F, P, S and Cl; inert air replacements: N, Ne, S (in sulfur hexafluoride SF6), Ar, Kr and Xe; lasers and lighting: He, C (in carbon dioxide lasers, CO2), N, O (in a chemical oxygen iodine laser), F (in a hydrogen fluoride laser, HF), Ne, S (in a sulfur lamp), Ar, Kr and Xe; and medicine and pharmaceuticals: He, O, F, Cl, Br, I, Xe and Rn.

The number of compounds formed by nonmetals is vast.[100] The first nine places in a "top 20" table of elements most frequently encountered in 8,427,300 compounds, as listed in the Chemical Abstracts Service register for July 1987, were occupied by nonmetals. Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen were found in the majority (greater than 64 per cent) of compounds. The highest rated metal, with an occurrence frequency of 2.3 per cent, was iron, in 11th place.[101]




  • Addison WE 1964, The allotropy of the elements, Oldbourne Press, London
  • Arunan E, Desiraju GR, Klein RA, Sadlej J, Scheiner S, Alkorta I, Clary DC, Crabtree RH, Dannenberg JJ, Hobza P, Kjaergaard HG, Legon AC, Mennucci B & Nesbitt DJ 2011, 'Defining the hydrogen bond: An account (IUPAC Technical Report)', Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 1619–36, 10.1351/PAC-REP-10-01-01
  • Ashford TA 1967, The physical sciences: From atoms to stars, 2nd ed., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York
  • Aylward G & Findlay T 2008, SI chemical data, 6th ed., John Wiley & Sons Australia, Milton, Queensland
  • Ball P 2013, 'The name's bond', Chemistry World, vol. 10, no. 6, p. 41
  • Bettelheim FA, Brown WH, Campbell MK, Farrell SO 2010, Introduction to general, organic, and biochemistry, 9th ed., Brooks/Cole, Belmont California, ISBN 9780495391128
  • Bogoroditskii NP & Pasynkov VV 1967, Radio and electronic materials, Iliffe Books, London
  • Bolin P 2000, 'Gas-insulated substations', in JD McDonald (ed.), Electric power substations engineering, 3rd, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 2–1–2-19, ISBN 9781439856383
  • Borg RJ & Dienes GJ 1992, The physical chemistry of solids, Academic Press, San Diego, California, ISBN 9780121184209
  • Brady JE & Senese F 2009, Chemistry: The study of matter and its changes, 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, ISBN 9780470576427
  • Brown WH & Rogers EP 1987, General, organic and biochemistry, 3rd ed., Brooks/Cole, Monterey, California, ISBN 0534068707
  • Cacace F, de Petris G & Troiani A 2002, 'Experimental detection of tetranitrogen', Science, vol. 295, no. 5554, pp. 480–81, 10.1126/science.1067681
  • Cairns D 2012, Essentials of pharmaceutical chemistry, 4th ed., Pharmaceutical Press, London, ISBN 9780853699798
  • Cambridge Enterprise 2013, 'Carbon ‘candy floss’ could help prevent energy blackouts', Cambridge University, viewed 28 August 2013
  • Chapman B & Jarvis A 2003, Organic chemistry, kinetics and equilibrium, rev. ed., Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, ISBN 9780748776567
  • Chung DD 1987, 'Review of exfoliated graphite', Journal of Materials Science, vol. 22, pp. 4190–98, 10.1007/BF01132008
  • Clugston MJ & Flemming R 2000, Advanced chemistry, Oxford University Press, Oxford, ISBN 9780199146338
  • Conroy EH 1968, 'Sulfur', in CA Hampel (ed.), The encyclopedia of the chemical elements, Reinhold, New York, pp. 665–680
  • Cotton S 2006, Lanthanide and actinide chemistry, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, ISBN 9780470010068
  • Cracolice MS & Peters EI 2011, Basics of introductory chemistry: An active learning approach, 2nd ed., Brooks/Cole, Belmont California, ISBN 9780495558507
  • DeKock RL & Gray HB 1989, Chemical structure and bonding, 2nd ed., University Science Books, Mill Valley, California, ISBN 093570261X
  • Dias RP, Yoo C, Kim M & Tse JS 2011, 'Insulator-metal transition of highly compressed carbon disulfide,' Physical Review B, vol. 84, pp. 144104–1–6, 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.144104
  • Eagleson M 1994, Concise encyclopedia chemistry, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, ISBN 3110114518
