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Abdullah of Saudi Arabia

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Title: Abdullah of Saudi Arabia  
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Abdullah of Saudi Arabia

Abdullah ibn Abdilaziz
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
King Abdullah in 2002
King of Saudi Arabia
Reign 1 August 2005 – present
Bay'ah 2 August 2005
Predecessor Fahd
Heir apparent Salman
Prince Regent
Tenure 2 January 1996 – 1 August 2005
Monarch Fahd
Chief of the National Guard
In office 26 January 1963 – 16 November 2010
Predecessor Saad bin Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud[1]
Successor Mutaib bin Abdullah
Monarch Saud
Spouse Alanoud Al Fayez (m. 1972; div. 2003)
Jawahir bint Ali Hussein
Aida Fustuq (divorced)
Munira Al Otaishan
Munira bint Abdullah Al Al Shaykh
Tathi bint Mishan al Faisal al Jarba
About 7 other wives or more
Issue Prince Khaled
Prince Mutaib
Prince Mishaal
Prince Abdulaziz
Prince Turki
Prince Badr
Princess Nora
Princess Aliya
Princess Adila
Princess Maryam
Princess Sahab
Princess Sahar
Princess Maha
Princess Hala
Princess Jawahir
Princess Anoud
Prince Saud
Full name
Abdullah ibn Abdilaziz
House House of Saud
Father Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia
Mother Sheikha Fahda Al Shuraim[2]
Born (1924-08-01) 1 August 1924
Riyadh, Sultanate of Nejd
Religion Sunni Islam

Abdullah ibn Abdilazīz (Arabic: عَبدُٱللهِ ٱبنُ عبدِ العزيزِʻAbdullāh ibnu ʻAbdilʻAzīz, Najdi Arabic pronunciation: , born 1 August 1924)[3][4][5] is the King of Saudi Arabia. He ascended to the throne on 1 August 2005 upon the death of his half-brother, King Fahd. According to Forbes, Abdullah is among the world's most powerful people ranked 8th globally.[6]

Abdullah, like Fahd, is one of the many sons of Ibn Saud, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. Abdullah has held important political posts throughout most of his adult life. In 1961 he became mayor of Mecca, his first public office.[7] And, in 1962, he was appointed commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard, a post he was still holding when he became king. He also served as deputy defense minister and was named crown prince when Fahd took the throne in 1982. After King Fahd suffered a serious stroke in 1995, Abdullah became the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia until claiming the throne a decade later.

Abdullah is the sixth king of oil-rich Saudi Arabia, thus controlling 18% of the world's oil. As of 2013 the kingdom boasts a GDP of over $900 billion making it among the 20 richest countries worldwide. The kingdom has been categorized as a high-income economy along with high human development. Abdullah has during his regime maintained close relations with United States and Britain and bought billions of dollars worth of defense equipment from both states.[8] Abdullah has also pushed toward more rights for women in the kingdom by giving them the right to vote and to compete in the Olympics.[9] Furthermore, Abdullah successfully maintained the status quo during the waves of protest in the kingdom during the Arab Spring.[10] In November 2013, a BBC report claimed that Saudi Arabia could obtain nuclear weapons at will from Pakistan due to a longstanding relationship.[11]

The King has already outlived two of his crown princes. Conservative Interior Minister Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud was named heir to the throne on the death of Sultan bin Abdulaziz in October 2011, but Nayef himself died in June 2012. Abdullah then named the more liberal 76-year-old defense minister, Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, as crown prince. According to a 2001 report, Abdullah "has four wives, seven sons, and 15 daughters". The king has a personal fortune estimated at US$18 billion, making him the third wealthiest head of state in the world.[12] In recent years his health condition has declined significantly and therefore igniting a power struggle over the succession to the throne.[13][14]


