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Alois Hitler

Alois Hitler, Sr.
Alois Hitler, Sr. in 1901
Born Alois Schicklgruber
(1837-06-07)7 June 1837
Strones, Waldviertel, Lower Austria, Austrian Empire
Died 3 January 1903(1903-01-03) (aged 65)
Gasthaus Wiesinger, Linz, Upper Austria, Austria-Hungary
Cause of death Pleural hemorrhage
Occupation Customs officer
Spouse(s)
  • Anna Glasl-Hörer, 1873–83; her death
    (separated 1880)
  • Franziska Matzelsberger, 1883–84; her death
  • Klara Pölzl, 1885–1903; his death
Children with Franziska Matzelsberger: with Klara Pölzl:
Parent(s)

Alois Hitler, Sr. (born Alois Schicklgruber; 7 June 1837 – 3 January 1903) was an Austrian civil servant and the father of German dictator Adolf Hitler.[1]

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Early career 2
  • Change of surname 3
  • Biological father 4
  • DNA 5
  • Marriages and children 6
    • Early married life 6.1
    • Marriage to Klara Pölzl and family life 6.2
  • Retirement 7
  • Death 8
  • Removal of tombstone 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • Additional sources 12

Early life

Alois Schicklgruber was born in the hamlet of Strones, parish of Döllersheim, in the Waldviertel, an area in northwest Lower Austria, to a 42-year-old unmarried peasant, Maria Schicklgruber, whose family had lived in the area for generations. At his baptism in Döllersheim, the space for his father's name on the baptismal certificate was left blank and the priest wrote "illegitimate".[2][3][4] His mother cared for Alois in a house she shared with her elderly father, Johannes Schicklgruber.

The home of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler (1807-1888)

Sometime later, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler, who owned a farm in the nearby village of Spital (part of Weitra). Alois attended elementary school and took lessons in shoe-making from a local cobbler. At the age of 13 he left the farm in Spital and went to Vienna as an apprentice cobbler, working there for about five years. In response to a recruitment drive by the Austrian government offering employment in the civil service to people from rural areas, Alois joined the frontier guards (customs service) of the Austrian Finance Ministry in 1855 at the age of 18.

Early career

Alois Schicklgruber made steady progress in the semi-military profession of customs official. The work involved frequent reassignments and he served in a variety of places across Austria. By 1860, after five years of service, he reached the rank of Finanzwach-Oberaufseher (Revenue guard superintendent). By 1864, after special training and examinations, he had advanced further and was serving in Linz, Austria. He later became an inspector of customs posted at Braunau am Inn in 1875. He eventually rose to full inspector of customs and could go no higher because he lacked the necessary school degrees.

Change of surname

As a rising young junior customs official, he used his birth name of Schicklgruber, but in mid-1876, 39 years old and well established in his career, he asked permission to use his stepfather's family name. He appeared before the parish priest in [11]

Although Johann Georg Hiedler was considered the officially accepted paternal grandfather of Adolf Hitler by the Third Reich, the question of who his grandfather was has caused much speculation and has remained unknown.[13][14] German historian Joachim Fest wrote that:

The indulgence normally accorded to a man's origins is out of place in the case of Adolf Hitler, who made documentary proof of Aryan ancestry a matter of life and death for millions of people but himself possessed no such document. He did not know who his grandfather was. Intensive research into his origins, accounts of which have been distorted by propagandist legends and which are in any case confused and murky, has failed so far to produce a clear picture. National Socialist versions skimmed over the facts and emphasized, for example, that the population of the so-called Waldviertel, from which Hitler came, had been 'tribally German since the Migration of the Peoples', or more generally, that Hitler had 'absorbed the powerful forces of this German granite landscape into his blood through his father'.[15]

After the war Hitler's former lawyer, Hans Frank, claimed that Hitler told him in 1930 that one of his relatives was trying to blackmail him by threatening to reveal his alleged Jewish ancestry.[16] Hitler asked Frank to find out the facts. Frank says he determined that at the time Maria Schicklgruber gave birth to Alois she was working as a household cook in the town of Graz, her employers were a Jewish family named Frankenberger, and that her child might have been conceived out of wedlock with the family's 19-year-old son, Leopold Frankenberger.[17]

