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Aneurysm of heart

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Aneurysm of heart

Aneurysm of heart
Classification and external resources
Heart left ventricular aneurysm short axis view
ICD-10 I25.3
ICD-9 414.1
MeSH D006322

An aneurysm of heart refers to an aneurysm involving cardiac tissue. This most often occurs as a ventricular aneurysm following a myocardial infarction.

Classification

The word aneurysm refers to a bulge or ‘pocketing’ of the wall or lining of a vessel commonly occurring in the blood vessels at the base of the brain, or within the aorta. When it concerns the heart muscle, it is called a cardiac aneurysm and is usually seen in the left ventricle of the heart.

Ventricular aneurysm

Ventricular aneurysms are the most common type of aneurysm of the heart, occurring most often following a myocardial infarction, due to a weakening of a scarred wall and pressure from blood flows, particularly during systole.

Atrial septal aneurysm

Signs and symptoms

As it tends to develop slowly, symptoms may go unnoticed. Often the only way of finding out that it has occurred at all is when other medical conditions present, which are usually very serious such as blood clots causing strokes and blockages in other blood vessels. These blood clots form as the blood in the ventricle does not pump out as it should and can collect and thicken in the bulged area, releasing clots into the system.

Causes

Seen mainly syama in the walls of the left ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart, it is thought to occur here as the blood in this area carries the highest amount of pressure forcing the walls to bulge. It can develop very slowly over many years and does not often cause any problems during this time.Another possible cause of a cardiac aneurysm is as a consequence of a heart attack, known medically as a myocardial infarction. Again it develops slowly due to a rise in pressure.

Investigations

It should not be confused with a coronary artery aneurysm, which is an aneurysm of the vessels supplying the heart, not the heart itself.

It should also not be confused with a pseudoaneurysm[1][2] or a myocardial rupture (which involves a hole in the wall, not just a bulge.)

Diagnosis

When a person visits the hospital or doctor with other symptoms, especially with a history of heart problems, they will normally be required to undergo an electrocardiogram, which monitors electrical activity within the heart and shows abnormalities when a cardiac aneurysm is present. It can also appear as a bulge on a chest x-ray, and a more accurate diagnosis will then be made using an echocardiogram, which uses ultrasound to ‘photograph’ the heart and how it functions while it beats.

Treatment

As some people live with this type of aneurysm for many years, diagnosis and treatment will not be given. If, however, it has been properly diagnosed, blood thinning agents may be given to help reduce the likelihood of blood thickening and clots forming, along with the use of drugs to correct the irregular rhythm of the heart (seen on the electrocardiogram), and occasionally surgery will be offered. If surgery is indicated, it is often to try to remove the bulge and repair the damaged area and can be quite difficult so will be used as a last option as it carries many risks.

Most people who live with a cardiac aneurysm do so without knowing it. It is far better to reduce the risk of heart attack and keep blood pressure within healthy limits in order to reduce the likelihood of an aneurysm occurring along with all of the possible side-effects and consequences. Lifestyle choices play a very important role in this prevention and careful consideration should be given when participating in highly unhealthy activities such a heavy drinking and smoking. Regular stress should also be kept to a minimum to help keep blood pressure down and avoid the chances of it causing problems within the structures of the heart.

References

  1. ^ Zoffoli G, Mangino D, Venturini A, et al (February 2009). "Diagnosing left ventricular aneurysm from pseudo-aneurysm: a case report and a review in literature". J Cardiothorac Surg 4 (1): 11.  
  2. ^ Brown SL, Gropler RJ, Harris KM (May 1997). "Distinguishing left ventricular aneurysm from pseudoaneurysm. A review of the literature". Chest 111 (5): 1403–9.  
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