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Albuminuria

Albuminuria
ICD-10 R80
ICD-9 791.0
MeSH D000419

Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein albumin is present in the urine. It is a type of proteinuria.

Contents

  • Symptoms 1
  • Measurement 2
  • Causes 3
  • Treatment 4
  • References 5

Symptoms

Heavy whitish foam in urine.

Measurement

The amount of protein being lost in the urine can be quantified by collecting the urine for 24 hours, measuring a sample of the pooled urine, and extrapolating to the volume collected.

Also a urine dipstick test for proteinuria can give a rough estimate of albuminuria. This is because Albumin is by far the dominant plasma protein, and bromphenol blue the agent used in the dipstick is specific to albumin.

Causes

The kidneys normally do not filter large molecules into the urine, so albuminuria can be an indicator of damage to the kidneys or excessive salt intake. It can also occur in patients with long-standing diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes.

Causes of albuminuria can be discriminated between by the amount of protein excreted.

Treatment

Though there is some evidence that dietary interventions (to lower red meat intake) can be helpful in lowering albuminuria levels,[4] there is currently no evidence that low protein interventions correlate to improvement in kidney function.[5]

References

  1. ^ Page 291 in: Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data.  
  2. ^ Person—microalbumin level (measured) at Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 01/03/2005
  3. ^ [1] Justesen, T.; Petersen, J.; Ekbom, P.; Damm, P.; Mathiesen, E. (2006). "Albumin-to-creatinine ratio in random urine samples might replace 24-h urine collections in screening for micro- and macroalbuminuria in pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes". Diabetes Care 29 (4): 924–925.  
  4. ^ de Mello, V. D. F. et al. "Withdrawal of red meat from the usual diet reduces albuminuria and improves serum fatty acid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83.5 (2006): 1032.
  5. ^ Pan Yu et al. "Low-protein diet for diabetic nephropathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88 (2008): 660-666.
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