  • Early life 1
  • Commander of National Guard 2
  • Second Deputy Prime Minister 3
  • Crown Prince 4
  • King of Saudi Arabia 5
    • Domestic affairs 5.1
    • Interfaith dialogue 5.2
    • Arab common market 5.3
    • Aiding Syrian rebels 5.4
    • United States 5.5
    • Iraq 5.6
    • Iran 5.7
    • Bahrain 5.8
    • Guantánamo Bay 5.9
    • China 5.10
    • Relations with other nations 5.11
    • Criticism 5.12
  • Succession to the throne 6
  • Various positions 7
  • Personal life 8
    • Sons 8.1
    • Daughters 8.2
    • Ancestry 8.3
    • Health 8.4
    • Philanthropy 8.5
    • Influence 8.6
    • Honours and awards 8.7
  • Wealth 9
    • Al Janadria Farm and stables 9.1
    • Casablanca Palace Complex 9.2
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Early life

King Abdullah as Commander of Saudi National Guard

Abdullah was born on 1 August 1924. He is the tenth son of King Abdulaziz.[15] His mother, Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim was a member of Al Rashid, longtime rivals of the Al Saud.[16][17] She was descended from the powerful Shammar tribe and was the daughter of former Shammar tribe chief, Asi Shuraim.[18] She was killed when Abdullah was six.[19] He has younger full-sisters.[19]

Madawi al Rasheed argues that his maternal roots and his experience of an early speech impediment led to delay in his rise to higher status among the other sons of King Abdulaziz.[20]

Commander of National Guard

In 1963, Abdullah was made commander of Saudi National Guard (SANG). This post allowed him to secure his position in the House of Saud. SANG, which had been based on the Ikhwan, became a modern army force under his command. Beginning by 1985, SANG also sponsors the Janadiriyah festival that institutionalized the traditional folk dances, camel races, and tribal heritage.[20]

Second Deputy Prime Minister

Abdullah with US Vice President Dan Quayle


Crown Prince

On 13 June 1982 when King Khalid died, Fahd bin Abdulaziz became King, Prince Abdullah became Crown Prince the same day. He also maintained his position as head of the National Guard. During his years as crown prince, Abdullah bin Abdulaziz was described as a supporter of accommodation.[25] He managed to group a large number of fringe and marginalized princes discontented with the prospect of the succession being passed among the Sudairi brothers one after the other. His control of the National Guard also was a key factor in his success in becoming crown prince.[26] When King Fahd was incapacitated by a major stroke in 1995,[27] Crown Prince Abdullah acted as de facto regent of Saudi Arabia.

In May 2001, Crown Prince Abdullah did not accept an invitation to visit

Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
Born: 1924
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Saudi Arabia
2005 – present
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by
King Fahd
Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia
Succeeded by

  • King Abdullah collected news and commentary at The Guardian
  • Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia collected news and commentary at The New York Times
  • Saudi king details succession law, BBC News, 9 October 2007

External links

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For holidays the King has maintained a large palace complex with several residential compounds in Casablanca.[134] It is equipped with two heliports and is surrounded by large mansions on 133 acres area of lush vegetation.

Casablanca Palace Complex

King Abdullah was an expert equestrian in his youth, he himself has stables which is considered the largest in the Kingdom, with over 1,000 horses spread throughout five divisions led by his son Prince Mutaib bin Abdullah.[133] The King owns Janadria Farm, the large complex located in the suburbs of Riyadh.[133]

Al Janadria Farm and stables

In 2011, Forbes estimated his and his immediate family's documentable wealth at US$21 billion, ranking him as one of the richest royals in the world.[132]


In April 2012, he was awarded by the United Nations a gold medal for his contributions to intercultural understanding and peace initiatives.[131]

King Abdullah has received a number of international high orders. Most notably, he is an honoured knight of the strictly Roman Catholic Order of the Golden Fleece (the Spanish branch), which has caused some controversy.[130]

Honours and awards

King Abdullah has been named as the most influential Muslim among 500 Muslims for the past 4 years.[127][128] In December 2012, Forbes named him as the seventh most powerful figure in its list of the "World's Most Powerful People" for 2012, being the sole Arab in the top ten.[129]