  • Eastman ED, Brewer L, Bromley LA, Gilles PW, Lofgren NL 1950, 'Preparation and properties of refractory cerium sulfides', Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 2248–50, 10.1021/ja01161a102
  • Emsley J 1971, The inorganic chemistry of the non-metals, Methuen Educational, London, ISBN 0423861204
  • Emsley J 2001, ISBN 0198503415
  • Faraday M 1853, The subject matter of a course of six lectures on the non-metallic elements, (arranged by J Scoffern), Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, London
  • Fujimori T, Morelos-Gómez A, Zhu Z, Muramatsu H, Futamura R, Urita K, Terrones M, Hayashi T, Endo M, Hong SY, Choi YC, Tománek D & Kaneko K 2013, 10.1038/ncomms3162
  • Godfrin H & Lauter HJ 1995, 'Experimental properties of 3He adsorbed on graphite', in WP Halperin (ed.), Progress in low temperature physics, volume 14, pp. 213–320 (216–8), Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, ISBN 9780080539935
  • Greenwood NN & Earnshaw A 2002, Chemistry of the elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0750633654
  • Henderson W 2000, Main group chemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, ISBN 9780854046171
  • Holderness A & Berry M 1979, Advanced level inorganic chemistry, 3rd ed., Heinemann Educational Books, London, ISBN 9780435654351
  • Irving KE 2005, 'Using chime simulations to visualize molecules', in RL Bell & J Garofalo (eds), Science units for Grades 9–12, International Society for Technology in Education, Eugene, Oregon, ISBN 9781564842176
  • Jenkins GM & Kawamura K 1976, Polymeric carbons—carbon fibre, glass and char, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0521206936
  • Jolly WL 1966, The chemistry of the non-metals, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
  • King GB & Caldwell WE 1954, The fundamentals of college chemistry, American Book Company, New York
  • King RB 2004, 'The metallurgist’s periodic table and the Zintl-Klemm concept', in DH Rouvray & BR King (eds), The periodic table: into the 21st century, Research Studies Press, Philadelphia, pp. 189–206, ISBN 0863802923
  • Kneen WR, Rogers MJW & Simpson P 1972, Chemistry: Facts, patterns, and principles, Addison-Wesley, London, ISBN 0201037793
  • Koziel JA 2002, 'Sampling and sample preparation for indoor air analysis', in J Pawliszyn (ed.), Comprehensive analytical chemistry, vol. 37, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 1–32, ISBN 0444505105
  • Krikorian OH & Curtis PG 1988, 'Synthesis of CeS and interactions with molten metals,' High Temperatures-High Pressures, vol. 20, pp. 9–17, ISSN 0018-1544
  • Labes MM, Love P & Nichols LF 1979, 'Polysulfur nitride—a metallic, superconducting polymer', Chemical Review, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 10.1021/cr60317a002
  • Lide DR (ed.) 2003, CRC handbook of chemistry and physics, 84th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, Section 6, Fluid properties; Vapor pressure, ISBN 0849304849
  • Manahan SE 2001, Fundamentals of environmental chemistry, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, ISBN 156670491X
  • Maroni M, Seifert B & Lindvall T (eds) 1995, 'Physical pollutants', in Indoor air quality: A comprehensive reference book, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 108–123, ISBN 0444816429
  • Martin RM & Lander GD 1946, Systematic inorganic chemistry: From the standpoint of the periodic law, 6th ed., Blackie & Son, London
  • McMillan PF 2006, 'Solid-state chemistry: A glass of carbon dioxide,' Nature, vol. 441, p. 823, 10.1038/441823a
  • Meyer JS, Adams WJ, Brix KV, Luoma SM, Mount DR, Stubblefield WA & Wood CM (eds) 2005, Toxicity of dietborne metals to aquatic organisms, Proceedings from the Pellston Workshop on Toxicity of Dietborne Metals to Aquatic Organisms, 27 July–1 August 2002, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, Canada, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, Florida, ISBN 1880611708
  • Miller T 1987, Chemistry: a basic introduction, 4th ed., Wadsworth, Belmont, California, ISBN 0534069126
