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Aesculus

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Title: Aesculus  
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Subject: Sapindaceae, Fell Arboretum, Wood, Jōmon period, List of tree genera
Collection: Aesculus, Medicinal Plants
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Aesculus

Aesculus glabra Ohio buckeye
Flower of Aesculus x carnea, the red Horse Chestnut

The genus Aesculus ([1] or ) comprises 13–19 species of trees and shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with 6 species native to North America and 7–13 species native to Eurasia; there are also several hybrids. Aesculus exhibits a classical arcto-Tertiary distribution.[1] The genus has traditionally been treated in the ditypic family Hippocastanaceae along with Billia,[3] but recent phylogenetic analysis of morphological[4] and molecular data[5] has caused this family, along with the Aceraceae (Maples and Dipteronia), to be included in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae).

Linnaeus named the genus Aesculus after the Roman name for an edible acorn. Common names for these trees include "buckeye" and "horse chestnut". Some are also called white chestnut or red chestnut (as in some of the Bach flower remedies). In Britain, they are sometimes called conker trees because of their link with the game of conkers, played with the seeds, also called conkers. Aesculus seeds were traditionally eaten, after leaching, by the Jōmon people of Japan over about four millennia, until 300 AD.[6]

All parts of the buckeye or horse chestnut tree are moderately toxic, including the nut-like seeds.[7] [8] The toxin affects the gastrointestinal system, causing gastrointestinal disturbances. The USDA notes that the toxicity is due to saponin aescin and glucoside aesculin, with alkaloids possibly contributing.[9] Native Americans used to crush the seeds and the resulting mash was thrown into still or sluggish waterbodies to stun or kill fish. [10][11] They would then boil and drain (leach) the fish at least three times in order to dilute the toxin's effects. New shoots from the seeds also have been known to kill grazing cattle.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Cultivation 2
  • Use in alternative medicine 3
  • In Art 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Description

Aesculus species have stout shoots with resinous, often sticky, buds; opposite, palmately divided leaves, often very large—to 65 cm (26 in) across in the Japanese horse chestnut Aesculus turbinata. The seeds of the Aesculus are traditionally used in a game called conkers in Europe. Species are deciduous or evergreen. Flowers are showy, insect- or bird-pollinated, with four or five petals fused into a lobed corolla tube, arranged in a panicle inflorescence. Flowering starts after 80–110 growing degree days. The fruit matures to a capsule, 2–5 cm (25321 3132 in) diameter, usually globose, containing one to three seeds (often erroneously called a nut) per capsule. Capsules containing more than one seed result in flatness on one side of the seeds. The point of attachment of the seed in the capsule (hilum) shows as a large circular whitish scar. The capsule epidermis has "spines" (botanically: prickles) in some species, while other capsules are warty or smooth. At maturity, the capsule splits into three sections to release the seeds.[12][13][14]

The species of Aesculus include:

Cultivation

The most familiar member of the genus worldwide is the common horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum. The yellow buckeye Aesculus flava (syn. A. octandra) is also a valuable ornamental tree with yellow flowers, but is less widely planted. Among the smaller species, the bottlebrush buckeye Aesculus parviflora also makes a very interesting and unusual flowering shrub. Several other members of the genus are used as ornamentals, and several horticultural hybrids have also been developed, most notably the red horse chestnut Aesculus × carnea, a hybrid between A. hippocastanum and A. pavia.

Use in alternative medicine

Aesculus has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[15] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. According to Cancer Research UK, "Studies since 2007 seem to show that essences can help people to feel better and improve their quality of life. They also seem to show that the effect of the essences is not just due to the placebo effect.".[16] (This seems to be based on self-assessment rather than a double blind study, however.)

In Art

Interpretations of the tree leaves can be seen in architectural details in the Reims Cathedral.

References

  1. ^ This designation has as a part of it a term, 'Tertiary', that is now discouraged as a formal geochronological unit by the International Commission on Stratigraphy.[2]
  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ Ogg, James G.; Gradstein, F. M; Gradstein, Felix M. (2004). A geologic time scale 2004. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.  
  3. ^ Hardin, JW. 1957. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae I. Brittonia 9:145-171.
  4. ^ Judd, WS, RW Sanders, MJ Donoghue. 1994. Angiosperm family pairs. Harvard Papers in Botany. 1:1-51.
  5. ^ Harrington, Mark G.; Edwards, Karen J.; Johnson, Sheila A.; Chase, Mark W.; Gadek, Paul A. (Apr–Jun 2005). "Phylogenetic inference in Sapindaceae sensu lato using plastid matK and rbcL DNA sequences". Systematic Botany 30 (2): 366–382.  
  6. ^ Harlan, Jack R. (1995). The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 15.  Harlan cites Akazawa, T & Aikens, CM, Prehistoric Hunter-Gathers in Japan (1986), Univ. Tokyo Press; and cites Aikens, CM & Higachi, T, Prehistory of Japan (1982), NY Academic Press.
  7. ^ Hall, Alan. 1976. The Wild Food Trail Guide. Second edition. Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, New York, pp.214.
  8. ^ Peterson, Lee. 1977. A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, pp172.
  9. ^ Nelson, Guy. 2006. Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra Willd.). Plant Guide, US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.
  10. ^ Nelson, Guy. 2006. Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra Willd.). Plant Guide, US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.
  11. ^ Thomas, R. Dale, and Dixie B. Scogin. 1988. 100 Woody Plants of Louisiana. Contributions of the Herbarium of Northeast Louisiana University, Monroe, Louisiana, pp.118.
  12. ^ Hardin, JW. 1957. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae I. Brittonia 9:145-171
  13. ^ Hardin, JW. 1957. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae II. Brittonia 9:173-195
  14. ^ Hardin, JW. 1960. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae V, Species of the Old World. Brittonia 12:26-38
  15. ^ D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3.  
  16. ^ "Flower remedies".  

External links

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Aesculus at Wikispecies

  • AesculusGermplasm Resources Information Network:
  • Forest, F., Drouin, J. N., Charest, R., Brouillet, L., & Bruneau A. (2001). A morphological phylogenetic analysis of Aesculus L. and Billia Peyr. (Sapindaceae). Canad. J. Botany 79 (2): 154-169. Abstract.
  • (Ohio buckeye)Aesculus glabra King's American Dispensatory
  • Winter ID pictures
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