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Al-Samawal al-Maghribi

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Title: Al-Samawal al-Maghribi  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, Alhazen, The Book of Healing, Islamic Golden Age, People of Moroccan descent
Collection: 12Th-Century Astronomers, 12Th-Century Births, 12Th-Century Deaths, 12Th-Century Jews, 12Th-Century Mathematicians, 12Th-Century Physicians, Astronomers of Medieval Islam, Converts to Islam from Judaism, Islam and Antisemitism, Mathematicians of Medieval Islam, Medieval Iraqi Astronomers, Medieval Iraqi Mathematicians, Medieval Jewish Astronomers, Medieval Jewish Mathematicians, Medieval Jewish Physicians of Iraq, Medieval Persian Jews, Moroccan Mathematicians, People from Baghdad, People of Moroccan Descent, Physicians of Medieval Islam, Year of Birth Uncertain
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Al-Samawal al-Maghribi

Samauʼal Al-Maghribī
Born c. 1130
Baghdad, Iraq
Died c. 1180
Maragha, Iran
Era Islamic Golden Age
Region Baghdad
Main interests
Mathematics, Medicine

Al-Samawʾal ibn Yaḥyā al-Maghribī (Arabic: السموأل بن يحيى المغربي‎; c. 1130 – c. 1180), commonly known as Samau'al al-Maghribi, was a Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physician.[1] Though born to a Jewish family, he concealed his conversion to Islam for many years in fear of offending his father, then openly embraced Islam in 1163 after he had a dream telling him to do so.[2] His father was a Rabbi from Morocco.[3]


  • Mathematics 1
  • Polemics 2
  • Notes 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5


Al-Samaw'al wrote the mathematical treatise al-Bahir fi'l-jabr, meaning "The brilliant in algebra", at the age of nineteen.

He also used the two basic concepts of mathematical induction, though without stating them explicitly. He used this to extend results for the binomial theorem up to n=12 and Pascal's triangle previously given by al-Karaji.[4]


He also wrote a famous polemic book in Arabic debating Judaism known as Ifḥām al-Yahūd (Confutation of the Jews) or in Spanish Epistola Samuelis Maroccani and later known in English as The blessed Jew of Morocco.[5][6]


  1. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Medieval Cultures in Contact, By Richard Gyug, pg. 123
  4. ^ Katz (1992), p. 242:
    "Like the proofs of al-Karaji and ibn al-Haytham, al-Samaw'al's argument contains the two basic components of an inductive proof. He begins with a value for which the result is known, here n = 2, and then uses the result for a given integer to derive the result for the next. Since al-Samaw'al did not have any way of stating the general binomial theorem, however, he cannot be said to have proved it, by induction or otherwise. What he had done was provide a method acceptable to his readers for expanding binomials up to the twelfth power..."
  5. ^ by Moshe PerlmannSamau'al al-Maghribi Ifham Al-Yahud: Silencing the Jews / placeholder for Arabic language transliteration,
  6. ^ Samau'al al-Maghribi: Ifham Al-Yahud: Silencing the Jews / placeholder for Arabic language transliteration by Moshe Perlmann, Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, Vol. 32, Samau'al Al-Maghribi Ifham Al-Yahud: Silencing the Jews (1964)


  • Anbouba, Adel (1970). "Al-Samaw’al, Ibn Yaḥyā Al-Maghribī".  
  • .  
  • Samau'al al-Maghribi: Ifham Al-Yahud: Silencing the Jews / placeholder for Arabic language transliteration by Moshe Perlmann, Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, Vol. 32, Samau'al Al-Maghribi Ifham Al-Yahud: Silencing the Jews (1964)
  • Samaw'al al-Maghribi: Ifham al-yahud, The early recension, by مغربي، السموءل بن يحي، d. ca. 1174. al-Samawʼal ibn Yaḥyá Maghribī; Ibrahim Marazka; Reza Pourjavady; Sabine Schmidtke Publisher: Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2006.OCLC: 63514265
  • Perlmann, Moshe, "Eleventh-Century Andalusian Authors on the Jews of Granada" Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research 18 (1948–49):269-90.

External links

  • Al-Bahir en Algebre d'As-Samaw'al translation by Salah Ahmad, Roshdi Rashed, Author(s) of Review: David A. King, Isis, Vol. 67, No. 2 (Jun., 1976), pp. 307-308
  • Al-Asturlabi and as-Samaw'al on Scientific Progress, Osiris, Vol. 9, 1950 (1950), by Franz Rosenthal, pp. 555-566
  • Arab Mathematics
  • Naderi, Negar (2007). "Samawʾal: Abū Naṣr Samawʾal ibn Yaḥyā ibn ’Abbās al‐Maghribī al‐Andalusī". In Thomas Hockey; et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. p. 1009. (PDF version)  

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