  • Mitchell SC 2006, 'Biology of sulfur', in SC Mitchell (ed.), Biological interactions of sulfur compounds, Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 20–41, ISBN 0203375122
  • Moss T 1952, Photoconductivity in the elements, Butterworths Scientific Publications, London
  • Murray PRS & Dawson PR 1976, Structural and comparative inorganic chemistry: A modern approach for schools and colleges, Heinemann Educational Book, London, ISBN 9780435656447
  • Nash CS 2005, 'Atomic and molecular properties of elements 112, 114, and 118', Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 109, pp. 3493–500, 10.1021/jp050736o
  • Nelson PG 1987, 'Important elements', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 732–737, 10.1021/ed068p732
  • Nelson PG 1998, 'Classifying substances by electrical character: An alternative to classifying by bond type', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 24–6, 10.1021/ed071p24
  • Novak A 1979, 'Vibrational spectroscopy of hydrogen bonded systems', in TM Theophanides (ed.), Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of biological molecules, proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at Athens, Greece, August 22–31, 1978, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland, pp. 279–304, ISBN 9027709661
  • Ostriker JP & Steinhardt PJ 2001, 'The quintessential universe', Scientific American, January, pp. 46–53
  • Oxtoby DW, Gillis HP & Campion A 2008, ISBN 0534493661
  • Partington JR 1944, A text-book of inorganic chemistry, 5th ed., Macmillan & Co., London
  • Patten MN 1989, Other metals and some related materials, in MN Patten (ed.), Information sources in metallic materials, Bowker-Saur, London, ISBN 0408014911
  • Patterson CS, Kuper HS & Nanney TR 1967, Principles of chemistry, Appleton Century Crofts, New York
  • Phifer C 2000, 'Ceramics, glass structure and properties', in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 10.1002/0471238961.0712011916080906.a01
  • Phillips CSG & Williams RJP 1965, Inorganic chemistry, I: Principles and non-metals, Clarendon Press, Oxford
  • Piro NA, Figueroa JS, McKellar JT & Troiani CC 2006, 'Triple-bond reactivity of diphosphorus molecules', Science, vol. 313, no. 5791, pp. 1276–9, 10.1126/science.1129630
  • Pitzer K 1975, 'Fluorides of radon and elements 118', Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, no. 18, pp. 760–1, 10.1039/C3975000760B
  • Rao KY 2002, ISBN 0080439586
  • Rayner-Canham G & Overton T 2006, Descriptive inorganic chemistry, 4th ed., WH Freeman, New York, ISBN 0716789639
  • Regnault MV 1853, Elements of chemistry, vol. 1, 2nd ed., Clark & Hesser, Philadelphia
  • Ritter SK 2011, 'The case of the missing xenon', Chemical & Engineering News, vol. 89, no. 9, ISSN 0009-2347
  • Rodgers GE 2012, Descriptive inorganic, coordination, & solid-state chemistry, 3rd ed., Brooks/Cole, Belmont, California, ISBN 9780840068460
  • Russell AM & Lee KL 2005, ISBN 047164952X
  • Scerri E 2013, A tale of seven elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, ISBN 9780195391312
  • Schaefer JC 1968, 'Boron' in CA Hampel (ed.), The encyclopedia of the chemical elements, Reinhold, New York, pp. 73–81
  • Schrobilgen GJ 2011, 'radon (Rn)', in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 7 Aug 2011
  • Schulze-Makuch D & Irwin LN 2008, Life in the Universe: Expectations and constraints, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, ISBN 9783540768166
  • Seaborg GT 1969, 'Prospects for further considerable extension of the periodic table', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 626–34, 10.1021/ed046p626
  • Shanabrook BV, Lannin JS & Hisatsune IC 1981, 'Inelastic light scattering in a onefold-coordinated amorphous semiconductor', Physical Review Letters, vol. 46, no. 2, 12 January, pp. 130–133
  • Shipman JT, Wilson JD & Todd AW 2009, An introduction to physical science, 12th ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, ISBN 9780618935963
  • Siebring BR & Schaff ME 1980, General chemistry, Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, California
