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Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes
Flag of Aguascalientes
Official seal of Aguascalientes
Bona Terra, Bona Gens, Aqua Clara, Clarum Coelum
(Good Earth, Good People, Clear Water, Clear Sky)
Himno de Aguascalientes
State of Aguascalientes within Mexico
State of Aguascalientes within Mexico
Country Mexico
Capital Aguascalientes City
Largest City Aguascalientes City
Municipalities 11
Admission February 5, 1857[1]
Order 24th
 • Governor Carlos Lozano PRI
 • Senators[2] Felipe González PAN
Rubén Camarillo PAN
Norma Esparza Herrera PRI
 • Deputies[3]
 • Total 5,616 km2 (2,168 sq mi)
  Ranked 29th
Highest elevation[5] 3,050 m (10,010 ft)
Population (2012)[6]
 • Total 1,237,675
 • Rank 27th
 • Density 220/km2 (570/sq mi)
 • Density rank 4th
Demonym(s) Hidrocálido (a)
Time zone CST (UTC−6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Postal code 20
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-AGU
HDI Increase 0.763 high Ranked 9th
GDP US$ 7,435.49 mil[a]
Website Official Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was 95,174,314 thousand pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to 7,435,493.3 thousand dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[8]

Aguascalientes ( ˈaɣwaskaˈljentes  ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes, literally: Hot Waters), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 11 municipalities and its capital city is Aguascalientes.

It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Zacatecas to the north and Jalisco to the south. Its name means "hot waters" in Spanish and originated from the abundance of hot springs in the area. The corresponding demonym for the state and its inhabitants is hidrocálido or aguascalentense.


  • Geography 1
  • Demographics 2
  • Economy and industry 3
  • Tourism 4
  • Sports 5
    • Basketball 5.1
    • Baseball 5.2
    • Racing 5.3
  • Government and politics 6
    • Government 6.1
    • Politics 6.2
  • Major communities 7
  • Famous Hidrocálidos 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11


Mountain ranges seen from Aguascalientes

The state is located about 480 km (300 mi) from Mexico City.

It covers 5,471 square kilometers (2,112 sq mi) and has a little more than one million inhabitants. Most of its inhabitants live in the densely populated metropolitan area of its capital city.

The state as it is now was created on October 27, 1857 when it was separated from Zacatecas after the tale says that the wife of the governor of the state promised to give a kiss to the President of the time, in exchange for the separation of Aguascalientes from Zacatecas, which explains the shape of a kiss the state has. It bears the name Aguascalientes taken from its largest city and capital also called Aguascalientes.


Demographic development of Aguascalientes from 1895
Source: INEGI[9]
  • Inhabitants (2010): 1,184,996
  • Age Average: 24 years
  • Annual Population Growth: 2.2%
  • Population at the Capital: 722,250
  • Population that speaks a native tongue: 1,436
  • Population that does not speak Spanish: 4
Religion in Aguascalientes (2010 census)[10]
Roman Catholicism
Other Christian
Other Religion
No religion
Age Structure
Age Groups Total Male Female
0–4 years 121,557 61,941 59,616
5–9 years 128,874 65,572 63,302
10–14 years 123,806 62,615 61,191
15–19 years 121,428 60,636 60,792
20–24 years 106,305 51,431 54,874
25–29 years 93,604 44,568 49,036
30–34 years 88,726 41,962 46,764
35–39 years 86,254 40,569 45,685
40–44 years 73,084 34,381 38,703
45–49 years 60,198 28,420 31,778
50–54 years 49,980 23,436 26,544
55–59 years 37,543 17,960 19,583
60–64 years 29,258 13,686 15,572
65–69 years 21,004 9,895 11,109
70–74 years 15,254 6,967 8,287
75–79 years 10,673 4,862 5,811
80–84 years 7,228 3,094 4,134
85–89 years 4,061 1,780 2,281
90–94 years 1,467 605 862
95–99 years 551 229 322
100 years and over 109 45 64
Unspecified 4,032

Economy and industry

This state originated around the times of colonial Spanish influence. It is located in the middle of the country and is now beginning to make a name for itself as an industrial power within Mexico. The state was once a major silver miner and a major source of railroad transportation, the latter due to its strategic location, midway between the three most populous areas, namely Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey.

Today the car industry, that is growing fast in Mexico, is specially important in this state, for here are not one but two Nissan factories; that together will produce more than half a million cars per year.

In the rural area, Aguascalientes was once the largest national producer of grapes and wines. This tradition ceased gradually due to the Spanish Royalty's wishes that grape and wine production be limited to the mother country. Thanks to the influx of immigrants into Mexico, the wineries and vineyards remain and flourish. Guavas are also produced in the state.

There are several projects for economic development such as : the Financial District Rio San Pedro, a monorail, a suburban train, the construction of the newest and most modern WTC in Mexico, over four shopping malls, two theme parks, two Executive Hotels and one whose qualification is five stars, eight bridges for the next five years, a Financial District around the Airport, A Texas Instruments Assembly-Test Plant, A Nissan Assembly plant, a Toyota assembly plant and several others projects place Aguascalientes as the third most competitive state in Mexico with more than US$12,000,000 in foreign direct investment per year (around 8 percent of Mexico's FDI) even though its population is just about 1.03 percent of the country.

However, recently it has also benefited from heavier tourism, since the capital city has gained prestige and status as a national destination for its colonial beauty and cleanliness. In addition, the haciendas and baths around the state have historic and recreational importance.

