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Otto Strasser

Otto Strasser
Otto Strasser delivering a speech soon after his return to West Germany after World War II.
Personal details
Born (1897-09-10)September 10, 1897
Bad Windsheim, Bavaria, German Empire
Died August 27, 1974(1974-08-27) (aged 76)
Munich, Bavaria, West Germany
Nationality German
Political party Social Democratic Party
(1917–1920)
German Völkisch Freedom Party
(1922–1925)
National Socialist German Workers' Party
(1925–1930)
Black Front
(1930–1934)
German Social Union
(1956–1962)
Alma mater Humboldt University of Berlin
Occupation Philosopher, editor, politician
Military service
Allegiance  German Empire
Service/branch Freikorps
Years of service 1914–1918
Rank Lieutenant
Battles/wars World War I

Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also German: Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and member of the Nazi Party. Otto Strasser, together with his brother Gregor Strasser, was a leading member of the party's left-wing faction, and broke from the party due to disputes with the ‘Hitlerite’ faction. He formed the Black Front, a group intended to split the Nazi Party and take it from the grasp of Hitler. This group also functioned during his exile and World War II as a secret opposition group.

Contents

  • Biography 1
    • After expulsion 1.1
    • Exile 1.2
    • Return to Germany 1.3
  • Written works 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

Biography

Born at workers' councils. At the same time, he also joined the Social Democratic Party. In 1920 he participated in the opposition to the Kapp Putsch. However, he grew increasingly alienated with that reformist-socialist party's stand, particularly when it put down a workers' uprising in the Ruhr, and he left the party later that year. In 1925 he joined the NSDAP, in which his brother had been a member for several years, and worked for its newspaper as a journalist, ultimately taking it over with his brother. He took the 'socialist' element in the party's programme seriously enough to lead a very socialist-inclined faction of the party in northern Germany together with his brother Gregor and Joseph Goebbels. His faction advocated support for strikes, nationalisation of banks and industry, and — despite acknowledged differences — closer ties with the Soviet Union. Some of these policies were opposed by Hitler, who thought they were too radical and too alienating from parts of the German people (middle class and some Nazi-supporting nationalist industrialists in particular), and the Strasser faction was defeated at the Bamberg Conference (1926), with Joseph Goebbels joining Hitler. Humiliated, he nonetheless, along with his brother Gregor, continued as a leading Left Nazi within the Party, until expelled from the NSDAP by Hitler in 1930.

After expulsion

Following his expulsion, he set up his own party, the Black Front, composed of radical ex-Nazis, in an attempt to split the Nazi Party. Here his lack of anti-Semitism was displayed by his willingness to associate with Jews,[2] such as an exile from Germany named Helmut Hirsch who was later executed for an attempted plot on Hitler. His party proved unable to counter Hitler's rise to power in 1933, and Strasser spent the years of the Nazi era in exile. The Nazi Left itself was annihilated during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934 (in which his brother was killed), leaving Hitler as undisputed party leader and able to pacify both industrialists and the military into accepting his new National Socialist regime. In addition to the "Black Front", Strasser at this time headed the Free German Movement outside Germany which sought to enlist the aid of Germans throughout the world in bringing about the downfall of Hitler and Nazism.

Exile

Strasser fled first to Austria, then to Prague (where he resisted Hitler), Switzerland and France. In 1940, he went to Bermuda by way of Portugal, leaving a wife and two children behind in Switzerland. In 1941, he emigrated to Canada, where he was the famed "Prisoner of Ottawa". During this time, Goebbels denounced Strasser as the Nazis' "Public Enemy Number One" and a price of $500,000 was set on his head. He settled for a time in Montreal. In 1942 he lived for a time in Clarence, Nova Scotia on a farm owned by a German-speaking Czech, Adolph Schmidt, then moved to nearby Paradise where he lived for more than a decade in a rented apartment above a general store. As an influential and uncondemned former Nazi Party member still faithful to many doctrines of National Socialism, he was initially prevented from returning to West Germany after the war, first by the Allied powers and then by the West German government.

