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23rd United States Congress

23rd Congress redirects here, for the Soviet congress, see 23rd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
23rd United States Congress
22nd ← → 24th

United States Capitol (1827)

Duration: March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1835

Senate President: Martin Van Buren
Senate Pres. pro tem: Hugh L. White
George Poindexter
John Tyler
House Speaker: Andrew Stevenson
John Bell
Members: 48 Senators
240 Representatives
3 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Anti-Jacksonian
House Majority: Jacksonian

1st: December 2, 1833 – June 30, 1834
2nd: December 1, 1834 – March 4, 1835

The Twenty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1833 to March 4, 1835, during the fifth and sixth years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. The Senate had an Anti-Jacksonian or National Republican majority, and the House had a Jacksonian or Democratic majority.

Major events

  • March 28, 1834: Senate censured President Andrew Jackson for defunding the Second Bank of the United States
  • January 30, 1835: Richard Lawrence unsuccessfully tried to assassinate President Jackson in the United States Capitol; this was the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States.[1]

Major legislation

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant

End of the previous congress 23 23 1 47 1
Begin 26 19 1 46 2
End 27 2 48 0
Final voting share 56.3% 39.6% 4.2%
Beginning of the next congress 24 21 2 47 1

House of Representatives

For the beginning of this congress, the size of the House was increased from 213 seats to 240 seats, following the 1830 United States Census (See 4 Stat. 516).
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant


End of the previous congress 62 17 129 4 212 1
Begin 60 25 145 9 239 1
End 62 143 8 238 2
Final voting share 26.1% 10.5% 60.1% 3.4%
Beginning of the next congress 76 15 139 8 238 2


President of the Senate
Martin Van Buren


House of Representatives


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.


Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1838; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1834; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1836.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • replacements: 8
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 6
  • interim appointments: 0
  • Total seats with changes: 11
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
South Carolina
Vacant since March 3, 1833, due to the resignation of Stephen Decatur Miller (N) William C. Preston (N) Elected November 26, 1833
Vacant from preceding Congress due to state legislature's failure to elect John Black (AJ) Elected November 22, 1833
Josiah S. Johnston (AJ) Died May 19, 1833 Alexander Porter (AJ) Elected December 19, 1833
Alexander Buckner (J) Died June 6, 1833 Lewis F. Linn (J) Appointed October 25, 1833, subsequently elected.
George Troup (J) Resigned November 8, 1833 John P. King (D) Elected November 21, 1833
William C. Rives (J) Resigned February 22, 1834 Benjamin W. Leigh (AJ) Elected February 26, 1834
William Wilkins (J) Resigned June 30, 1834 after being appointed Minister to Russia James Buchanan (J) Elected December 6, 1834
John Forsyth (J) Resigned July 27, 1834 after being appointed US Secretary of State Alfred Cuthbert (J) Elected January 12, 1835
Ezekiel F. Chambers (AJ) Resigned December 20, 1834 after being appointed judge of the 2nd Judicial Circuit of Maryland Robert H. Goldsborough (AJ) Elected January 13, 1835
Peleg Sprague (AJ) Resigned January 1, 1835 John Ruggles (J) Elected January 20, 1835

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 18
  • deaths: 8
  • resignations: 15
  • contested election: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 23
District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
Kentucky 5th Vacant Contested election of Thomas P. Moore. House denied either party the seat and declared new election Robert P. Letcher (AJ) Seated August 6, 1834
Virginia 5th John Randolph (J) Died May 24, 1833 Thomas T. Bouldin (J) Seated December 2, 1833
South Carolina 3rd Thomas D. Singleton (N) Died November 25, 1833 Robert B. Campbell (N) Seated February 27, 1834
South Carolina 5th George McDuffie (N) Resigned some time in 1834. Francis W. Pickens (N) Seated December 8, 1834
Louisiana 3rd Henry A. Bullard (AJ) Resigned January 4, 1834 after being appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court of Louisiana Rice Garland (AJ) Seated April 28, 1834
Massachusetts 5th John Davis (AJ) Resigned January 14, 1834 after being elected Governor of Massachusetts Levi Lincoln (AJ) Seated March 5, 1834
Virginia 5th Thomas T. Bouldin (J) Died February 11, 1834 James W. Bouldin (J) Seated March 28, 1834
Ohio 1st Robert T. Lytle (J) Resigned March 10, 1834 Robert T. Lytle (J) Re-seated December 27, 1834
South Carolina 8th James Blair (J) Died April 1, 1834 Richard I. Manning (J) Seated December 8, 1834
Maryland 1st Littleton P. Dennis (J) Died April 14, 1834 John N. Steele (J) Seated June 9, 1834
Connecticut At-large Samuel A. Foot (AJ) Resigned May 9, 1834 after becoming Governor of Connecticut Ebenezer Jackson, Jr. (AJ) Seated December 1, 1834
New York 3rd Cornelius V. Lawrence (J) Resigned May 14, 1834 after becoming Mayor of New York City. This was a plural district with 4 representatives. John J. Morgan (J) Seated December 1, 1834
Virginia 11th Andrew Stevenson (J) Resigned June 2, 1834 John Robertson (AJ) Seated December 8, 1834
Massachusetts 2nd Rufus Choate (AJ) Resigned June 30, 1834 Stephen C. Phillips (AJ) Seated December 1, 1834
New York 3rd Dudley Selden (J) Resigned July 1, 1834. This was a plural district with 4 representatives. Charles G. Ferris (J) Seated December 1, 1834
Connecticut At-large William W. Ellsworth (AJ) Resigned July 8, 1834 Joseph Trumbull (AJ) Seated December 1, 1834
Ohio 19th Humphrey H. Leavitt (J) Resigned July 10, 1834 after becoming judge of the US District Court of Ohio Daniel Kilgore (J) Seated December 1, 1834
Vermont 5th Benjamin F. Deming (AM) Died July 11, 1834 Henry F. Janes (AM) Seated December 2, 1834
Illinois 1st Charles Slade (J) Died July 26, 1834 John Reynolds (J) Seated December 1, 1834
Connecticut At-large Jabez W. Huntington (AJ) Resigned August 16, 1834 after being appointed judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors Phineas Miner (AJ) Seated December 1, 1834
Illinois 3rd Joseph Duncan (J) Resigned September 21, 1834 after being elected Governor of Illinois William L. May (J) Seated December 1, 1834
Louisiana 1st Edward D. White (AJ) Resigned November 15, 1834 to become Governor of Louisiana Henry Johnson (AJ) Seated December 1, 1834
Georgia At-large James M. Wayne (J) Resigned January 13, 1835 after being appointed an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court Not filled in this Congress
South Carolina 6th Warren R. Davis (N) Died January 29, 1835



House of Representatives


  1. ^ "Trying to Assassinate President Jackson". American Heritage. January 30, 2007. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links

  • Statutes at Large, 1789-1875
  • Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
  • U.S. House of Representatives: House History
  • U.S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
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