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American Friends of the Middle East

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Title: American Friends of the Middle East  
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Subject: Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., Harry Emerson Fosdick, Virginia Gildersleeve, Anti-Israel lobby in the United States
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

American Friends of the Middle East


In 1951, columnist Dorothy Thompson, together with 24 American educators, theologians, and writers including Harry Emerson Fosdick founded the American Friends of the Middle East.[1] Kermit Roosevelt, Jr. served as executive secretary for a time.[2]

Virginia Gildersleeve, along with Fosdick and others, had founded the Committee for Justice and Peace in the Holy Land in 1948, which was merged into the new organization.[2] According to historian Robert Moats Miller, in its early years American Friends of the Middle East was funded by the Central Intelligence Agency and ARAMCO.[1]


  1. ^ a b Miller, Robert Moats (1985). Harry Emerson Fosdick: Preacher, Pastor, Prophet. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 192. ISBN . 
  2. ^ a b Merkley, Paul (2001). Christian Attitudes towards the State of Israel. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 6–8. ISBN . 
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