During his exile, he wrote articles on Nazi Germany and Nazi leadership for a number of British, American and Canadian newspapers, including the New Statesman, and a series for the Montreal Gazette, which was ghostwritten by then Gazette reporter and later politician Donald C. MacDonald.

Return to Germany

After having been denied for many years entry by the West German government, Otto Strasser was allowed to return to West Germany in 1955 by a ruling of the Federal Administrative Court. He regained his citizenship and settled in Munich.

He attempted to create a new "nationalist and socialist"-oriented party in 1956, the National Socialism until his death in Munich in 1974.

Otto Strasser claimed he was a dissenting Nazi regarding racial policies. During his later life, he claimed to have actively opposed such policies within the national socialist movement; for example, by organizing the removal of Julius Streicher from the German Völkisch Freedom Party[4]

Written works

  • Hitler and I (translated by Douglas Reed) [Hitler und Ich. Asmus-Bücher, Band 9. Johannes-Asmus-Verlag, Konstanz 1948.]
  • A History in My Time (translated by Douglas Reed)
  • Germany Tomorrow (translated by Douglas Reed)
  • Gregor Strasser (written under the pseudonym of “Michael Geismeier”)
  • We Seek Germany (written under the pseudonym of “D.G.”)
  • Whither Hitler? (written under the pseudonym of “D.G.”) [Wohin treibt Hitler? Darstellung der Lage und Entwicklung des Hitlersystems in den Jahren 1935 und 1936. Verlag Heinrich Grunov, Prag I 1936.]
  • Europe Tomorrow (written under the pseudonym of “D.G.”) [Europa von morgen. Das Ziel Masaryks. Weltwoche, Zürich 1939.]
  • Structure of German Socialism [Aufbau des deutschen Sozialismus. Wolfgang-Richard-Lindner-Verlag, Leipzig 1932.]
  • The German St. Bartholomew’s Night [Die deutsche Bartholomäusnacht. Reso-Verlag, Zürich 1935.]
  • European Federation
  • The Gangsters Around Hitler
  • Hitler tritt auf der Stelle. Oxford gegen Staats-Totalität. Berlin – Rom – Tokio. Neue Tonart in Wien. NSDAP-Kehraus in Brasilien. Die dritte Front, Band 1937,6. Grunov, Prag 1937.
  • Kommt es zum Krieg? Periodische Schriftenreihe der „Deutschen Revolution“, Band 3. Grunov, Prag 1937.
  • Der Faschismus. Geschichte und Gefahr. Politische Studien, Band 3. Günter-Olzog-Verlag, München (u.a.) 1965.
  • Mein Kampf. Eine politische Autobiografie. Streit-Zeit-Bücher, Band 3. Heinrich-Heine-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1969.

See also

References

  1. ^ Strasser, Otto. Germany Tomorrow. Jonathan Cape LTD, 1940, p. 11. p. 12.
  2. ^ "...but because a Black Fronter there, a Jewish doctor, had thrown open his sanitarium to us." Strasser, Otto: "Flight from Terror", page 297. National Travel Club, New York, 1943. Archived here: http://mailstar.net/otto-strasser-flight.html
  3. ^ On 4 May 1951, the West German cabinet decided to file an application to the Strasser, Otto. "Flight from Terror", pp. 100, 136; National Travel Club, New York, 1943 ^

Further reading

  • Otto Strasser: The Life and Times of a German Socialist by Troy Southgate, Black Front Press, 2010
  • Revolution vs. Reaction: Social-Nationalism & the Strasser Brothers by Troy Southgate (Archived October 4, 2011 at the Wayback Machine)
  • Nemesis: The Story of Otto Strasser by Douglas Reed, 1940.
  • The Prisoner of Ottawa: Otto Strasser by Douglas Reed, 1953.

External links

  • Revolution vs. Reaction: Social-Nationalism & the Strasser Brothers by Troy Southgate (Archived October 4, 2011 at the Wayback Machine)
  • by Otto Strasser at archive.orgHitler and I
  • by Otto Strasser at Rozumno.comGermany_Tomorrow
  • "Otto Strasser and National Socialism", Paul Gottfried (from Modern Age), www.isi.org search, 1969.
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