  • On 5 February 2011, he waived US$156 million of housing loans for nearly 3,300 Saudis who had died[126]
  • He has donated $50 million in cash and $10 million worth of relief materials for the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China[124]
  • He donated over $300,000 to furnish a New Orleans high school rebuilding after Hurricane Katrina
  • He established two libraries: the King Abdulaziz Library in Riyadh; and another in Casablanca, Morocco
  • King Abdullah, while still Crown Prince, paid for the separation surgery of a pair of Polish conjoined twins, which took place at the King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh on 3 January 2005.[123] He was given "honorary citizenship" by the Polish town of Janikowo, where the twins were born. On 18 March 2005, he was awarded the Order of the Smile, which he received during his visit to Poland in 2007.
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Saudi Arabia
Basic Law
Foreign relations


King Abdullah left Saudi Arabia on "special leave" on 27 August 2012.[118] Al-Quds reported that he had an operation at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York on or before 4 September 2012, following a heart attack.[119] However, there was no official report on this alleged operation. Instead, it was officially announced that the King went on a private trip to Morocco, where he is known to go frequently. The King returned to Saudi Arabia from Morocco on 24 September.[120] Nearly two months later, in November 2012, King Abdullah underwent another back surgery in Riyadh[121] and left hospital on 13 December 2012.[122] A report in April 2014 stated the King had around six months left to live, citing his diagnosis of terminal lung cancer.[14]

In November 2010, his back problems came to light in the media. He had an "accumulation of blood" around the spinal cord. He suffered from a herniated disc and was told to rest by doctors. To maintain the Kingdom's stability, Crown Prince Sultan returned from Morocco during the King's absence.[111] The King was admitted to New York-Presbyterian Hospital after a blood clot complicated a slipped disc and underwent successful back surgery. The lead surgeon was Muhammad Zaka, who probably removed the herniated disk and performed a lumbar fusion.[112][113][114] He subsequently had another successful surgery in which surgeons "stabilized a number of vertebras". He left the hospital on 22 December 2010 and convalesced at The Plaza in New York City.[115] On 22 January 2011, he left the United States and went to Morocco.[116] He returned to the Kingdom on 23 February 2011.[117]

From 2010 to 2012 King Abdullah had four back surgeries.[110] The first two of the surgeries were in New York, one in 2010 for a slipped disk and a blood clot pressing on nerves in his back and a second to stabilize vertebrae in 2011.[110] The third one was in Riyadh in 2011. And the last one was also in Riyadh on 17 November 2012.[110]

The King has curtailed his activities since June 2010 with no clear explanation. Diplomats said there has been uncertainty about the extent of his health problems since Abdullah canceled a visit to France. In a television appearance in which he was seen to use a cane, King Abdullah said he was in good health but had something "bothering" him. In a visit by US diplomats to Saudi Arabia in April 2014 the Saudi King was seen connected to breathing tubes during talks, indicating increasing health problems.



From his marriage to Princess Alanoud Al Fayez (arranged when she was 15 without her having ever met him), whom he has now divorced, he has four daughters - Princesses Sahar, Maha, Hala and Jawaher.[106] The four princesses have been under house arrest for the last 13 years, and are not allowed to leave the country.[107] After media releases in March 2014, Sahar and Jawaher received no food or clean water for 25 days, lost 10 kilos each and their mother carried out weekly protests in front of the Saudi Arabian embassy in London.[108] He also had a daughter called Princess Nora who died in 1990 in a car accident.

King Abdullah's daughter Princess Adila is married to Faisal bin Abdullah.[102] She is one of the few Saudi princesses with a semi-public role, and a known advocate of women's right to drive.[103] She is also known as "her father's public face".[19] Another daughter, Princess Aliya, is the chairperson of the Social Service Program, a Jeddah based initiative. A third daughter, Princess Maryam, is a Europe-based doctor who leads a very private life. One of Abdullah's younger daughters, Princess Sahab, was born in 1993.[104] Sahab bint Abdullah married Khalid bin Hamad Al Khalifa, son of Bahraini King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, on 6 June 2011.[105] Princess Sahab is the daughter of the king from his wife of the Al-Jarbah tribe.


