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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar flaps

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar flaps

Alveolar tap
IPA number 124
Entity (decimal) ɾ
Unicode (hex) U+027E
Kirshenbaum *
Braille ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)

The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar flaps is [ɾ].

The terms tap and flap may be used interchangeably. Peter Ladefoged proposed for a while that it may be useful to distinguish between them; however, his usage has been inconsistent, contradicting itself even between different editions of the same text.[1] The last proposed distinction was that a tap strikes its point of contact directly, as a very brief stop, whereas a flap strikes the point of contact tangentially: "Flaps are most typically made by retracting the tongue tip behind the alveolar ridge and moving it forward so that it strikes the ridge in passing."[2] However, later on, he no longer felt this was a useful distinction to make, and preferred to use the word flap in all cases.

For linguists who do make the distinction, the coronal tap is transcribed as a fish-hook "r", [ɾ], while the flap is transcribed as a small capital "d", [ᴅ], which is not recognized by the IPA. Otherwise, alveolars and dentals are typically called taps, and other articulations flaps. No language contrasts a tap and a flap at the same place of articulation.

This sound is often analyzed (and therefore transcribed) by native English speakers as an 'R-sound' in many foreign languages. For example, the 'Japanese R' in hara, akira, tora, etc. is actually an alveolar tap. In languages where this segment is present but not phonemic, it is often an allophone of either an alveolar stop ([t], [d] or both) or a rhotic consonant like the alveolar trill or alveolar approximant.

When the alveolar tap is the only rhotic consonant in the language, it may for simplicity be transcribed /r/, i.e. the symbol technically representing the trill.


  • Voiced alveolar flap 1
    • Features 1.1
    • Occurrence 1.2
      • Dental or denti-alveolar 1.2.1
      • Alveolar 1.2.2
      • Postalveolar 1.2.3
      • Variable 1.2.4
  • Voiced alveolar tapped fricative 2
    • Features 2.1
    • Occurrence 2.2
  • Alveolar nasal flap 3
    • Features 3.1
    • Occurrence 3.2
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6

Voiced alveolar flap


Features of the alveolar tap:


Dental or denti-alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Russian[3] рьяный     'zealous' Apical; palatalized. More common than a dental trill.[3] It contrasts with a post-alveolar trill. See Russian phonology
Uzbek[4] ёмғир/yomg‘ir [ʝɒ̜mˈʁ̟ɨɾ̪] 'rain' Denti-alveolar.[4]


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[5] rooi [ɾoːi̯] 'red' May be a trill [r] instead.[5] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Egyptian[6] رجل [ɾeɡl] 'foot' Contrasts with emphatic form. See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[7] րոպե     'minute' Contrasts with /r/ in all positions.
Catalan[8] mira [ˈmiɾə] 'look' Contrasts with /r/. See Catalan phonology
Danish[9][10] Vil du med? [ʋe̝ ɾu ˈme] 'Are you coming too?' Possible realization of intervocalic /d/ when it occurs between two unstressed vowels.[9][10] See Danish phonology
English Received Pronunciation[11] better [ˈbe̞ɾə] 'better' Intervocalic allophone of /t/ for some speakers. See English phonology and flapping
Cockney[12] Intervocalic allophone of /t/. In free variation with [ʔ ~ ~ ]. See flapping
Australian[13] [ˈbeɾə] Intervocalic allophone of /t/, and also /d/ among few Australians. Used more often in Australia than in New Zealand. See Australian English phonology and flapping
New Zealand[14] [ˈbeɾɘ]
Dublin     Intervocalic allophone of /t/ and /d/, present in many dialects. In Local Dublin it can be [ɹ] instead, unlike New and Mainstream. See English phonology and flapping
North America[15]
West Country
Irish three [θɾiː] 'three' Conservative accents. Corresponds to [ɹ ~ ɻ ~ ʁ] in other accents.
Scottish[16] Most speakers. Others use [ɹ ~ r].
Older Received Pronunciation[17] Allophone of /ɹ/
South African[16] Broad speakers. Can be [ɹ ~ r] instead
Greek[18] μηρός/mirós [miˈɾ̠o̞s] 'thigh' Somewhat retracted. Most common realization of /r/. See Modern Greek phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[19] weuren [ˈβ̞ø̠ːɾən] '(they) were' Possible intervocalic allophone of /r/; may be uvular [ʀ̆] instead.[19]
Portuguese[20] prato [ˈpɾatu] 'dish' Dental to retroflex allophones, varying by dialect. Contrasts with /ʁ/, with its guttural allophones and, in all positions, with its archaic form [r]. See Portuguese phonology
Slovene[21] amarant [amaˈɾaːn̪t̪] 'amaranth' Also described as trill [r],[22] and variable between trill [r] and tap [ɾ].[23] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[24] caro [ˈkaɾo̞] 'expensive' Contrasts with /r/. See Spanish phonology
Turkish[25] ara [ˈäɾä] 'interval' Intervocalic realization of /ɾ/.[25] See Turkish phonology
Yiddish Standard[26] בריק [bɾɪk] 'bridge' Less commonly a trill [r]; can be uvular [ʀ̆ ~ ʀ] instead.[26] See Yiddish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[27] ran [ɾaŋ] 'to see'


