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Russian ship of the line Poltava (1712)

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Russian ship of the line Poltava (1712)

Career (Russia)
Name: Poltava
Builder: Peter I, Fedosey Sclyaev
Laid down: 5 December 1709
Launched: 15 June 1712
Decommissioned: 1732
General characteristics
Class & type: 54-gun Fourth-rate ship of the line
Tons burthen: 1100—1200 tonnes
Length: 39.82 m (gundeck)
Beam: 11.69 m
Depth of hold: 4.6 m
Propulsion: Sails
Sail plan: Full rigged ship
Complement: 300–460
Armament: 54 guns of various weights of shot

Poltava (Russian: Полтава) was a 54-gun ship of the line of the Russian Navy that was launched on 15 June[n 1] 1712 from Saint Petersburg. The ship was named after an important for Russia victory over the Swedish Empire in the Battle of Poltava[1][2] and became the first battleship laid down and built at the St. Petersburg Admiralty.[1][2][3] In the 1710s, the ship was sometimes visited and commanded by Peter I, who also took active part in the design and construction of the ship. During her service of 1712–1732, Poltava was part of the Baltic Fleet, and before the end of Great Northern War participated in six marine campaigns (1713–1717 and 1721). She was later used for training Kronstadt crews in the Baltic Sea. Poltava was decommissioned in 1732.

Background

In 1702–1703, Russian troops captured the Swedish fortresses of draft and flat bottom that reduced their sailing capabilities.

Construction

A draft of the 54-gun battleship Poltava[5] was developed by the end of 1709 by Peter I and Fedosey Sklyaev using the latest achievements of contemporary shipbuilding.[2] A few years before Poltava was laid down, large stocks of iron parts and high-quality, well-dried oak planks were accumulated at the St. Petersburg Admiralty.[6] The construction was started by Peter I on 5 December 1709. While Peter dedicated much of his time to the project, he could not continuously oversee the process, and most routine work was done by Sklyaev.[7] The launch of Poltava on 15 June 1712 was attended by the whole royal family.[8] On the night of 24 August, Sklyaev sailed the ship out of St. Petersburg. Because of its large draft, the ship would ground when passing through the Neva; therefore, its front was lifted by specially designed boats.[9] On 25 August Poltava reached Kronstadt[10] where it was fitted with rigging.[11]

Description

Dimensions and features

A snuffbox of 1712 supposedly made in the form of Poltava (Hermitage Museum)

By its dimensions Poltava was a fourth-rate line ship: its deck length was 130 ft 8 in (39.83 m), the width without shell was 38 ft 4 12 in (11.697 m) and the depth of hold was 15 ft 2 12 in (4.636 m).[1][12] The ship looked much bigger with all its overhangs and the shell.[13] The displacement of Poltava is not known and is estimated at 1100–1200 tonnes.[13]

The contours of Poltava '​s hull were slightly sharper compared to its progenitors Riga, Vyborg and Pernov.[2] This was criticized by the Englishman John Dan, who served from 1711 to 1722 as a naval officer in the Russian Navy. Dan believed the ship was too narrow in the stern and would not withstand open sea waves.[14] The top part of the hull was bent inwards in order to hinder boarding from an attacking vessel.[13] The shell plating was about 5 inches (13 cm) thick.[15]

Decor

Rear decor with two mirror-symmetric sculptures of Saint George slaying the dragon, carved presumably in 1712 by Robert Geysnel.

Decor of Poltava was typical of the time. Its main theme was glorification of the Russian victory over the Swedes at the [18] Further toward the edges there were two figures of falling head-first Phaëton, which meant to allegorically depict Charles XII of Sweden.[15] The balcony featured a large double-headed eagle holding in its beaks and claws maps of the four seas to which Russia gained access during the rule of Peter I.[15] The panels left and right to the eagle contained a traditional arrangement of flags, guns and spears, with heads of Zephyrus "sending winds of victory to the Russian flags".[15][18] The figurehead most likely represented a lion holding in its claws a shield with a double-headed eagle on it.[15][19]