  • Stein L 1969, 'Oxidized radon in halogen fluoride solutions', Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 19, no. 19, pp. 5396–7, 10.1021/ja01047a042
  • Stein L 1983, 'The chemistry of radon', Radiochimica Acta, vol. 32, pp. 163–71
  • Steudel R 1977, Chemistry of the non-metals: With an introduction to atomic structure and chemical bonding, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, ISBN 3110048825
  • Steudel R 2003, 'Liquid sulfur', in R Steudel (ed.), Elemental sulfur and sulfur-rich compounds I, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 81–116, ISBN 9783540401919
  • Steudel R & Eckert B 2003, 'Solid sulfur allotropes', in R Steudel (ed.), Elemental sulfur and sulfur-rich compounds I, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1–80, ISBN 9783540401919
  • Steudel R & Strauss E 1984, 'Homcyclic selenium molecules and related cations', in HJ Emeleus (ed.), Advances in inorganic chemistry and radiochemistry, vol. 28, Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, pp. 135–167, ISBN 9780080578774
  • Steurer W 2007, 'Crystal structures of the elements' in JW Marin (ed.), Concise encyclopedia of the structure of materials, Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 127–45, ISBN 0080451276
  • Stwertka A 2012, A guide to the elements, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, ISBN 9780199832521
  • Sukys P 1999, Lifting the scientific veil: Science appreciation for the nonscientist, Rowman & Littlefield, Oxford, ISBN 0847696006
  • Szpunar J, Bouyssiere B & Lobinski R 2004, 'Advances in analytical methods for speciation of trace elements in the environment', in AV Hirner & H Emons (eds), Organic metal and metalloid species in the environment: Analysis, distribution processes and toxicological evaluation, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 17–40, ISBN 3540208291
  • Taylor MD 1960, First principles of chemistry, Van Nostrand, Princeton, New Jersey
  • Townes CH & Dailey BP 1952, 'Nuclear quadrupole effects and electronic structure of molecules in the solid state', Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 20, pp.  35–40, 10.1063/1.1700192
  • Wells AF 1984, Structural inorganic chemistry, 5th ed., Clarendon Press, Oxfordshire, ISBN 0198553706
  • Wiberg N 2001, ISBN 0123526515
  • Winkler MT 2009, 'Non-equilbrium chalcogen concentrations in silicon: Physical structure, electronic transport, and photovoltaic potential,' PhD thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • Winkler MT, Recht D, Sher M, Said AJ, Mazur E & Aziz MJ 2011, 'Insulator-to-metal transition in sulfur-doped silicon', Physical Review Letters, vol. 106, pp. 178701–4
  • Yousuf M 1998, 'Diamond anvil cells in high-pressure studies of semiconductors', in T Suski & W Paul (eds), High pressure in semiconductor physics II, Semiconductors and semimetals, vol. 55, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 382–436, ISBN 9780080864532
  • Yu PY & Cardona M 2010, Fundamentals of semiconductors: Physics and materials properties, 4th ed., Springer, Heidelberg, ISBN 9783642007101
  • Zumdahl SS & DeCoste DJ 2013, Chemical principles, 7th ed., Brooks/Cole, Belmont, California, ISBN 9781111580650


  • Emsley J 1971, The inorganic chemistry of the non-metals, Methuen Educational, London, ISBN 0423861204
  • Johnson RC 1966, Introductory descriptive chemistry: selected nonmetals, their properties, and behavior, WA Benjamin, New York
  • Jolly WL 1966, The chemistry of the non-metals, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
  • Powell P & Timms PL 1974, The chemistry of the non-metals, Chapman & Hall, London, ISBN 0470695706
  • Sherwin E & Weston GJ 1966, Chemistry of the non-metallic elements, Pergamon Press, Oxford
  • Steudel R 1977, Chemistry of the non-metals: with an introduction to atomic structure and chemical bonding, English edition by FC Nachod & JJ Zuckerman, Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3110048825


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.