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4th millennium BC

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Title: 4th millennium BC  
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Subject: 3rd millennium BC, 6th millennium BC, Proto-Indo-European language, 33rd century BC, 34th century BC
Collection: 4Th Millennium Bc, Millennia
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4th millennium BC


The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. It marked the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing, which played a major role in starting recorded history.

Monte d'Accoddi is an archaeological site in northern Sardinia, Italy, located in the territory of Sassari near Porto Torres. 4th millennium BC.

The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture spread widely across Eurasia. World population in the course of the millennium doubled, approximately from 7 to 14 million people.


  • Events 1
  • Cultures 2
  • Environmental changes 3
  • Significant people 4
  • Inventions, discoveries, introductions 5
  • Religion 6
  • Calendars and chronology 7
  • Centuries 8
  • References 9



Environmental changes

Holocene Epoch
Preboreal (10.3–9 ka)
Boreal (9–7.5 ka)
Atlantic (7.55 ka)
Subboreal (52.5 ka)
Subatlantic (2.5 ka–present)

Based on studies by glaciologist Lonnie Thompson, professor at Ohio State University and researcher with the Byrd Polar Research Center, a number of indicators shows there was a global change in climate 5,200 years ago, probably due to a drop in solar energy output as hypothesized by Ohio State University.[2]

  • Plants buried in the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the Peruvian Andes demonstrate the climate had shifted suddenly and severely to capture the plants and preserve them until now.[3]
  • A man trapped in an Alpine glacier ("Ötzi the Iceman") is frozen until his discovery in 1991.[4]
  • Tree rings from Ireland and England show this was their driest period.[4]
  • Ice core records showing the ratio of two oxygen isotopes retrieved from the ice fields atop Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro, a proxy for atmospheric temperature at the time snow fell.[4]
  • Major changes in plant pollen uncovered from lakebed cores in South America.[4]
  • Record lowest levels of methane retrieved from ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica.[4]
  • End of the Neolithic Subpluvial, start of desertification of Sahara (35th century BC). North Africa shifts from a habitable region to a barren desert.[4]

Significant people

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Sumerian Cuneiform Script


Calendars and chronology



  1. ^
  2. ^ Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself at the Wayback Machine (archived January 15, 2008)
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c d e f
  5. ^ Federico Lara Peinado, Universidad Complutense de Madrid: "La Civilización Suemria.". Historia 16, 1999.
  6. ^
  7. ^ Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.
  8. ^ See horoscope number 1 in
  9. ^ Arun K. Bansal's research published in Outlook India, September 13, 2004.
  10. ^ Annals of the World, as well as the above sources
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