However, all Jews had been expelled from the province of Styria (which includes Graz) in the 15th century and were not allowed to return until the 1860s when Alois was around 30. Also, there is no evidence of a Frankenberger family living in Graz at that time. Scholars such as Ian Kershaw and Brigitte Hamann dismiss the Frankenberger hypothesis (which had only Frank's speculation to support it) as baseless.[18][19][20][21] (Kershaw cites several stories circulating in the 1920s about Hitler's Jewish ancestry including one about a "Baron Rothschild" in Vienna in whose household Maria Schicklgruber had worked for some time as a servant).[22] Frank's story contains several inaccuracies and contradictions, such as he said "The fact that Adolf Hitler had no Jewish blood in his veins, seems, from what has been his whole manner, so blatant to me that it needs no further word",[23] also the statement Frank had said that Maria Schicklgruber came from "Leonding near Linz", when in fact she came from the hamlet of Strones, near the village of Döllersheim.[24] Rosenbaum suggests that Frank, who though he had turned against Nazism after 1945 remained an anti-Semitic fanatic, made the claim that Hitler had Jewish ancestry as a way of proving that Hitler was a Jew and not an Aryan.[25]

DNA

In 2010 Jean-Paul Mulders's and historian Marc Vermeeren used samples from Adolf Hitler's distant relatives to try to trace the Hitler family's haplogroup. Their conclusion was that it belongs to the Haplogroup E1b1b (Y-DNA). This haplogroup originated in East Africa about 22,400 years ago. However, Hitler's closest living relatives were not tested.[26]

Marriages and children

Early married life

Alois was 36 when he married for the first time. Anna Glasl-Hörer was a wealthy, 50-year-old daughter of a customs official. She was sick when Alois married her and was either an invalid or became one shortly afterwards.

Not long after marrying his first wife, Anna, Alois Hitler began an affair with Franziska "Fanni" Matzelsberger, one of the young female servants employed at the Pommer Inn, house #219, in the city of Braunau am Inn, where he was renting the top floor as a lodging. Smith states that Alois had numerous affairs in the 1870s, resulting in his wife initiating legal action; on 7 November 1880 Alois and Anna separated by mutual agreement. The 19-year-old Matzelsberger became the 43-year-old Hitler's girlfriend.

In 1876, three years after Hitler married Anna, he had hired

On 13 January 1882, Matzelsberger gave birth to Hitler's illegitimate son, also named Alois, but since they were not married, the child's last name was Matzelsberger, making him "Alois Matzelsberger". Hitler kept Matzelsberger as his wife while his lawful wife (Anna) grew sicker and died on 6 April 1883. The next month, on 22 May at a ceremony in Braunau with fellow custom officials as witnesses, Hitler, 45, married Matzelsberger, 21. He then legitimized his son as Alois Hitler, Jr.[27] Alois' second child, Angela, was born on 28 July 1883.

A photo of Alois Hitler in uniform. He always wore his uniform and insisted on being addressed as Herr Oberoffizial Hitler.[28]

Hitler was secure in his profession and no longer an ambitious climber. Historian Alan Bullock described Alois as "hard, unsympathetic, and short-tempered".[29] Matzelsberger, still only 23, acquired a lung disorder and became too ill to function. She was moved to Ranshofen, a small village near Braunau. During the last months of Matzelsberger's life, Klara Pölzl returned to Alois' home to look after the invalid and the two children (Alois Jr and Angela).[30] Matzelsberger died in Ranshofen on August 10, 1884 at the age of 23. After the death of his second wife, Pölzl remained in his home as housekeeper.[30]

Marriage to Klara Pölzl and family life

Pölzl was soon to be pregnant by Hitler. Smith writes that if Hitler had been free to do as he wished, he would have married Pölzl immediately but because of the affidavit concerning his paternity, Hitler was now legally Pölzl's first cousin once removed, too close to marry. He submitted an appeal to the church for a humanitarian waiver.[31] Permission came, and on 7 January 1885 a wedding was held at Hitler's rented rooms on the top floor of the Pommer Inn. A meal was served for the few guests and witnesses. Hitler then went to work for the rest of the day. Even Klara found the wedding to be a short ceremony.[32] Throughout the marriage, she continued to call him uncle.