King Abdullah's eldest son Prince Khaled was deputy commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard West until 1992. His second son Prince Mutaib is the former commander and current minister of the National Guard. His mother is Munira Al Otaishan. Prince Mishaal has been the governor of the Makkah Province since 2014.[99] Prince Abdulaziz was the king's former Syrian adviser[91] and has been deputy foreign affairs minister since 2011. Prince Faisal is the head of the Saudi Arabian Red Crescent Society. King Abdullah's seventh son, Prince Turki, who was a jet pilot at the Royal Saudi Air Force, is the governor of the Riyadh Province.[100] The youngest son, Prince Badr, was born in 2003, when Abdullah was about 79 years old.[101]


He is 180 cm (5 ' 11 ") tall.

King Abdullah followed his father's (King Abdulaziz's) path in terms of marriage in that he married the daughters of the al Shalan of Anizah, al Fayz of Bani Sakhr, and al Jarbah of the Iraqi branch of the Shammar tribe.[20] King Abdullah has had over 11 wives, and has fathered more than 16 children.[90] One of his wives is the sister of Rifaat al-Assad's wife.[91] He also married Jawahir bint Ali Hussein from Al Jiluwi clan, with whom he has a daughter, Princess Anoud and a son, Prince Saud.[92][93] Aida Fustuq was another wife of Abdullah, they had 2 children, Adila and Abdulaziz.[94][95] They divorced later.[96] Munira bint Abdullah Al Al Shaykh was the wife of King Abdullah and gave birth to his eldest living son, Prince Khaled.[97] Tathi bint Mishan al Faisal Al Jarba gave birth to Prince Mishaal.[98]

King Abdullah was a falconer in his youth

Personal life

King Abdullah was Commander of the Saudi National Guard from 1963 to 2010. He was Chairman of the Saudi Supreme Economic Council until 2009.[89] He is President of the High Council for Petroleum and Minerals, President of the King Abdulaziz Center For National Dialogue, Chairman of the Council of Civil Service, and head of the Military Service Council.

Various positions

In November 2010, Prince Nayef chaired a cabinet meeting because of the deterioration of the King's health.[87] During the same month, King Abdullah transferred his duties as Commander of the Saudi National Guard to his son Prince Mutaib. King Abdullah is credited with building up the once largely ceremonial unit into a modern 260,000-strong force that is a counterweight to the army. The Guard, which was Abdullah's original power base, protects the royal family. This was suggested as an apparent sign that the elderly monarch is beginning to lessen some of his duties.[88]

In 2006, Abdullah set up the Allegiance Council, a body that is composed of the sons and grandsons of Saudi Arabia's founder, King Abdulaziz, to vote by a secret ballot to choose future kings and crown princes. The council's mandate was not to have started until after the reigns of both King Abdullah and late Prince Sultan were over. It was not clear what was to happen when Prince Sultan died before the end of Abdullah's reign, leaving a question as to whether the council would vote for a new crown prince, or whether Prince Nayef would automatically fill that position. Despite such concerns, Prince Nayef was appointed Crown Prince on 27 October 2011 after consultation with the Allegiance Council by Abdullah.[86]

King Abdullah's heir-apparent was his half brother Crown Prince Sultan until the latter's death on 22 October 2011. The title of Crown Prince then passed to Prince Sultan's full brother, Prince Nayef until his death in Geneva, Switzerland, on 16 June 2012, while undergoing medical tests for an undisclosed ailment. His third heir-apparent is Prince Salman who was named as Crown Prince on 18 June 2012.[85]

Succession to the throne

On 30 October 2007, during a state visit to the United Kingdom, King Abdullah was accused by protestors of being a "murderer" and a "torturer". Concerns were raised in the UK about the treatment of women and homosexuals by the Saudi kingdom and over alleged bribes involving arms deals between Saudi Arabia and the UK.[84]

King Abdullah has also been criticized for his policies on religious freedom and the Saudi government allegedly has arrested Shiite pilgrims on the Hajj.[81] On 24 January 2007, Human Rights Watch sent an open letter to King Abdullah asking him to cease religious persecution of the Ahmadi faith in Saudi Arabia. Two letters were sent in November 2006 and February 2007 asking him to remove the travel ban on critics of the Saudi government.[83] Human Rights Watch has not yet indicated whether they have received any response to these letters.