Armament and crew

The ship was armed with 54 guns. The lower deck was fitted with twenty two 18-pounders,[n 2] the upper deck with twenty 12-pounders and quarterdeck with twelve 6-pounders.[1] The ship was also equipped with two reserve rear guns, and was not designed to have frontal guns.[16][20][21] There is no reliable information on the anchors of Poltava. It is only known that in June 1712 it should have 4–5 anchors of about 1.5 tonne each.[22]

Commanders of Poltava
Name Year
Hendrick Helm 1713
Weybrandt Schelting 1714
William Fangent 1715–1717
Jacob Shapizo 1720–1721
Daniel Jacob Wilster 1722–1723

According to the Admiralty regulations of 5 April 1718, the crew of a 50-gun ship should be 350 people and contain 6 officers (captain, a naval secretary, two poruchiks and two sub-poruchiks), two midshipmen, two food commissioners, 6 quartermasters and two cooks, two navigators and two sub-navigators, a bootsmann with three deputies, a shkhiman (sail specialist) with two deputies and two apprentices, a clerk, a doctor with two assistants, a konstabel (artillery specialist) with two deputies and 30 gunners, two trumpeters, three caulkers, a locksmith, a warden (looking for prisoners and order in general) and 16 guard soldiers, three carpenters, 241 sailors and 10 junior sailors.[23]

The crew of Poltava varied from 300 to 460 depending on whether the fleet operations were defensive or offensive, respectively.[24] Because of shortage of sailors the ship was usually understaffed and the documented numbers are as follows: 351 (June 1714),[25] 338 (149 sailors and 189 soldiers, 17 July 1714),[26] 446 (July 1716)[27] and 292 (March 1721).[28] Jacob Shapizo, who later rose to become commander of the Russian naval base at Reval, was a grandson of the French author Samuel Chappuzeau.

History of service

Campaign of 1713

The first military task of Poltava began on 2 May 1713 when on the orders of Peter I the Kotlinski squadron led by Vice Admiral Cornelius Cruys (4 ships and 2 frigates) left Kronstadt for the Beryozovye Islands and Seskar to join the Revel squadron of Captain Commander Reis. The Cruys' squadron was tasked to hold a superior Swedish squadron by maneuvering in the open seas and attack their small groups.[29][30] The two squadrons met on 8 May,[31] and through the whole month Poltava was sailing at Beryozovye Islands, waiting for the preparations to attack Helsinki by the Finnish corps of Apraksin (infantry) and the Baltic Fleet.[32][33][34]

Between 7 and 12 June 1713, the fleet was visited by Peter I, who brought 8 ships and a battalion of [45][46] On 16 July, it reached Revel, joined the Russian ships there, and together they returned to Kronstadt on 25 July.[46][47]

Campaign of 1714

In the campaign of 1714, the Russian battleships were tasked to cover-up the galley fleet at Gangut. By early May the Russian fleet included 10 ships with 700 guns at Kronstadt[48] and 7 ships (370 guns) at Revel. By summer, the fleet counted 25 ships with 1070 guns and more than 7000 crew.[49]

Poltava left Kronstadt on 20 May and the next day reached Beryozovye Islands, covering the galley fleet.[50][51] On 31 May, the fleet went to the south[52][53] where it remained until the night of 4 June,[54] and on 11 June arrived in Revel.[55][56]

A Swedish squadron of six ships under the command of Vice Admiral Lile was spotted at Revel in the evening of 17 June.[57] Together with 15 other Russian ships led by Peter I, Poltava for 13 hours chased the Swedish squadron. The pursuit was fruitless and the squadron returned to Revel.[58] On 4 August, Poltava left Revel,[59] arrived to Helsinki on 14 August,[60] and on 24 August departed to Kronstadt for overwintering.[61]

Campaigns of 1715–1717

On 4 July 1715, within the squadron of Admiral Apraksin (30 ships and 40 galleys) Poltava left Kronstadt and on 8 July arrived in Revel to join the Anglo-Dutch fleet of Admiral John Norris.[62] As Norris has not arrived there yet, the Russian fleet cruised between the nearby islands,[63] and on 24 July met Norris at Revel.[64] After 3 weeks, part of the fleet led by Apraksin left Revel, and nine ships, including Poltava, stayed in Revel for the winter.[65][66]

