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Union of the Russian People

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Title: Union of the Russian People  
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Subject: Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, Nikolai Yevgenyevich Markov, Georgy Butmi de Katzman, Eastern Orthodoxy and far-right politics, Pyotr Shabelsky-Bork
Collection: 1905 Establishments in Russia, 1917 Disestablishments in Russia, Anti-Catholic Organizations, Anti-Catholicism, Anti-Catholicism in Eastern Orthodoxy, Anti-Catholicism in Russia, Conservative Parties in Russia, Eastern Orthodoxy and Far-Right Politics, Far-Right Politics in Russia, Jewish Russian and Soviet History, Monarchism in Russia, Monarchist Parties, Nationalist Parties in Russia, Political Parties Disestablished in 1917, Political Parties Established in 1905, Political Parties in the Russian Empire, Political Parties of the Russian Revolution, Russian Nationalist Organizations
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Union of the Russian People

The Union of Russian People (URP) (Russian Empire between 1905 and 1917.

Founded in October–November 1905 in Russian Revolution of 1905. Some modern academic researchers view URP activities as an example of fascism or proto-fascism.[2] Soon after the February Revolution of 1917 URP was suspended and its leader Alexander Dubrovin was arrested.

Contents

  • History 1
    • 1905: creation and promotion 1.1
    • 1906: upswing 1.2
  • Ideology 2
  • Party leaders and bodies 3
  • Newspapers 4
  • Revival and current activity 5
  • See also 6
  • Literature 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

History

1905: creation and promotion

The idea to create the union originated between several public figures of Russia whom entered its political arena before the 1905 Russian Revolution. Among them were active members of the "Russian Assembly" ("Russkoye sobraniye", Russian: Русское собрание) Vladimir Purishkevich and Alexander Dubrovin.

On 30 October [O.S. 26 October] 1905 formally announced the founding of the Union of the Russian People. Dubrovin was electing its chairman.[3]

Besides merchants and priests who supported ideas, and right-radical organizations like Moscow Banner-carriers, Dubrovin was in contact with senior officials and secret services of Russia. Minister of the Interior Pyotr Rachkovsky reported his chief, colonel (later general) Alexander Gerasimov about such attempts and proposed Gerasimov to introduce him to Dubrovin. Their meeting took place in late October 1905 in the apartment of Rachkovsky.[2]

With a powerful administrative support and funding at their disposal URP managed to organize and conduct its first mass public event less than in a fortnight after its creation. The first public rally of URP with about 2,000 attendance was held on November, 21 [O.S. 8] 1905 in Mikhailovsky Manege, a popular venue in Petersburg. Orchestra was playing, the church choir sang "Praise God" and "Tzar Divine"; leaders of URP (Dubrovin, Purishkevich, Bulatsel’, Nikolsky) addressed the mob from a rostrum erected in the centre of the arena. Special guests from the "Russian Assembly": Prince M. N. Volkonsky, journalist from "Novoye Vremya" Nicholas Engelhardt and two bishops also welcomed the new party with their speeches.

Members of the tzar's entourage like Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich, Alexander Trepov, many of government and clergy "unquestionably welcomed a movement such as this". Sergei Witte was a rare occasion among high-ranking officials being "unequivocally hostile to the URP"[2] (in his memoirs he calls Dubrovin a "high-handed and abusive leader").

1906: upswing

Joint electoral campaign poster of URP and the Union of October 17

By the end of 1905 URP started to absorb many of the smaller unions and leagues that had been springing up in the provinces. Usually, a branch (

  • Programme and Statute of The Union of Russian People

External links

  1. ^   — P. 71–72.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Hans Rogger (1986). "Was there a Russian Fascism? The Union of Russian People". Jewish policies and right-wing politics in imperial Russia. pp. 203–232. 
  3. ^ Rawson, Don C. (1995). Russian rightists and the revolution of 1905. p. 59. 
  4. ^ """KIEV REPORTS POGROMS.; Pillage Subordinated to Murder in Massacres by "Black Hundred.. The New York Times. 21 May 1922. 
  5. ^ "…Две силы создают погромы: во-первых, черносотенные организации, к тому времени сильно окрепшие, и, во-вторых, крайний правительственный антисемитизм. Первый сам по себе мне представляется не страшным, значение второго было очень грозно. Правительственный антисемитизм, исходя из центра в виде отдельных проявлений известного настроения, по иерархической лестнице доходил до низов правительственного механизма вылитым в прямой призыв к избиениям евреев; оттуда призыв подтверждался и выполнялся черносотенными кружками." (AA. Lopukhin (А.А. Лопухин) "Отрывки из воспоминаний" 1923, p.85
  6. ^ http://starosti.ru/archive.php?m=12&y=1908
  7. ^ ПАНИХИДЫ ПО Т. ШЕВЧЕНКЕ И ЧЕРНОСОТЕННОЕ ДУХОВЕСТВО. Украинская Жизнь. — М., 1912. — № 5 — С. 82.
  8. ^ Hans Rogger (1986). "The Formation of the Russian Right: 1900–1906". Jewish policies and right-wing politics in imperial Russia. pp. 191–193. 
  9. ^ Link text, Союз Русского Народа.