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Gokana[28] bele [bēɾ̠ē] 'we' Allophone of /l/, medially between vowels within the morpheme, and finally in the morpheme before a following vowel in the same word. It can be a post-alveolar trill or simply [l] instead.[28]


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[29] Rübe [ˈɾÿːbə] 'beet' Varies between apical dental and apical alveolar; may be a trill instead.[29] See German phonology

Voiced alveolar tapped fricative

Voiced alveolar tapped fricative
IPA number 124 430

A tapped fricative is in effect a very brief fricative, with the tongue making the gesture for a tapped stop but not making full contact. This can be indicated in the IPA with the lowering diacritic to show full occlusion did not occur. Flapped fricatives are theoretically possible but are not attested.[30]


Features of the voiced alveolar tapped fricative:


Reported from Turkish in a single source.[25] In Tacana per UPSID.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aragonese Pyrenean[31] aire [ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞] 'air' Common realization of /ɾ/.[31]
Spanish[32] aire [ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞] 'air' Possible realization of /ɾ/.[32] See Spanish phonology
Turkish[25] rüya [ˈɾ̞ÿjä] 'dream' Word-initial allophone of /ɾ/.[25] See Turkish phonology

Alveolar nasal flap

Alveolar nasal flap
IPA number 124 424


Features of the alveolar nasal flap:

  • Its manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that the tongue makes very brief contact.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English[33] Estuary twenty [ˈtw̥ɛɾ̃i] 'twenty' Allophone of unstressed intervocallic /nt/ for some speakers. See English phonology,
North American English regional phonology and flapping
North American[34]

See also


  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:230–231)
  2. ^ Valentin-Marquez (2015)
  3. ^ a b Skalozub (1963:?); cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:221)
  4. ^ a b Sjoberg (1963:13)
  5. ^ a b Lass (1987), p. 117.
  6. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  7. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:19)
  8. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
  9. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:157)
  10. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:126)
  11. ^ "Wells: Syllabification and allophony". 
  12. ^ Wells (1982:324–325)
  13. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007:343)
  14. ^ Trudgill & Hannah (2002:24)
  15. ^ Ogden (2009:114)
  16. ^ a b c Ogden (2009:92)
  17. ^ Wise (1957:?)
  18. ^ Arvaniti (2007:15–18)
  19. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 118.
  20. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  21. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:135)
  22. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  23. ^ Greenberg (2006:17 and 20)
  24. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  25. ^ a b c d e Yavuz & Balcı (2011:25)
  26. ^ a b Kleine (2003:263)
  27. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  28. ^ a b L.F. Brosnahan. "Outlines of the phonology of the Gokana dialect of Ogoni" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  29. ^ a b Mangold (2005:53)
  30. ^ Laver (1994) Principles of Phonetics, p. 263.
  31. ^ a b Mott (2007:104, 112)
  32. ^ a b Mott (2007:112)
  33. ^ Kwan-Young Oh. "Reanalysis of Flapping on Level Approach". Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  34. ^ Tomasz P. Szynalski. "Flap t FAQ". Retrieved 2013-11-24. 


  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208,  
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56,  
  • Cox, Felicity; Palethorpe, Sallyanne (2007), "Australian English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 341–349,  
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94,  
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag,  
  • Kleine, Ane (2003), "Standard Yiddish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 261–265,  
  • Lass, Roger (1987), "Intradiphthongal Dependencies", in Anderson, John; Durand, Jaques, Explorations in Dependency Phonology, Dordrecht: Foris Publications Holland, pp. 109–131,  
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259,  
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114,  
  • Mott, Brian (2007), "Chistabino (Pyrenean Aragonese)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 103–114,  
  • Ogden, Richard (2009), An Introduction to English Phonetics, Edinburgh University Press,  
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (1): 117–124,  
  • Šimáčková, Šárka; Podlipský, Václav Jonáš; Chládková, Kateřina (2012), "Czech spoken in Bohemia and Moravia" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 42 (2): 225–232,  
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar 
  • Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139,  
  • Trudgill, Peter; Hannah, Jean (2002), International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English, 4th ed, p. 24 
  • Valentin-Marquez, Wilfredo (2008), Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics 1 (2), pp. 451–454,  
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 351–360,  
  • Wells, John (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, pp. 324–325,  
  • Wise, Claude Merton (1957), Introduction to Phonetics, Englewood Cliffs 
  • Yavuz, Handan; Balcı, Ayla (2011), Turkish Phonology and Morphology (PDF), Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi,  
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