On 27 January 1716, Peter I included Poltava in the squadron of Captain Commander Sievers for sailing to Copenhagen to join the Danish fleet and the Russian warships stationed in England and Denmark. For several reasons, the departure was delayed by several months.[67][68] A Swedish squadron appeared near Copenhagen, and thus between 20 April and 12 May 1716 Poltava and Revel squadron cruised in the Baltic Sea. After the retreat of the Swedish ships the Russian squadron departed for Copenhagen and arrived there on 19 July.[69] From 5 to 14 August, Poltava cruised in the Baltic Sea as part of the combined Russian, Danish, English and Dutch fleet,[70] and on 22 October returned to Revel.

Between 4 June and 16 July 1717, Poltava was part of a squadron of 14 battleships led by Admiral Fyodor Apraksin. It cruised off the Swedish coast and covered landing of Russian troops on the island of Gotland.[71][72] In early August of the same year, while chasing a Swedish 6-gun ship,[73] Poltava ran aground and was sent for reparations to St. Petersburg.[74][75]

Further service

From the end of July 1718 to 1719 the hull of Poltava was refitted at the St. Petersburg Admiralty under the direction of shipwright Blaise-Antoine Pangalo.[76][77][78] In April 1720, she sailed to Kronstadt,[79] and in June, within the squadron of Captain Commander Fangoft (9 ships), went to Revel.[80][81]

On 5 May 1721, together with seven line ships, Poltava participated in the cruise operations in the Baltic Sea.[82][83][84] On 9 May, during a heavy storm at Cape Dagerort, her masts were severely damaged,[85] and the ship was left behind by the squadron. After 8 days, on 17 May, Poltava arrived in Revel and was sent for repairs to Kronstadt. In 1722–1723 the ship was used for crew training in the Gulf of Finland and after 1723 stayed in harbors. In early 1724 the Admiralty Board assesses the ship as capable to sailing, yet too old and unreliable for a military campaign.[86] Thus on 13 May 1725, her guns were moved to the ship Moscow.[87] From 1726 the ship was considered unfit because of its age[88] and spent the next two years in Kronstadt waiting for repairs.[89] On 16 January 1729, Poltava, together with Neptunus, Saint Alexander, Revel, Ingermanland and Moscow, was deemed irreparable[90] and dismantled after 1732.[78]

Modeling and legacy

The Soviet post stamp featuring Poltava
The 100-ruble commemorative coin featuring Poltava, Peter I and the Admiralty

Detailed modeling of Poltava is classed to the highest category of complexity[15] and is carried out only by a few designers, though primitive copies appear in the open sale.[91][92] One of the first detailed models of Poltava was built by V. P. Dubensky in 1:50 scale.[93] A 1:36 model is being built since October 2007 by the Guild of Modelers of St. Petersburg.[94] Another version was started in 2008 based on newly discovered original drawings of the ship.[95]

After dismantling of Poltava, its name was transferred from ship to ship 7 times.[96] In 1971, the Soviet Post issued a stamp of 10 kopeks featuring the ship.[97] In 1996, to honor the 300 anniversary of the Russian Navy, the Bank of Russia produced a series of 15 commemorative coins, each dedicated to one ship of the Russian fleet. The reverse of a 100-ruble coin depicted Poltava, Peter I and the Admiralty.[98]

Notes

  1. ^ All dates are in the New Style
  2. ^ Gun caliber was traditionally measured by weight of the round shot expressed in artillery pounds (0.491 kg).