On 17 May 1885, five months after the wedding, the new Frau Klara Hitler gave birth to her first child, Gustav. A year later, on 25 September 1886, she gave birth to a daughter, Ida. Her son Otto followed Ida in 1887, but he died shortly after birth. Later that year, diphtheria struck the Hitler household, resulting in the deaths of both Gustav and Ida. Klara had been Hitler's wife for three years, and all her children were dead, but Hitler still had the children from his relationship with Matzelsberger, Alois Jr., and Angela.

On April 20, 1889, she gave birth to another son, future Nazi dictator Adolf. He was a sickly child, and his mother fretted over him. Alois was 51 when he was born. Hitler had little interest in child rearing and left it all to his wife. When not at work he was either in a tavern or busy with his hobby, keeping bees. In 1892, Hitler was transferred from Braunau to Passau. He was 55, Klara 32, Alois Jr. 10, Angela 9 and Adolf was three years old.

Beginning on August 1st, the family lived at Theresienstr. 23. One months after Hitler accepted a better paying position in Linz, on April 1, 1893, his wife and the children moved to a 2nd floor room on Kapuzinerstr. 31.[33] Klara had just given birth to Edmund, so it was decided she and the children would stay in Passau for the time being.[34] On 21 January 1896, Paula, Adolf's younger sister, was born. She was the last child of Alois Hitler and Klara Pölzl. Hitler was often home with his family. He had five children ranging in age from infancy to 14. Edmund (the youngest of the boys) died of measles on 2 February 1900.

Alois wanted his son Adolf to seek a career in the civil service. However, Adolf had become so alienated from his father that he was repulsed by whatever Alois wanted. Adolf sneered at the thought of a lifetime spent enforcing petty rules. Alois tried to browbeat his son into obedience while Adolf did his best to be the opposite of whatever his father wanted.[35]

Robert G. L. Waite noted, "Even one of his closest friends admitted that Alois was 'awfully rough' with his wife [Klara] and 'hardly ever spoke a word to her at home'." If Hitler was in a bad mood, he picked on the older children or Klara herself, in front of them. William Patrick Hitler says that he had heard from his father, Alois Jr, that Alois Hitler, Sr. used to beat his children.[28] After Hitler and his oldest son Alois Jr. had a climactic and violent argument, Alois Jr. left home, and the elder Alois swore he would never give the boy a penny of inheritance beyond what the law required. According to reports, Alois Hitler liked to lord it over his neighbors.[28]

Retirement

Gasthaus Wiesinger in February 2009
The couch on which Alois Hitler died

In February 1895 Hitler purchased a house on a nine-acre (36,000 m²) plot in Hafeld near Lambach, approximately 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Linz. The farm was called the Rauscher Gut. He moved his family to the farm and retired on 25 June 1895 at the age of 58 after 40 years in the customs service. He found farming difficult; he lost money, and the value of the property declined.

Death

On the morning of 3 January 1903, Hitler went to the Gasthaus Wiesinger (No.1 Michaelsbergstrasse, Leonding) as usual to drink his morning glass of wine. He was offered the newspaper and promptly collapsed. He was taken to an adjoining room and a doctor was summoned, but Alois Hitler died at the inn, probably from a pleural hemorrhage. Adolf Hitler, who was 13 when his father died, says in Mein Kampf that he died of a "stroke of apoplexy".[36]

Removal of tombstone

The Hitlers' tombstone photographed c.1984

On 28 March 2012 the tombstone marking Alois Hitler's grave (and that of his wife, Klara) in Leonding was removed by a descendant according to Kurt Pittertschatscher, the pastor of the parish. The descendant is said to be an elderly female relative of Alois Hitler's first wife, Anna, who has also given up any rights to the rented burial plot. The plot was covered in white gravel and a tree which has since been removed. The remains of Adolf Hitler's parents are still interred there.[37]

