Spindle-tree

For the mythical figure, see Euonymus (mythology).
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Euonymus europaeus foliage and fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Celastrales
Family: Celastraceae
Subfamily: Celastroideae
Genus: Euonymus
L.
Species

See text

Synonyms

Kalonymus (Beck) Prokh.
Pragmotessara Pierre
Pragmotropa Pierre
Quadripterygium Tardieu
Sphaerodiscus Nakai[1]

Euonymus /juːˈɒnɪməs/, often called spindle or spindle tree,[2] is a genus of flowering plants in the staff vine family, Celastraceae. It comprises about 130 species[3][4] of deciduous and evergreen shrubs and small trees. They are mostly native to East Asia, extending to the Himalayas,[5] and they are also distributed in Europe, Australasia, North America, and Madagascar. 50 species are endemic to China.[3]

Description

The flowers occur in small groups, inconspicuous and of green or yellow shades.[5] The leaves are opposite (rarely alternate) and simple ovoid, typically 2–15 cm long, and usually with a finely serrated margin. The fruit is a pink-red four- or five-valved pod-like berry, which splits open to reveal the fleshy-coated orange seeds.

The seeds are eaten by frugivorous birds, which digest the fleshy seed coat and disperse the seeds in their droppings. Many species are used for medicinal use, and parts of the plants can be poisonous to humans.[6]

Cultivation and uses


The wood of some species was traditionally used for the making of spindles for spinning wool; this use is the origin of the English name of the shrubs.

Spindles are popular garden shrubs, grown for their foliage, the deciduous species often exhibiting very bright red autumnal colours, and also for the decorative berries.

Diversity

Species include:[7]

  • Euonymus nanoides
  • Euonymus nanus - dwarf spindle
  • Euonymus nitidus
  • Euonymus obovatus - running strawberry-bush
  • Euonymus occidentalis - western burning-bush
  • Euonymus oresbius
  • Euonymus oxyphyllus
  • Euonymus pallidifolius
  • Euonymus paniculatus
  • Euonymus pauciflorus
  • Euonymus pendulus (syn. E. lucidus)
  • Euonymus phellomanus
  • Euonymus pittosporoides[8]
  • Euonymus planipes - dingle-dangle tree
  • Euonymus prismatomerioides[8]
  • Euonymus pseudovagans[4]
  • Euonymus sachalinensis
  • Euonymus sanguineus
  • Euonymus schensianus
  • Euonymus semenovii
  • Euonymus serratifolius
  • Euonymus tenuiserrata[8]
  • Euonymus thwaitesii
  • Euonymus velutinus
  • Euonymus verrucocarpa[8]
  • Euonymus verrucosoides
  • Euonymus verrucosus
  • Euonymus walkeri
  • Euonymus wui[4]

References

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