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Title: Seagrass  
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Floridian seagrass bed

Seagrasses are flowering plants (Division Angiospermae) belonging to four plant families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae, or Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments. There are 12 genera with some 58 species known.


  • Ecology 1
  • Taxonomy 2
  • Environmental services 3
  • Uses 4
  • Disturbances and threats 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further references 8
  • External links 9


White-spotted puffers are often found in seagrass areas.

These unusual marine flowering plants are called seagrasses because in many species the leaves are long and narrow, grow by rhizome extension, and often grow in large "meadows", which look like grassland: in other words, many of the species of seagrasses superficially resemble terrestrial grasses of the family Poaceae.

Like all autotrophic plants, seagrasses photosynthesize so are limited to growing in the submerged photic zone, and most occur in shallow and sheltered coastal waters anchored in sand or mud bottoms. Most species undergo submarine pollination and complete their entire life cycle underwater. There are about sixty species worldwide.

Seagrasses form extensive beds or meadows, which can be either monospecific (made up of a single species) or in mixed beds where more than one species coexist. In temperate areas, usually one or a few species dominate (like the eelgrass Zostera marina in the North Atlantic), whereas tropical beds usually are more diverse, with up to thirteen species recorded in the Philippines.

Seagrass beds are highly diverse and productive ecosystems, and can harbor hundreds of associated species from all phyla, for example juvenile and adult fish, epiphytic and free-living macroalgae and microalgae, mollusks, bristle worms, and nematodes. Few species were originally considered to feed directly on seagrass leaves (partly because of their low nutritional content), but scientific reviews and improved working methods have shown that seagrass herbivory is a highly important link in the food chain, with hundreds of species feeding on seagrasses worldwide, including green turtles, dugongs, manatees, fish, geese, swans, sea urchins and crabs.

Some fish species that visit/feed on the seagrass raise their young in adjacent mangroves or coral reefs. Also, seagrass traps sediment and slows water movement, causing suspended sediment to fall out. The trapping of sediment benefits coral by reducing sediment loads in the water.[1]


Family Image Genera Description
Zosteraceae The family Zosteraceae, also known as the seagrass family, includes two genera containing 14 marine species. It is found in temperate and subtropical coastal waters, with the highest diversity located around Korea and Japan.
Species subtotal:  
Hydrocharitaceae The family Hydrocharitaceae, also known as tape-grasses, include Canadian waterweed and frogbit. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics, although of the seventeen species currently recognised only three are marine.[2] They are found throughout the world in a wide variety of habitats, but are primarily tropical.
Species subtotal:  
Posidoniaceae The family Posidoniaceae contains a single genus with two to nine marine species found in the seas of the Mediterranean and around the south coast of Australia.
Species subtotal: 2 to 9  
Cymodoceaceae The family Cymodoceaceae, also known as manatee-grass, includes only marine species.[2] Some taxonomists do not recognized this family.
Species subtotal:  
Total species:   

Environmental services

Seagrass bed with several echinoids, Grahams Harbour, San Salvador Island, Bahamas
Seagrass bed with dense turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) and an immature queen conch (Eustrombus gigas), Rice Bay, San Salvador Island, Bahamas
Diagram showing seagrass evolution beginning with Precambrian phytoplankton which begat Silurian red, brown, and green algae,Zostera
Evolution of seagrasses

Diagram showing seagrass evolution beginning with Precambrian phytoplankton which begat Silurian red, brown, and green algae,Zostera

Seagrasses are sometimes labeled ecosystem engineers, because they partly create their own habitat: the leaves slow down water-currents increasing sedimentation, and the seagrass roots and rhizomes stabilize the seabed.

Their importance for associated species is mainly due to provision of shelter (through their three-dimensional structure in the water column), and for their extraordinarily high rate of primary production. As a result, seagrasses provide coastal zones with a number of ecosystem goods and ecosystem services, for instance habitat for commercially and recreationally valued fishery species,[3] fishing grounds, wave protection, oxygen production and protection against coastal erosion. Seagrass meadows account for more than 10% of the ocean’s total carbon storage.[4] Per hectare, it holds twice as much carbon dioxide as rain forests. Yearly, seagrasses sequester about 27.4 million tons of CO2 (Reference Needed). Due to global warming, some seagrasses will go extinct – Posidonia oceanica is expected to go extinct, or nearly so, by 2050. This would result in CO2 release.[5][6]


Historically, seagrasses were collected as fertilizer for sandy soil. This was an important use in the Ria de Aveiro, Portugal, where the plants collected were known as moliço.

In the early 20th century, in France and, to a lesser extent, the Channel Islands, dried seagrasses were used as a mattress (paillasse) filling - such mattresses were in high demand by French forces during World War I. It was also used for bandages and other purposes.

Currently, seagrass has been used in furniture, and woven like rattan.

Disturbances and threats

Natural disturbances, such as grazing, storms, ice-scouring, and desiccation, are an inherent part of seagrass ecosystem dynamics. Seagrasses display an extraordinarily high degree of phenotypic plasticity, adapting rapidly to changing environmental conditions.

Seagrasses are in global decline, with some 30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi) lost during recent decades. The main cause is human disturbance, most notably eutrophication, mechanical destruction of habitat, and overfishing. Excessive input of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) is directly toxic to seagrasses, but most importantly, it stimulates the growth of epiphytic and free-floating macro- and micro-algae. This weakens the sunlight, reducing the photosynthesis that nourishes the seagrass and the primary production results.