References

  1. ^ a b c d Dubensky, p. 6
  2. ^ a b c d Bykhovskii, p. 27
  3. ^ a b Matveeva, p. 43
  4. ^ Dan, p. 155
  5. ^ Grechanyuk NM, Dmitriev VI, Kornienko AA, et al (1990). Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот (Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet). Moscow: Voenizdat.  
  6. ^ Bykhovskii, p. 42
  7. ^ Just Juel (2001). "Записки датского посланника в России при Петре Великом (Notes of the Danish envoy in Russia during Peter the Great" (in Russian). 
  8. ^ Boltunova, Catherine. Признаюсь, я вовсе не ожидал, что здешний двор так великолепен...". О церемониале русского двора XVIII века ("I confess that I did not expect that the local court is so great..". On the Russian court ceremonies of the 18th century""". 
  9. ^ Bykhovskii, p. 47
  10. ^ Elagin S, ed. (1865). "Письмо Скляева к графу Апраксину из Санкт-Петербурга, 1712 года августа 26 (Letter from Sklyaeva to count Apraksin, St. Petersburg, 1712, August 26". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Printing Maritime Ministry) I: 312. 
  11. ^
  12. ^ Veselago (1872) p. 8
  13. ^ a b c Dubensky, p. 5
  14. ^ Dan, p. 31
  15. ^ a b c d e f
  16. ^ a b Dubensky, p. 12
  17. ^ Dubensky, p. 13
  18. ^ a b Matveeva, p. 44
  19. ^ Matveeva, p. 12
  20. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Табель сколько обретается при Санкт-Петербурге и на Котлине острове кораблей и других судов и что на них пушек и каких калибров, 1715 года мая 3 (Inventory of ships of St. Petersburg and Kotlin island and their ammunition, 1715, May 3)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) I: 618. 
  21. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Ведомость о пушках, потребных на корабли, 1715 года апреля (An inventory of cannons required for ships, April 1715)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) III: 520. 
  22. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Роспись, представленная Крюйсом графу Апраксину о припасах какие надлежит из Воронежа зимним путём или водою привезть, 1712 г. июня 22 (The report of Cruys Count to Apraksin on what provision should be brought from Voronezh, on winter routes or by water, 1712, June 22)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) III: 287. 
  23. ^ Elagin S. (1869). "Nominal edict declared Admiralty -College and extraction of decrees, magazines and board minutes, 1717–1718". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) IV: 352. 
  24. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Ведомость о числе людей, потребных для комплектования флота, 1713 года (Inventory of number of people suitable for manning the fleet, 1713)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) I: 365. 
  25. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Линия баталии флота, за подписью Гослера, по повелению шаутбенахта (Государя), на корабле Св. Екатерина у Ревеля, 1714 года июня 20 (Line of the battle fleet, signed by Gosler, at the behest of the Emperor, on the ship St. Catherine at Revel, 1714, June 20)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) I: 514. 
  26. ^ Myshlaevsky, p. 153 (Appendix, Table 9)
  27. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "List of Russian warships, which were in Copenhagen and came back from Revel, 1716, July 19". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 97. 
  28. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Register armed and ready ships Reval squadron in March 1721". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 550. 
  29. ^ Myshlaevsky, p. 176
  30. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Письмо графа Апраксина к Крюйсу, 1713 года, мая 1 (Letter from Cruys to count Apraksin, 1713, May 1). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 364. 
  31. ^ Elagin, C (1865). anchored at Seskar Island, 1713, May 8) Riga Выписка из письма Крюйса к графу Апраксину с корабля Рига на якоре при острове Сескаре, 1713 года, мая 8 (An extract from a letter from Cruys to Apraksin sent from the ship. Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 368. 
  32. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Выписка из письма Крюйса к графу Апраксину с корабля Рига от Берёзовых островов, 1713 года, мая 23 (An extract from a letter from Cruys to Apraksin sent from the ship Riga at Beryozovye Islands, 1713, May 23). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry). pp. 377, 378. 
  33. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Выписка из письма Крюйса к графу Апраксину с корабля Рига от Берёзовых островов, 1713 года, мая 29 (An extract from a letter from Cruys to Apraksin sent from the ship Riga at Beryozovye Islands, 1713, May 1929). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 381. 
  34. ^ Myshlaevsky, p. 196
  35. ^ Journal, p. 362
  36. ^ Myshlaevsky, p. 208
  37. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). An extract from a letter to the Count Cruys Apraksin the ship Kotlin between Riga and Red slide, 1713, June 18. Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 394. 
  38. ^ a b Myshlaevsky, p. 210
  39. ^ Journal, p. 369
  40. ^ Journal, p. 370
  41. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Письмо Государя о походе к Ревелю, 1713 года, июля 7 (Letter of the Emperor on an expedition to Revel, 1713, July 7). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 404. 
  42. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Выписка из письма Крюйса к графу Апраксину с корабля Рига от острова Соммерса, 1713 года, июля 10 (An extract from a letter sent to Apraksin from Cruys standing on the ship Riga at Sommers Island, 1713, July 10). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 409. 
  43. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Письмо Крюйса к графу Апраксину с корабля Рига от Гаривалдая, 1713 года, июля 31 (Letter from Cruys to Apraksin send from the ship Riga at Garivaldaya, 1713, July 31). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 421. 
