Randomization is the process of making something random; this means:
Randomization is not haphazard. Instead, a random process is a sequence of random variables describing a process whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. For example, a random sample of individuals from a population refers to a sample where every individual has a known probability of being sampled. This would be contrasted with nonprobability sampling where arbitrary individuals are selected.
Contents

Applications 1

Statistics 1.1

Randomized experiments 1.1.1

Survey sampling 1.1.2

Resampling 1.1.3

Gambling 1.2

Techniques 2

See also 3

References 4

External links 5
Applications
Randomization is used in statistics and in gambling.
Statistics
Randomization is a core principle in statistical theory, whose importance was emphasized by Charles S. Peirce in "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" (1877–1878) and "A Theory of Probable Inference" (1883). Randomizationbased inference is especially important in experimental design and in survey sampling. The first use of "randomization" listed in the Oxford English Dictionary is its use by Ronald Fisher in 1926.^{[1]}^{[2]}
Randomized experiments
In the statistical theory of design of experiments, randomization involves randomly allocating the experimental units across the treatment groups. For example, if an experiment compares a new drug against a standard drug, then the patients should be allocated to either the new drug or to the standard drug control using randomization. Randomization reduces confounding by equalising socalled factors (independent variables) that have not been accounted for in the experimental design.
Survey sampling
Survey sampling uses randomization, following the criticisms of previous "representative methods" by Jerzy Neyman in his 1922 report to the International Statistical Institute.
Resampling
Some important methods of statistical inference use resampling from the observed data. Multiple alternative versions of the dataset that "might have been observed" are created by randomization of the original dataset, the only one observed. The variation of statistics calculated for these alternative datasets is a guide to the uncertainty of statistics estimated from the original data.
Gambling
Randomization is used extensively in the field of gambling (or generally being random). Because poor randomization may allow a skilled gambler to take advantage, much research has been devoted to effective randomization. A classic example of randomizing is shuffling playing cards.

See also: Applications of randomness
Techniques
Although historically "manual" randomization techniques (such as shuffling cards, drawing pieces of paper from a bag, spinning a roulette wheel) were common, nowadays automated techniques are mostly used. As both selecting random samples and random permutations can be reduced to simply selecting random numbers, random number generation methods are now most commonly used, both hardware random number generators and pseudorandom number generators.
Nonalgorithmic randomization methods include:
See also
References

^ Fisher RA. The arrangement of field experiments. J Min Agri GB 1926; 33: 700725.

^ Oxford English Dictionary "randomization"
External links

RQube  Generate quasirandom stimulus sequences for experimental designs

RandList  Randomization List Generator
This article was sourced from Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, EGovernment Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a nonprofit organization.