References

  • Rawson, Don C. (March 1995). Russian rightists and the revolution of 1905. Cambridge Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies (No. 95). Cambridge University Press. pp. xv, 312, 1 map, 28 tables.  
  •  
  •  
  • Rogger, Hans (1986). "Was there a Russian Fascism? The Union of Russian People". Jewish policies and right-wing politics in imperial Russia.  
  • Ascher, Abraham (1986). The Revolution of 1905: Authority restored.  

Literature

See also

This organisation has seen a revival around 2005 in Russia now and has many followers and 17 offices in large cities.[9] The first chairman of the refounded group was Vyacheslav Klykov. The Union's main activities can be described as national patriotic with strong emphasis on the Russian Orthodox Church and revival of Russian traditions gone into the past after the October Revolution.

Revival and current activity

URP’s chief newspaper was Russkoe znamya (Russian Banner), a newspaper which first published notorious "Protocols of the Elders of Zion". In provincial Russia Pochayevsky listok (The Pochayev Circular) was the most popular URP newspaper. URP also printed its propaganda materials in Moskovskiye Vedomosti (Moscow News), Grazhdanin (Citizen), Kievlyanin (Kievan) and others.

Newspapers

Later the Main Board increased to 12 members, among which S. D. Chekalov, M. N. Zelensky, Ye. D. Golubev, N. N. Yazykov, G. A. Slipak are mentioned.

The supreme body of URP was called Main Council (treasurer of URP, and barrister Sergei Trishatny (elder brother of a deputy chairman) performed as secretary.[2]

Party leaders and bodies

The antisemitic spirit was brought into URP by its ideological core which seceded from the Russian assembly URP chairman Alexanedr Dubrovin, Pavel Krushevan, Vladimir Purishkevich, Pavel Bulatsel’ and some other "radical temperament anti-Semitic rabble rousers". [8] The methods of URP were not what the Russian assembly considered proper conduct. Save lawyer an journalist Bulatsel’, another leading intellectual of URP was B. V. Nikolsky, privatdozent (senior lecturer) at Petersburg University.[2]

Ideology

In 1908-1910, the infighting in the URP broke the organization into several smaller entities, which were in constant conflict with each other - Soyuz Mikhaila Arkhangela (Союз Михаила Архангела, or Union of Archangel Michael), Soyuz russkogo naroda (Союз русского народа, or Union of the Russian People ), Vserossiysky dubrovinsky Soyuz russkogo naroda v Peterburge (Всероссийский дубровинский Союз русского народа в Петербурге, or Dubrovin’s All-Russian Union of the Russian People in Petersburg) etc. After the February Revolution of 1917, all of the black-hundredist organizations were forcefully dissolved and banned.

The Union actively campaigned against Ukrainian self-determination and in particular, against the "cult" of the popular Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko.[7]

In 1908 URP members from clergy claimed for a right to carry weapons, however this petition was denied.[6]

URP’s became the main instigator (through meetings, gatherings, lectures, manifestations and mass public prayers) of the pogroms against Jews (especially in 1906 in Gomel, Yalta, Białystok, Odessa, Sedlets and other cities), in which the URP members often took active part.[4][5] In October 1906, they formed a black-hundredist organization called Ob’yedinyonniy russkiy narod (Объединённый русский народ, or Russian People United).

The charter of URP was adopted in August 1906. URP stood for unity and indivisibility of Russia, preservation of autocracy and russification of non-Russian population.

By 1907 it is said about up to 900 local URP branches in many cities, towns and even villages. Apart from abovenamed, the largest were in Kiev, Saratov and Astrakhan; Volhynian Governorate is also mentioned among the largest by the representation of URP.

[2]

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