  44. ^ Anderson, p. 155
  45. ^ Sokolov (1849). "The trial of Vice-Admiral Cruys, 1713 (an episode from the history of Russkago Fleet)" (log) (1).  
  46. ^ a b Myshlaevsky, p. 212
  47. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Письмо Крюйса к графу Апраксину с корабля Рига от Гаривалдая, 1713 года, июля 31 (Letter from Cruys on the ship from Riga to count Apraksin, 1713, July 31. Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 422. 
  48. ^ Myshlaevsky, p. 352
  49. ^ Myshlaevsky, pp. 353, 354
  50. ^ Журнал, или Поденная записка блаженныя и вечныя достойныя памяти государя императора Петра Великого (Journal, or daily note blessed and dedicated to memory of Emperor Peter the Great) 1. at the Imperial Academy of Science. 1770. p. 399. 
  51. ^ Myshlaevsky, p. 372
  52. ^ Journal, p. 401
  53. ^ Myshlaevsky, p. 376
  54. ^ Journal, p. 402
  55. ^ Journal, p. 403
  56. ^ Myshlaevsky, p. 383
  57. ^ Journal, p. 404
  58. ^ Myshlaevsky, p. 384
  59. ^ Elagin C (1865). Письмо Шельтинга к Государю с корабля Полтава, 1714 года, августа 4 (Letter from Schelting to the Emperor sent from the ship Poltava, 1714, August 4). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 544. 
  60. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Письмо Шельтинга к графу Апраксину с корабля Полтава из Гельсингфорса, 1714 года, августа 16 (Letter from Schelting to Apraksin sent from the ship Poltava at Helsingfors, 1714, August 16). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 557. 
  61. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Письмо Государя к Апраксину с корабля Св. Екатерина из Гельсингфорса, 1714 года, августа 24 (Letter from the Emperor to Apraksin sent from the ship St. Catherine at Helsingfors, 1714, August 1924). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 558. 
  62. ^ Veselago (1875) p. 274
  63. ^ Veselago (1875) p. 275
  64. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Выписка из письма графа Апраксина к князю М. Голицыну, 1715 года, июля 30 (An extract from a letter from Apraksin to Golitsyn, 1715, July 30). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 655. 
  65. ^ Elagin C, ed. (1865). Письмо графа Апраксина к Крюйсу из Ревеля, 1715 года, августа 12 (Letter from Apraksin to Cruys sent from Revel, 1715, August 1912). Материалы для истории русскаго флота I (St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry). p. 661. 
  66. ^ Veselago (1875) p. 276
  67. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Указ Государя капитан-командору Сиверсу, 1716 года, января 27 (Emperor's order to captain commander Sievers, 1716, January 1927)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 7. 
  68. ^ Veselago (1875) p. 284
  69. ^ Veselago (1875) p. 286
  70. ^ Anderson, p. 174
  71. ^ Anderson, p. 179
  72. ^ Veselago (1875) p. 299
  73. ^ Veselago (1875) pp. 300, 301
  74. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Выписка из донесения барона де-Би к Генеральным штатам Соединённых Нидерланд, 1717 года, августа 2 (13) (An extract from the report of Baron de Bi to the States of the United Netherlands, 1717, August 2 (13))". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 241. 
  75. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Письмо графа Апраксина к Государю, 1717 года, августа 26 (Letter from Count Apraksin to the Emperor), 1717, August 1926". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 241. 
  76. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Выписка из письма Крюйса к графу Апраксину из С. Петербурга, 1718 года, июля 21 (An extract from a letter from Cruys to Count Apraksin sent from St. Petersburg, 1718, July 21)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 294. 
  77. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Выписка из письма Крюйса к Государю из С. Петербурга, 1718 года, июля 28 (An extract from a letter from Cruys to the Emperor sent from St. Petersburg, 1718, July 28)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 296. 
  78. ^ a b Veselago (1872) p. 9
  79. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Выписка из письма Чернышёва к графу Апраксину, 1720 года, апреля 1 (An extract from a letter from Chernyshev to Count Apraksin, 1720, April 1)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 459. 
  80. ^ Veselago (1875) p. 338
  81. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Выписка из письма Фангофта к графу Апраксину, 1720 года, июля 2 (An extract from a letter from Fangoft to Count Apraksin, 1720, July 2)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 498. 
  82. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Выписка из письма Фандельдина к графу Апраксину из Ревеля, 1721 года, мая 8 (Extract from a letter from Fandeldin to Count Apraksin sent from Revel, 1721, May 8)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 574. 
  83. ^ Elagin S., ed. (1865). "Выписка из письма Фангофта к князю Меншикову с корабля Перл от Наргена, 1721 года, мая 4 (An extract from a letter from Fangoft to Prince Menshikov sent from the ship Pearl at Nargen, 1721, May 4)". Материалы для истории русскаго флота (St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry) II: 571. 
  84. ^ Anderson, p. 203
  85. ^ Anderson, p. 204
  86. ^ Dan, p. 189
  87. ^ Извлечение из журналов адмиралтейств-коллегии 1725 г., от мая 13 (Extract from the journals of the Admiralty Board of 1725, May 13) V. St. Petersburg.: Marine Ministry. 1875. p. 140. 
  88. ^ Указ адмиралтейств-коллегии в Кронштадт к вице-адмиралу Сиверсу, 1726 года, марта 12 (Order of the Admiralty Board to Vice Admiral Sievers in Kronstadt, 1726, March 12) V. St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry. 1875. p. 195. 
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Bibliography

