World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Abumi (stirrup)

Article Id: WHEBN0034302450
Reproduction Date:

Title: Abumi (stirrup)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hata-jirushi, Kusari-fundo, Tanren bō, Yubi-bo, Kate-bukuro
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Abumi (stirrup)

Antique Edo period Japanese (samurai) abumi (stirrup).

Abumi (), Japanese stirrups, were used in Japan as early as the 5th century, and were a necessary component along with the Japanese saddle (kura) for the use of horses in warfare. Abumi became the type of stirrup used by the samurai class of feudal Japan.

History and description

Early abumi were flat-bottomed rings of metal-covered wood, similar to European stirrups. The earliest known examples were excavated from tombs. Cup-shaped stirrups (tsuba abumi) that enclosed the front half of the rider's foot eventually replaced the earlier design..[1][2]

During the Nara period, the base of the stirrup which supported the rider's sole was elongated past the toe cup. This half-tongued style of stirrup (hanshita abumi) remained in use until the late Heian period (794 to 1185) when a new stirrup was developed. The fukuro abumi or musashi abumi had a base that extended the full length of the rider's foot and the right and left sides of the toe cup were removed. The open sides were designed to prevent the rider from catching a foot in the stirrup and being dragged..[3]

The military version of this open-sided stirrup, called the shitanaga abumi, was in use by the middle Heian period. It was thinner, had a deeper toe pocket and an even longer and flatter foot shelf. It is not known why the Japanese developed this unique style of stirrup, but this stirrup stayed in use until European style-stirrups were introduced in the late 19th century.[4] The abumi had a distinctive swan-like shape, curved up and backward at the front so as to bring the loop for the leather strap over the instep and achieve a correct balance. Most of the surviving specimens from this period are made entirely of iron, inlaid with designs of silver or other materials, and covered with lacquer. In some cases, there is an iron rod from the loop to the footplate near the heel to prevent the foot from slipping out. The footplates are occasionally perforated to let out water when crossing rivers, and these types are called suiba abumi. There are also abumi with holes in the front forming sockets for a lance or banner.[5][6]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Samurai, warfare and the state in early medieval Japan (Google eBook), Karl F. Friday, Psychology Press, 2004 P.98
  2. ^ , Authors L. John Anderson, Sachiko Hori, Morihiro Ogawa, John Stevenson, Stephen Turnbull, Publisher Yale University Press, 2011, ISBN 0300176368, 9780300176360 P.84Art of Armor: Samurai Armor from the Ann and Gabriel Barbier-Mueller Collection
  3. ^ Samurai, warfare and the state in early medieval Japan (Google eBook), Karl F. Friday, Psychology Press, 2004 P.98
  4. ^ Samurai, warfare and the state in early medieval Japan (Google eBook), Karl F. Friday, Psychology Press, 2004 P.98
  5. ^ Blair, Claude and Tarassuk, Leonid, eds. (1982). The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons. p.17. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-42257-X.
  6. ^ , Authors L. John Anderson, Sachiko Hori, Morihiro Ogawa, John Stevenson, Stephen Turnbull, Publisher Yale University Press, 2011, ISBN 0300176368, 9780300176360P.81Art of Armor: Samurai Armor from the Ann and Gabriel Barbier-Mueller Collection

External links


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.