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Toland, John Adolf Hitler, Doubleday & Company, 1976, pp. 3–5.
  3. ^ Shirer, William L The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, Simon & Schuster, 1960, p. 7.
  4. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler, 1889–1936: Hubris, WW Norton & Co, 2000, pp. 3–9
  5. ^ Smith, Bradley F. Adolf Hitler: His Family, Childhood and Youth. Hoover Institute, 1967 ISBN 0-8179-1622-9
  6. ^ a b Werner Maser – Hitler: Legend, Myth and Reality (in German, 1971; Penguin Books Ltd 1973 ISBN 0-06-012831-3)
  7. ^ "The Mind of Adolf Hitler",Walter C. Langer, New York 1972 p.111
  8. ^ Frank McDonough, Hitler and the rise of the Nazi Party, Pearson Education, 2003, p. 20.
  9. ^ Kershaw, Ian. Hitler, 1889–1936: Hubris, W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, pp. 4.
  10. ^
  11. ^ a b
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ Rosenbaum, Ron Explaining Hitler, New York: Random House 1998 pages 20–22.
  17. ^ Rosenbaum, Ron Explaining Hitler, New York: Random House 1998 pages 20–21.
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ Rosenbaum, Ron Explaining Hitler, New York: Random House 1998 page 21.
  25. ^ Rosenbaum, Ron Explaining Hitler, New York: Random House 1998 pages 21 & 30–31.
  26. ^ Cruciani; La Fratta; Santolamazza; Sellitto (May 2004), "Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa" (PDF), American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1014–1022, DOI:10.1086/386294, PMC 1181964, PMID 15042509
  27. ^
  28. ^ a b c "The Mind of Adolf Hitler",Walter C. Langer, New York 1972 p.115
  29. ^ Bullock, Alan Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, Harper&Row Publishers, 1962, pg. 25
  30. ^ a b "The Mind of Adolf Hitler",Walter C. Langer, New York 1972 p.114
  31. ^ Alois petitioned the church for an episcopal dispensation citing "bilateral affinity in the third degree touching the second" to describe his rather complicated family relationship to Klara. The local bishop apparently believed this relationship was too close to approve on his own authority, so he forwarded the petition to Rome on behalf of Alois, seeing instead a papal dispensation, which was approved before the birth of the couple's first child. See Rosenblum article.
  32. ^ The marriage took place early in the morning, and Klara is said to have complained: "We were married at six o'clock in the morning, and my husband was already at work at seven."
  33. ^ Anna Rosmus: Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. 20f
  34. ^ The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler, Robert Payne, 1973, page.17
  35. ^
  36. ^ Mein Kampf, by Adolf Hitler, 4%
  37. ^

Additional sources

  • Bullock, Alan Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. 1953 ISBN 0-06-092020-3
  • Fest, Joachim C. Hitler. Verlag Ullstein, 1973 ISBN 0-15-141650-8
  • Hamann, Brigitte Hitler's Vienna, Tauris Parke Paperbacks 2010 ISBN 978-1-84885-277-8
  • Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889–1936: Hubris. W W Norton, 1999 ISBN 0-393-04671-0
  • Langer, Walter C. The Mind of Adolf Hitler. Basic Books Inc., New York, 1972 ISBN 0-465-04620-7 ASIN: B000CRPF1K
  • Payne, Robert The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. Praeger Publishers 1973 LCCN 72-92891
  • Rosenbaum, Ron Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil, New York: Random House 1998 ISBN 0-670-82158-6
  • Vermeeren, Marc De jeugd van Adolf Hitler 1889–1907 en zijn familie en voorouders. Soesterberg, 2007, 420 blz. Uitgeverij Aspekt. ISBN 978-90-5911-606-1
  • Waite, Robert G. L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. Basic Books 1977 ISBN 0-465-06743-3
Alois' son Adolf Hitler, following the rumours that his paternal grandfather was a Jew, in 1931 ordered the SS (

thinks this is too contrived and unlikely to be true. Joachim Fest This assumes Hiedler was willing to marry Maria in this situation, and Adolf Hitler biographer [6] Historians have discussed three candidates as Alois' biological father:

Biological father

Some Schicklgrubers remain in Waldviertel.

Supposedly, Johann Georg Hiedler, who died in 1857, relented on his deathbed and left an inheritance to his illegitimate stepson (Alois) together with his name.[7]

[6]) to him.gulden Alois may have been influenced to change his name for the sake of legal expediency. Historian Werner Maser claims that in 1876, Franz Schicklgruber, the administrator of Alois' mother's estate, transferred a large sum of money (230 [5]

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