  • Anderson RC (1969). Naval Wars in the Baltic. London. 
  • Bykhovskii IA (1982). Петровские корабелы (Peter's shipbuilders). St. Petersburg: Судостроение. 
  • Dan, John (1999). История Российского флота в царствование Петра Великого (History of the Russian Navy in the reign of Peter the Great). St. Petersburg: "Историческая иллюстрация". Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  • Dubensky, VP (2000). "Балтийский первенец Петра. Oпыт реконструкции декора линейного корабля "Полтава". (The first Baltic ship of Peter. Experience of reconstructing decor of battleship Poltava)". Naval collection (Moscow) 5 (1). 
  • Журнал, или Поденная записка блаженныя и вечныя достойныя памяти государя императора Петра Великого (Journal, or notes of Emperor Peter the Great) 1. Academy of Sciences. 1770. 
  • Matveeva TM (1979). Убранство русских кораблей (The decor of the Russian ships). St. Petersburg: Судостроение. 
  • Myshlaevsky AZ (1896). Пётр Великий. Война в Финляндии в 1712—1714 годах. Совместная операция сухопутной армии, галерного и корабельного флотов (Peter the Great. The war in Finland in 1712–1714). Joint operation of the army, and the ship's galley fleets. St. Petersburg: Military Printing. 
  • Veselago FF (1872). Список русских военных судов с 1668 по 1860 год (List of Russian warships from 1668 to 1860). St. Petersburg: Marine Ministry. 
  • Veselago FF (1875). Очерк русской морской истории (Essays on Russian naval history) I. St. Petersburg: Demakov Printing House. 

External links

  • Model
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