World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ancient Anatolians

Article Id: WHEBN0003088831
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ancient Anatolians  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: History of Turkey, Turkey, Hittites, History of the Republic of Turkey, Economic history of Turkey
Collection: Anatolians, Indo-European Peoples
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Ancient Anatolians

The Anatolians were a group of distinct Indo-European peoples who spoke the Anatolian languages and shared a common culture.[1][2][3][4][5] The Anatolian languages were a branch of the larger family of Indo-European languages.


  • History 1
  • List of Anatolian peoples 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Sources 5


The archaeological discovery and eventual deciphering of the Hittites' written (cuneiform) archives – establishing the fact that the Hittite language belonged to a separate Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family – caused a sensation among historians and forced a re-evaluation of Near Eastern history and Indo-European linguistics.[5] In accordance with the Kurgan hypothesis, J. P. Mallory notes in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture that it is likely that the Anatolians reached the Near East from the north, either via the Balkans or the Caucasus in the 3rd millennium BC.[5] Together with the Tokharians, the Anatolians constituted the first known wave of Indo-Euoropeans emigrants out of the Eurasian steppe.[6] Although they had wagons, they probably emigrated before Indo-Europeans had learned to use chariots for war.[6] It is likely that their arrival was one of gradual settlement and not as an invading army.[1] The Anatolians' earliest linguistic and historical attestation are as names mentioned in Assyrian mercantile texts from 19th Century BC Kanesh.[1]

The Hittites, who established an extensive empire in the Middle East in the 2nd millennium BC, are by far the best known members of the Anatolian group. Following the Bronze Age collapse, the lands of the Anatolian peoples were invaded with great frequency by a number of peoples and empires: the Phrygians, Bithynians, the Medes, the Persians, the Greeks, the Galatian Celts, Romans, and the Oghuz Turks. Many of these invaders settled in Anatolia, in some cases causing the extinction of the Anatolian languages. By the Middle Ages, all the Anatolian languages (and the cultures accompanying them) were extinct, although there may be lingering influences on the modern inhabitants of Anatolia, most notably Armenians.

List of Anatolian peoples

See also


  1. ^ a b c Beckwith 2009, p. 37
  2. ^ Fortson, IV 2011, p. 48
  3. ^ Fortson, IV 2011, p. 170
  4. ^ Hock & Joseph 1996, pp. 520–521
  5. ^ a b c Mallory 1997, pp. 12–16
  6. ^ a b Beckwith 2009, p. 32


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.