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Flowers of Trachyspermum ammi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Trachyspermum
Species: T. ammi
Binomial name
Trachyspermum ammi
  • Ammi copticum L.
  • Carum copticum (L.) Link
  • Trachyspermum copticum Link

Ajwain, ajowan ()[3] or carom, Trachyspermum ammi, Bishop's Weed[4] is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. It originated in the eastern Mediterranean, possibly Egypt, and spread up to India from the Near East. Both the leaves and the fruit pods (often mistakenly called seeds) of the plant are consumed by humans. The plant is also called bishop's weed, but this is a common name it shares with some other different plants. The "seed" (i.e., the fruit pod) is often confused with lovage seed.[5]


  • Description 1
  • Cultivation and production 2
  • Culinary uses 3
  • References 4
  • Sources 5
  • External links 6
  • Further reading 7


Ajwain fruit pods

The small fruit pods are pale brown and have an oval shape, resembling caraway and cumin. It has a bitter and pungent taste, with a flavor similar to anise and oregano. They smell almost exactly like thyme because it also contains thymol, but is more aromatic and less subtle in taste, as well as slightly bitter and pungent. Even a small amount of fruit pods tend to dominate the flavor of a dish.[6]

Cultivation and production

The plant is mainly cultivated in Iran and northern India.[5] Rajasthan produced about 55% of India's total output in 2006.[7]

Culinary uses

The fruit pods are rarely eaten raw; they are commonly dry-roasted or fried in ghee, clarified butter. This allows the spice to develop a more subtle and complex aroma. In Indian cuisine it is often part of a vaghaar (Gujarati: વઘાર), a mixture of spices fried in oil or butter, which is used to flavor lentil dishes. It is considered to be an antiflatulent, a spice which reduces the gaseous effects of beans and other legumes.[5] In Afghanistan the fruit pods are sprinkled over bread and biscuits.[8]


  1. ^ USDA GRIN entry
  2. ^ Trachyspermum ammiITIS entry for
  3. ^ definition of ajowan in Oxford dictionary (British & World English)
  4. ^ "Bishop's Weed". SPICES BOARD INDIA. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c Green 2006, p. 116.
  6. ^ Green 2006, pp. 116–117.
  7. ^ Rajasthan Gov, Commissionerate of Agriculture.
  8. ^ Davidson 2014, p. 9.


Davidson, Alan (2014). Jaine, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to Food (Third ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.  
Green, Aliza (2006). Field Guide to Herbs & Spices: How to Identify, Select, and Use Virtually Every Seasoning at the Market. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Quirk Books.  

External links

  • Ajwain from The Encyclopedia of Spices
  • Ajwain page from Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages
  • Hawrelak, JA; Cattley, T; Myers, SP (2009). "Essential oils in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis: A preliminary in vitro study". Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic 14 (4): 380–4.  

Further reading

Hill, Tony. (2004) "Ajwain" in The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen. Wiley. p. 21-23. ISBN 978-0-471-21423-6.

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