On 16 February 2003, Parade Magazine's David Wallechinsky rated King Fahd and Crown Prince Abdullah as the second worst dictators in the world.[80] Most of this criticism stems from the fact that most of Saudi citizens live under a strict Wahhabist interpretation of Sharia law, which mandates the amputation of hands as a punishment for theft and floggings for crimes like drunkenness.[81] Execution by public beheading is common for murder, rape, drug trafficking, and witchcraft, and Abdullah's policies towards the rights of women have also been criticized. In a slight rebuff to accusations of human rights violations, Saudi inmates of Najran Province sent the King well-wishes from jail and wished him a speedy recovery.[82]


In December 2011, King Abdullah called on leaders of the Gulf Cooperation Council to strengthen their alliance into a united "single entity" as they confront threats to national security. "I ask you today to move from a stage of cooperation to a stage of union in a single entity", King Abdullah said at the opening session of a GCC meeting in Riyadh in comments aired on Saudi state television. “No doubt, you all know we are targeted in our security and stability.”[79]

King Abdullah supported renewed diplomatic relations with the Syrian government and Bashar al-Assad. They met in Damascus on 7 October 2009.[77] In addition, Assad attended the opening of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in October 2009. Relations between Syria and Saudi Arabia deteriorated as a result of the Syrian Civil War. In August 2011, King Abdullah recalled the Saudi Ambassador from Damascus due to the political unrest in Syria and closed its embassy in Syria.[78]

Saudi Arabia, by the endorsement of the Gulf Cooperation Council, sent 1,200 troops to Bahrain to protect industrial facilities, resulting in strained relations with the United States. The military personnel were part of the Peninsula Shield Force which is stationed in Saudi Arabia but not affiliated with one country alone.[75][76]

In November 2009 the King was received by Nicolas Sarkozy who committed various diplomatic faux pas. The diplomatic relationship Jacques Chirac had with Saudi Arabia was not evident with Sarkozy.[73] In January 2011, the Kingdom granted asylum to the ousted Tunisian leader, Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, under conditions of no further political involvement.[58] According to leaked cables, King Abdullah was more receptive than Crown Prince Sultan to former Yemeni President Saleh.[74]

Relations with other nations

In late March 2011, King Abdullah sent Bandar, secretary general of the National Security Council, to China to gain its support regarding Saudi Arabia's attitude towards the Arab Spring. In turn, lucrative arm contracts were secretly offered to China by the Kingdom. Furthermore, King Abdullah believes that China as well as India were the future markets for Saudi energy.[72]

Since King Abdullah's visit to Beijing in January 2006, the Saudi-Chinese relationship has focused predominantly on energy and trade. The king's visit was the first by a Saudi head of state to China since the two countries established diplomatic relations in 1990.[71] Bilateral trade with China has more than tripled, and China would soon be Saudi Arabia's largest importer. Saudi Arabia also committed significant investments in China, including the $8 billion [33]


In December 2010, leaked diplomatic cables published by WikiLeaks revealed that King Abdullah wanted all detainees released from the Guantanamo Bay detention camp to be tracked through an implanted microchip, in a similar way to race horses. The King made the private suggestion during a meeting in Riyadh in March 2009 with John O. Brennan, the White House counterterrorism adviser. Brennan replied that "horses don't have good lawyers" and that such a proposal would "face legal hurdles" in the United States. In the same cables, it was revealed that Abdullah also privately urged the United States to attack Iran to destroy its nuclear weapons program.[61][70]

Guantánamo Bay

In 14 March Saudi forces led troops into Bahrain to quell peaceful demonstrations. At the same time, the Saudis formed the Gulf Cooperation Council to coordinate efforts between different Gulf countries.[69]


