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Timeline of psychotherapy

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Title: Timeline of psychotherapy  
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Subject: Timeline of psychiatry, Social science timelines, Medicine timelines, History of psychology, Timeline of psychology
Collection: History of Psychology, Medicine Timelines, Psychology Lists, Social Science Timelines
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Timeline of psychotherapy

This article is a compiled Timeline of Psychotherapy. A more general description of the development of the subject of Psychology can be found in the History of Psychology article. For related overviews see the Timeline of Psychology and Timeline of Psychiatry articles.


  • Antiquity 1
  • Middle Ages 2
    • 8th century 2.1
    • 9th century 2.2
    • 10th century 2.3
    • 11th century 2.4
    • 12th century 2.5
    • 13th century 2.6
    • 15ad 2.7
    • 16th century 2.8
  • 18th century 3
    • 1770s 3.1
    • 1780s 3.2
    • 1790s 3.3
  • 19th century 4
    • 1800s 4.1
    • 1810s 4.2
    • 1820s 4.3
    • 1870s 4.4
    • 1880s 4.5
    • 1890s 4.6
  • 20th century 5
    • 1900s 5.1
    • 1910s 5.2
    • 1920s 5.3
    • 1930s 5.4
    • 1940s 5.5
    • 1950s 5.6
    • 1960s 5.7
    • 1970s 5.8
    • 1980s 5.9
    • 1990s 5.10
  • 21st century 6
    • 2000s 6.1
    • 2010s 6.2
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8
  • References 9


  • ca. 1550 BCE – Ancient Egyptians codified their knowledge of psychiatry, medicine, and surgery in the Ebers Papyrus and the Edwin Smith Papyrus. The former mentioned dementia and depression, while the latter gave detailed instructions for various neurosurgical procedures. The power of magic (suggestion) was recognized as complementary to medicine.
  • ca. 500 BCE – Siddhartha Gautama founded the psychotherapeutic practices of Buddhism on the principle that the origin of mental suffering is ignorance, that the symptoms of ignorance are attachment and craving, and that attachment and craving can be ended by following the Eightfold Path.
  • ca. 400 BCE – Hippocrates taught that melancholia (depression) has a biological cause, namely an excess of black bile, one of the four humours. Ancient Greek therapy for disorders of mood involved adjustment of the humours, to bring them into balance.
  • ca. 300 BCE – Composition of the Yin and yang.

Middle Ages

8th century

9th century

10th century

  • ca. 900 – The concepts of mental health or "mental hygiene" were introduced by Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi. He also recognized that illnesses can have both psychological and/or physiological causes.[1]
  • ca. 900 – al-Razi (Rhazes) recognized the concept of "psychotherapy" and referred to it as al-‘ilaj al-nafs.[2]

11th century

12th century

13th century


  • 1403 – The Bethlem Royal Hospital of London, (Bedlam) (established as a hospital in 1330) admitted its first mentally ill patients. The care amounted to little more than restraint.

16th century

  • 1567 – Paracelsus' Von den Krankeiten was posthumously published, introducing his clinical system of psychotherapy.

18th century




  • 1793 – Jean-Baptiste Pussin, working with Philippe Pinel, began releasing incarcerated mental patients from chains and iron shackles in the first movement for the humane treatment of the mentally ill.

19th century


  • 1801 – Philippe Pinel published the first psychological approach to the treatment of the insane. The work appeared in English translation in 1806, as Treatise on Insanity.






20th century



  • 1910 – Boris Sidis opens the Sidis Psychotherapeutic Institute (a private hospital) at Maplewood Farms in Portsmouth, NH for the treatment of nervous patients using the latest scientific methods.
  • 1911 – Alfred Adler left Freud's Psychoanalytic Group to form his own school of thought, Individual Psychology, accusing Freud of overemphasizing sexuality and basing his theory on his own childhood.
  • 1913 – Carl Jung departed from Freudian views and developed his own theories citing Freud's inability to acknowledge religion and spirituality. His new school of thought became known as Analytical Psychology.
  • 1913 – Jacob L. Moreno applied Group Psychotherapy methods in Vienna. His methods, which emphasized spontaneity and interaction, later became known as Psychodrama and Sociometry.
  • 1914 – Boris Sidis publishes The Foundations of Normal and Abnormal Psychology where he provides the scientific foundation for the field of psychology, and details his theory of the moment-consciousness.