Decaying seagrass leaves and algae fuels increasing algal blooms, resulting in a positive feedback. This can cause a complete regime shift from seagrass to algal dominance. Accumulating evidence also suggests that overfishing of top predators (large predatory fish) could indirectly increase algal growth by reducing grazing control performed by mesograzers, such as crustaceans and gastropods, through a trophic cascade.

Macro algal blooms cause the decline and eradication of seagrasses throughout areas where nutrient loading or other sources of stimulated algal growth exist. Known as nuisance species, macroalgae grow in filamentous and sheet-like forms and form thick unattached mats over the seagrasse, occurring as epiphytes on seagrass leaves. Eutrophication leads to the forming of a bloom, causing the attenuation of light in the water column, which eventually leads to anoxic conditions for the seagrass and organisms living in/around the plant(s). In addition to the direct blockage of light to the plant, benthic macroalgae have low carbon/nitrogen content, causing their decomposition to stimulate bacterial activity, leading to sediment resuspension, an increase in water turbidity, and the further attenuation of light.[7][8]

When humans drive motor boats over shallow seagrass areas, sometimes the propeller blade can tear out or cut the seagrass.

The most-used methods to protect and restore seagrass meadows include nutrient and pollution reductions, protection using marine protected areas, and restoration using seagrass transplantation. There is also increasing recognition of the need to increase the resilience of seagrass to the impacts of future environmental change.[9]

See also


  1. ^ Seagrass-Watch: What is seagrass? Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  2. ^ a b Waycott, Michelle; McMahon, Kathryn; Lavery, Paul (2014). A Guide to Southern Temperate Seagrasses. CSIRO Publishing.  
  3. ^ Jackson et al., 2015, Use of a seagrass residency index to apportion commercial fishery landing values and recreation fisheries expenditure to seagrass habitat service
  4. ^ "Seagrasses Store as Much Carbon as Forests". Livescience. TechMedia Network. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  5. ^ EOS magazine, July–August 2012
  6. ^ Laffoley, Dan (December 26, 2009). "To Save the Planet, Save the Seas". The New York Times. Retrieved December 2009. 
  7. ^ McGlathery KJ (2001) "Macroalgal blooms contribute to the decline of seagrass in nutrient‐enriched coastal waters" Journal of Phycology, 37: 453–456.
  8. ^ Fox SE, YS Olsen and AC Spivak (2010) "Effects of bottom-up and top-down controls and climate change on estuarine macrophyte communities and the ecosystem services they provide" In: PF Kemp (Ed) Eco-DAS Symposium Proceedings, ALSO, Chapter 8: 129–145.
  9. ^ Unsworth et al. 2015 "A framework for the resilience of seagrass ecosystems" Marine Pollution Bulletin'

Further references

  • den Hartog, C. 1970. The Sea-grasses of the World. Verhandl. der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afd. Natuurkunde, No. 59(1).
  • Duarte, Carlos M. and Carina L. Chiscano “Seagrass biomass and production: a reassessment” Aquatic Botany Volume 65, Issues 1-4, November 1999, Pages 159-174.
  • Green, E.P. & Short, F.T.(eds). 2003. World Atlas of Seagrasses. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 298 pp.
  • Hemminga, M.A. & Duarte, C. 2000. Seagrass Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 298 pp.
  • Hogarth, Peter The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses (Oxford University Press, 2007)
  • Larkum, Anthony W.D., Robert J. Orth, and Carlos M. Duarte (Editors) Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation (Springer, 2006)
  • Orth, Robert J. et al. "A Global Crisis for Seagrass Ecosystems" BioScience December 2006 / Vol. 56 No. 12, Pages 987-996.
  • Short, F.T. & Coles, R.G.(eds). 2001. Global Seagrass Research Methods. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. 473 pp.
  • A.W.D. Larkum, R.J. Orth, and C.M. Duarte (eds). Seagrass Biology: A Treatise. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, in press.
  • A. Schwartz; M. Morrison; I. Hawes; J. Halliday. 2006. Physical and biological characteristics of a rare marine habitat: sub-tidal seagrass beds of offshore islands. Science for Conservation 269. 39 pp. [2]
  • Waycott, M, McMahon, K, & Lavery, P 2014, A guide to southern temperate seagrasses, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne

External links

  • Seagrass and Seagrass Beds overview from the Smithsonian Ocean Portal
  • Nature Geoscience article describing the locations of the seagrass meadows around the world
  • Seagrass-Watch - the largest scientific, non-destructive, seagrass assessment and monitoring program in the world
  • Seagrass Ecosystem Research Group at Swansea University - Inter-disciplinary marine research for conservation
  • Restore-A-Scar - a non-profit campaign to restore seagrass meadows damaged by boat props
  • SeagrassNet - global seagrass monitoring program
  • The Seagrass Fund at The Ocean Foundation
  • Project Seagrass - Advancing the conservation of seagrass through education, influence, research and action
  • Taxonomy of seagrasses
  • World Seagrass Association
  • SeagrassLI
  • Seagrass Science and Management in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand
  • (December 2006)Marine Ecology - special issue on seagrasses
  • Cambodian Seagrasses
  • Seagrass Productivity - COST Action ES0906
  • Fisheries Western Australia - Seagrass Fact Sheet
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