He told General Jones that Iranian internal turmoil presented an opportunity to weaken the regime—which he encouraged—but he also urged that this be done covertly and stressed that public statements in support of the reformers were counterproductive. The King assessed that sanctions could help weaken the government, but only if they are strong and sustained.[33]

In April 2008, King Abdullah told the U.S. ambassador to Iraq, Mottaki as "a heated exchange, frankly discussing Iran's interference in Arab affairs". When challenged by the King on Iranian meddling in Hamas affairs, Mottaki apparently protested that "these are Muslims". "No, Arabs" countered the King, "You as Persians have no business meddling in Arab matters". King Abdullah said he would favor Rafsanjani in an Iranian election.[60][67]

In 2006, Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei had sent his adviser Ali Akbar Velayati with a letter asking for King Abdullah's agreement to establish a formal back channel for communication between the two leaders. Abdullah said he had agreed, and the channel was established with Velayati and Saud Al Faisal as the points of contact. In the years since, the King noted, the channel had never been used.[67]

Barack Obama meets with King Abdullah.


In September 2014 following the spread of ISIL, he issued a statement, "From the cradle of revelation and the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), I call on leaders and scholars of the Islamic nation to carry out their duty towards God Almighty, and to stand in the face of those trying to hijack Islam and present it to the world as a religion of extremism, hatred, and terrorism, and to speak the word of truth, and not fear anybody. Our nation today is passing through a critical, historic stage, and history will be witness against those who have been the tool exploited by the enemies to disperse and tear the nation and tarnish the pure image of Islam".[66]

The Bush administration ignored advice from him and Saudi foreign minister Saud Al Faisal against invading Iraq.[38] However, other sources said that many Arab governments were only nominally opposed to the Iraq invasion because of popular hostility.[63] Before becoming king, Prince Abdullah was thought to be completely against the U.S. invasion of Iraq; this, however, was not the case. Riyadh provided essential support to the United States during the war and proved that "necessity does lead to some accommodations from time to time".[64] The King expressed a complete lack of trust in Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri Al Maliki and held out little hope for improved Saudi-Iraqi relations as long as al-Maliki remains in office.[61] King Abdullah told an Iraqi official about Al Maliki, “You and Iraq are in my heart, but that man is not.”[65]


He showed great support for Obama's presidency. "Thank God for bringing Obama to the presidency", he said, adding that Obama's election created "great hope" in the Muslim world.[60] He stated, "We (the U.S. and Saudi Arabia) spilled blood together" in Kuwait and Iraq and Saudi Arabia valued this tremendously and friendship can be a difficult issue that requires work but the United States and Saudi Arabia have done it for 70 years over three generations. "Our disagreements don't cut to the bone", he stated.[61] He was the leading gift-giver to the U.S. president and his office in his first two years in office, his gifts totaling more than $300,000. A ruby and diamond jewelry set, given by the king and accepted by Michelle Obama on behalf of the United States, was worth $132,000.[62] However, according to federal law, gifts of such nature and value are accepted "on behalf of the United States" and are considered property of the U.S. government.

King Abdullah has long been pro-American and a long time close ally of the Barack Obama met him. In June 2009, King Abdullah hosted President Obama in Saudi Arabia. In turn, Obama hosted King Abdullah at the White House in the same month.

Abdullah visits the United States in April 2005

United States

Members of Abdullah's family were reported as being aides of the Syrian rebels. By May 2013, Saudis were the main backers of Syrian rebels.[59]

Aiding Syrian rebels

King Abdullah called for the establishment of an Arab common market in January 2011. Saudi foreign minister, Saud bin Faisal, stated the Arab Customs Union would be ready by 2015 and by 2017 the common market would also be in place. There have been intensive efforts to link Arab countries with a railway system and an electricity power grid. Work on the power grid project has started in some Arab countries.[58]

Arab common market

In 2011, an agreement for the establishment of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz International Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue in Vienna was signed between the governments of Austria, Spain, and Saudi Arabia.[55] The official opening of the centre was in November 2012. Foreign Minister Saud Al Faisal is its general secretary, while Austria's former Federal Minister of Justice Claudia Bandion Ortner is the deputy general secretary.[56][57]

In November 2008, he and his government were responsible for the "Peace of Culture" which took place at the Abdullah II of Jordan.