  • 1921 – Jacob L. Moreno conducted the first large scale public Psychodrama session at the Komoedienhaus, Vienna. He moved to New York in 1925.
  • 1922 – Boris Sidis publishes Nervous Ills: Their Cause and a Cure, a popularization of his work concerning the subconscious and the treatment of psychopathic disease.


  • 1933 – Wilhelm Reich published his influential book Character Analysis giving his view that a person's entire character, not only individual symptoms, could be looked at and treated as a neurotic phenomenon. The book also introduced his theory of body armoring.
  • 1936 – Karen Horney began her critique of Freudian psychoanalytic theory with the publication of Feminine Psychology.


  • 1942 – Carl Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy, suggesting that respect and a non-judgmental approach to therapy is the foundation for effective treatment of mental health issues.
  • 1943 – Albert Hofmann writes his first report about the hallucinogenic properties of LSD, which he first synthesized in 1938. LSD was practiced as a therapeutic drug throughout the 1950s and 1960s.
  • 1945 - Orval Hobart Mowrer founded Integrity Groups therapy.
  • 1945 – The Journal of Clinical Psychology was founded.
  • 1949 – The Boulder Conference outlined the scientist-practitioner model of clinical psychology, looking at the Master's degree versus PhD used by medical providers and researchers, respectively.





  • 1980 – DSM III is published by the American Psychiatric Association.
  • 1987 – DSM III-R is published by the American Psychiatric Association.


  • 1990 – Michael White and David Epston publish Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends, the first major text in what later comes to be known as narrative therapy.
  • 1991- The [5]
  • 1992 - The [5]
  • 1994 – DSM IV (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) published by the American Psychiatric Association.
  • 1997 - The [5]

21st century


  • 2000 – The DSM-IV-TR, was published in May 2000 in order to correct several errors in DSM-IV, and to update and change diagnostic codes to reflect the ICD-9-CM coding system.
  • 2004 - Gold, Voracek, and Wigram looked at ten studies conducted between 1970 and 1998 to examine the overall efficacy of music therapy on children and adolescents with behavioral, emotional, and developmental disorders.
  • 2006 - Michael J. Crawford and his colleagues found that music therapy helped the outcomes of schizophrenic patients.[6]


  • 2013 - The Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was released at the American Psychiatric Association’s Annual Meeting in May 2013, marking the end of more than a decade’s journey in revising the criteria for the diagnosis and classification of mental disorders. [7]
  • 2014 - The genetic marker associated with the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been identified. [8]

See also


  1. ^ Nurdeen Deuraseh and Mansor Abu Talib (2005), "Mental health in Islamic medical tradition", The International Medical Journal 4 (2), p. 76-79.
  2. ^ Haque, Amber (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–377 [376],  
  3. ^ S Safavi-Abbasi, LBC Brasiliense, RK Workman (2007), "The fate of medical knowledge and the neurosciences during the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire", Neurosurgical Focus 23 (1), E13, p. 3.
  4. ^ a b c Martin-Araguz, A.; Bustamante-Martinez, C.; Fernandez-Armayor, Ajo V.; Moreno-Martinez, J. M. (2002). "Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine", Revista de neurología 34 (9), p. 877-892.
  5. ^ a b c
  6. ^ Crawford, Mike J.; Talwar, Nakul; et al. (November 2006). "Music therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: Exploratory randomised controlled trial". British Journal of Psychiatry (2006) 189 (5): 405–409.
  7. ^
  8. ^


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