Horse on San Marcos Blvd. New Capital City Financial District


PCE rescate uv003
Headquarters of INEGI
Templo San Antonio
Complejo Ferrocarrilero Tres Centurias

Although this state is not often billed as a tourist center, international visitors, as well as citizens from all over Mexico, are attracted to the San Marcos Fair, which is considered the national fair of Mexico[11] and contributes much to Mexico's economy.

Recently, its capital city has gained the reputation as a great destination for its superb colonial architecture visible in the colonial centre, as well as the modernity and dynamism in the outskirts.

The city is home to Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo International Airport, where 9 flights per day depart to Mexico City, Tijuana, Dallas/Fort Worth and Houston.[12]

The city also hosts many conventions every year. It benefits from its excellent central location. The city is also famed for its environment of relaxation, and for its safety and cleanliness, as it is often described by people when traveling to this part of the country for conventions or tourism.

Most tourists go to the capital. A few tourists explore the former mining towns in the north of the state (in the municipalities of Asientos and Tepezalá), which are now almost ghost cities. The haciendas, hot springs, and baths scattered around the state are also of historical and recreational relevance.

The municipality of Calvillo has a semi-tropical climate, The largest producer of guavas in Mexico,[13] it attracts some fans of watersports to its reservoirs.

The state has a Natural Protected Reserve in the higher mountains called Sierra Fría. Located at a height of 2,500 to 3,000 meters (8,202 to 9,843 ft) above sea level, it comprises oak and pine forests. Its attractions include observing exuberant landscape and wide ravines, in which, there are pumas, lynxes, boar, white-tailed deer, wild turkey, raccoons and many other animals. There are steep-sided cycle paths, camping and picnic areas as well as several hunting clubs. It is the mountain climate and fauna that attracts locals for camping activities. In winter, the temperature sometimes falls to −4.44 °C (24.01 °F) when the weather is poor. Usually, Sierra Fria is the only part of the state that gets snow during winter.

In the city of Aguascalientes one of the best sunsets in the world can be seen in the Cerro del Muerto; the hill resembles the shape of a man lying down. The city of Aguascalientes is called "el corazón" which means "the heart" of Mexico because it lies in the middle of the country. This city is often considered, by its locals, to be one of the safest and cleanest in Mexico. Also, the city of Aguascalientes is known as "the land of the good people".


The state has one football team in the Mexican Premiere League, Club Necaxa, one professional baseball team in the Mexican League, Rieleros de Aguascalientes (The railroad men), and one professional basketball team, Las Panteras (The Panthers)

In December 2009, Necaxa was represented on the field and played their final 2009 match within the Primera División (First Division) tier in the 2009 season after losing 1-0 vs Club América. Under the rules of regulation, Necaxa would not be able to participate in the First Division competition play in the fall 2009 and spring 2010 year.

Necaxa's closing spring 2010 league performance had some accomplishments. They had an undefeated record at home throughout the fall 2009. In the spring 2010 campaign, Necaxa's only loss in the season came against F.C Leon, Necaxa faced F.C Leon on 8 May 2010 for the second leg of the Bicentennial Closing Spring Tournament of 2010. Necaxa won 4-2 on aggregate. Necaxa abandoned the Liga de Ascenso and returned to First Division fall 2010 season. As a result of this match Necaxa won the bi-championship in the Liga de Ascenso and First Promotion title in their franchise history.

On 16 April 2011, after a draw 1–1 with Atlante F.C., the club's first key game in 2011, Necaxa could not cumulate enough points in order to evade relegation. For a second time, Club Necaxa was relegated to the Liga de Ascenso, the second tier, for the 2011–2012 season.


Aguascalientes hosts the Panteras de Aguascalientes headquarters. This team plays in the Mexican Professional Basketball League.


Aguascalientes also hosts the baseball professional team Rieleros.


Aguascalientes also has important racetracks for the car and motorbike races at a national and international level.

Government and politics


Aguascalientes is subdivided into 11 municipios ("municipalities").

Municipalities of Aguascalientes, by INEGI code.
INEGI code Municipality Municipal Seat
001 Aguascalientes Aguascalientes
002 Asientos Asientos
003 Calvillo Calvillo
004 Cosío Cosío
005 Jesús María Jesús María
006 Pabellón de Arteaga Pabellón de Arteaga
007 Rincón de Romos Rincón de Romos
008 San José de Gracia San José de Gracia
009 Tepezalá Tepezalá
010 El Llano Palo Alto
011 San Francisco de los Romo   San Francisco de los Romo  


Presidential elections results[14]
2012 38.79% 189,027 30.83% 150,231 20.72% 100,958
2006 23.64% 97,935 46.72% 193,588 21.70% 89,920
2000 33.89% 127,134 53.93% 202,335 7.00% 26,264
1994 46.45% 157,736 36.65% 124,484 8.61% 29,236

Major communities

Famous Hidrocálidos

See also articles in the category People from Aguascalientes
Senator Felipe Gonzalez

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Population Census. Online:
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ Grupo Aeroportuario del Pacifo
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^

External links

  • Geographic data related to Aguascalientes at OpenStreetMap
  • (Spanish)—Estado de Aguascalientes — state government website.
  • Aguascalientes tourism website
  • Flickr: photo set of the City of Aguascalientes — in Aguascalientes state.
  • Fotos y Mensajes de Aguascalientes

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