He had never earlier made any overtures for dialogue with eastern religious leaders such as Hindus and Buddhists. The Mecca conference discussed an important paper on the dialogue with the followers of monotheistic religions highlighting the monotheistic religions of southeast Asia including Sikhism in the third axis of the fourth meeting titled "With Whom We Talk" presented by Sheikh Badrul Hasan Al Qasimi. The session was chaired by Ezz Eddin Ibrahim, advisor to the president of the United Arab Emirates for culture. The session also discussed a paper presented on coordination among Islamic institutions on Dialogue by Abdullah bin Omar Nassif, Secretary General of the World Islamic Council for Preaching and Relief and a paper on dialogue with divine messages, presented by Professor Mohammad Sammak – Secretary General of the Islamic Spiritual Summit in Lebanon.

In June 2008, he held a conference in Mecca to urge Muslim leaders to speak with one voice with Jewish and Christian leaders.[52] He discussed and took approval of the Saudi Islamic scholars and the world's renowned Islamic scholars to hold the interfaith dialogue. In the same month, Saudi Arabia and Spain agreed to hold the interfaith dialogue in Spain.[53] The historic conference finally took place in Madrid in July 2008 where religious leaders of different faiths participated.[54]

Abdullah in a meeting with US Secretary of State John Kerry, 5 January 2014.

In November 2007, King Abdullah visited Pope Benedict XVI in the Apostolic Palace. He is the first Saudi monarch to visit the Pope.[49][50] In March 2008, he called for a “brotherly and sincere dialogue between believers from all religions”.[51]

Interfaith dialogue

In August 2013, the Saudi cabinet approved a law making domestic violence a criminal offence for the first time. The law calls for a punishment of up to a year in prison and a fine of up to 50,000 riyals (US$13,000).[47] The maximum punishments can be doubled for repeat offenders. The law criminalizes psychological and sexual abuse, as well as physical abuse. It also includes a provision obliging employees to report instances of abuse in the workplace to their employer.[48] The move followed a Twitter campaign. The new laws were welcomed by Saudi women's rights activists, although some expressed concerns that the law could not be implemented successfully without new training for the judiciary, and that the tradition of male guardianship would remain an obstacle to prosecutions.[47]

In July 2012, Saudi Arabia announced that it would allow its women athletes to compete in the Olympics for the first time. Officials say the country's Olympic Committee will "oversee participation of women athletes who can qualify". The decision will end recent speculation as to whether the entire Saudi team could have been disqualified on grounds of gender discrimination. The public participation of women in sport is still fiercely opposed by many Saudi religious conservatives. There is almost no public tradition of women participating in sport in the country. Saudi officials said that, if successful in qualifying, female competitors would be dressed "to preserve their dignity".[45] On 11 January 2013, King Abdullah appointed thirty women to the Consultative Assembly or Shura Council as well as modified the related law to realize that the female members of the assembly would be consisted of no less than 20 percent of 150 members.[46]

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology has the third largest endowment of any university in the world.

[44] In January 2012, King Abdullah dismissed the head of Saudi Arabia's powerful religious police, replacing him with a more moderate cleric, state news agency SPA reported without giving reasons. Abdullatif Abdel Aziz al-Sheikh, was named in place of Sheikh Abdulaziz al-Humain, to head the

In light of the Arab Spring, Abdullah laid down a $37-billion programme of new spending including new jobless benefits, education and housing subsidies, debt write-offs, and a new sports channel. There was also a pledge to spend a total of $400 billion by the end of 2014 to improve education, health care and the kingdom's infrastructure.[40] However, Saudi police arrested 100 Shiite protesters who complained of government discrimination.[41] Later during the 2011–2012 Saudi Arabian protests, in September 2011, the King announced women's right to vote in the 2015 municipal council elections, a first significant reform step in the country since the protests. He also stated that women would become eligible to take part in the unelected shura.[42][43]

He decreed in August 2010 that only officially approved religious scholars associated with the Senior Council of Ulema would be allowed to issue fatwas. Similar decrees since 2005 were previously seldom enforced. Individual fatwas relating to personal matters were exempt from the royal decree. The decree also instructed the Grand Mufti to identify eligible scholars.[39]

His strategy against terrorism has been two-pronged: he attacked the roots of the extremism that fed Al-Qaida through education and judicial reforms to weaken the influence of the most reactionary elements of Saudi Arabia's religious establishment. He is also promoting economic diversification.

The response of his administration to homegrown terrorism was a series of crackdowns including raids by security forces, arrests, torture and public beheadings.[37] He vowed to fight terrorist ideologies within the country. He made the protection of Saudi Arabia's critical infrastructure a top security priority.[38]

King Abdullah with Russian President Vladimir Putin on 11 February 2007.

He realized a top-to-bottom restructuring of the country's courts to introduce, among other things, review of judicial decisions and more professional training for Shari'a judges. He developed a new investment promotion agency to overhaul the once-convoluted process of starting a business in Saudi Arabia. He created a regulatory body for capital markets. He has promoted the construction of the [33][36]

King Abdullah has implemented many reform measures. He has re-shuffled the Ministry of Education's leadership in February 2009 by bringing in his pro-reform son-in-law, Faisal bin Abdullah, as the new minister. He also appointed Nora Al Fayez, a U.S.-educated former teacher, as deputy education minister in charge of a new department for female students.[35]

In 2005, King Abdullah implemented a government scholarship program to send young Saudi men and women to study abroad in different universities around the world for undergraduate and postgraduate studies. The program offered funds for tuition and living expenses up to four years. It is estimated that more than 70,000 students studied abroad in more than 25 countries. United States, England, and Australia are the top three destinations mostly aimed for by the young Saudi students. There are more than 22,000 Saudi students studying in the United States, exceeding pre-9/11 levels. Public health engagement included [33][34]

King Abdullah's administration has realized various reforms in different fields.

Domestic affairs

Abdullah succeeded to the throne upon the death of his half-brother King Fahd. He was formally enthroned on 3 August 2005.

Royal Standard of the King.

King of Saudi Arabia

By late 2003, after the Saudi Arabian branch of al-Qaeda carried out a series of bombings that threatened to destabilize the country, Crown Prince Abdullah together with other decision-making elites began to deal with political concerns. One of such moves was his project to promote more tolerance for religious diversity and rein in the forces of politico-religious extremism in the kingdom, leading to the establishment of National Dialogue. In the summer of 2003, Abdullah threw his considerable weight behind the creation of a national dialogue that brought leading religious figures together, including a highly publicized meeting attended by the kingdom's preeminent Shi'i scholar Hasan al-Saffar, as well as a group of Sunni clerics who had previously expressed their loathing for the Shi'i minority.[32] (See also King Abdulaziz Center For National Dialogue)

"God Almighty, in His wisdom, tests the faithful by allowing such calamities to happen. But He, in His mercy, also provides us with the will and determination, generated by faith, to enable us to transform such tragedies into great achievements, and crises that seem debilitating are transformed into opportunities for the advancement of humanity. I only hope that, with your cooperation and leadership, a new world will emerge out of the rubble of the World Trade Center: a world that is blessed by the virtues of freedom, peace, prosperity and harmony."[31]

On the second anniversary of the George W. Bush, which ended with the following words:

In 2002, he developed an Arab peace initiative, commonly referred to as the "Abdullah plan", to achieve mutually agreed-on resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict.[30] The initiative was adopted at the League of Arab States's Beirut summit in March 2002.[30]

In August 2001, he ordered then Saudi Ambassador to the US, Bandar bin Sultan, to return to Washington. This reportedly occurred after Crown Prince Abdullah witnessed a brutality between an Israeli soldier and a Palestinian woman.[29] He later also condemned Israel for attacking families of accused suspects.[29]


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