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Argentine Republic[upper-alpha 1]
          República Argentina  (Spanish)
Flag Coat of arms
    Sol de Mayo[2]
(Sun of May)

Sol de Mayo
Mainland Argentina shown in dark green, with  shown in light green
Mainland Argentina shown in dark green, with territorial claims shown in light green
and largest city
Buenos Aires
Official languages Spanish[a]
Ethnic groups (2013[3])
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
 -  Vice President Amado Boudou
 -  Supreme Court President Ricardo Lorenzetti
Legislature Congress
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain
 -  May Revolution 25 May 1810 
 -  Declared 9 July 1816 
 -  Current constitution 1 May 1853 
 -  Total 2,780,400 km2[upper-alpha 2] (8th)
1,073,518 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1.57
 -  2014 estimate 42,669,500[5]
 -  2010 census 40,117,096[4] (32nd)
 -  Density 14.4/km2[4] (212th)
37.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $927.382 billion[6] (25th)
 -  Per capita $22,101[6] (55th)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $536.155 billion[6] (24th)
 -  Per capita $12,778[6] (60th)
Gini (2010) positive decrease 44.49[7]
HDI (2013) Increase 0.808[8]
very high · 49th
Currency Peso ($) (ARS)
Time zone ART (UTC−3)
Date format (CE)
Drives on the right[b]
Calling code +54
ISO 3166 code AR
Internet TLD .ar
a. ^ De facto at all government levels.[upper-alpha 3] In addition, some provinces have official de jure languages:
 · Guaraní in Corrientes Province.[9]
 · Kom, Moqoit and Wichi, in Chaco Province.[10]
b. ^ Trains ride on left.

Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic[upper-alpha 1] (Spanish: República Argentina ) is a federal republic located in southeastern South America. Sharing the Southern Cone with its smaller neighbour Chile, it is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast; Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east; Chile to the west and the Drake Passage to the south.

With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi),[upper-alpha 2] Argentina is the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

A historical and current OEI. Because of its stability, market size and increasing share of the high-tech sector,[15] Argentina is classed by investors as a middle emerging economy with a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index.[8]

The earliest recorded human presence in the area now known as Argentina is dated from the federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. From then on—while massive European immigration waves radically reshaped its cultural and demographic outlook—Argentina enjoyed an historically almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity: by the early 20th century it already ranked as the seventh wealthiest[19] developed nation[20] in the world. After 1930, however, and despite remaining among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century,[19] it descended into political instability and suffered periodic economic crisis that sank it back into underdevelopment.[21]


  • Name and etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Pre-Columbian era 2.1
    • Colonial era 2.2
    • Independence and civil wars 2.3
    • Rise of the modern nation 2.4
    • Infamous Decade 2.5
    • Peronism 2.6
    • Dirty War 2.7
    • Contemporary era 2.8
  • Geography 3
    • Regions 3.1
    • Climate 3.2
    • Biodiversity 3.3
  • Politics 4
    • Government 4.1
    • Provinces 4.2
    • Foreign relations 4.3
    • Armed forces 4.4
  • Economy 5
    • Industry 5.1
    • Tourism 5.2
    • Transport 5.3
    • Media and communications 5.4
    • Science and technology 5.5
  • Demographics 6
    • Ethnography 6.1
    • Languages 6.2
    • Religion 6.3
    • Urbanization 6.4
    • Education 6.5
    • Health care 6.6
  • Culture 7
    • Literature 7.1
    • Music 7.2
    • Theatre and cinema 7.3
    • Visual arts 7.4
    • Architecture 7.5
    • Cuisine 7.6
    • Sport 7.7
    • National symbols 7.8
  • See also 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10
  • Bibliography 11
  • External links 12

Name and etymology

The name "Argentina" is derived from Latin argentum ("silver", plata in Spanish), a noun associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.[22]

The first written use of the name can be traced to La Argentina,[upper-alpha 4] a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region and the foundation of Buenos Aires.[23] Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, and "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence.

The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.[24] The name "Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853.[25] In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic",[26] and that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid.[27][upper-alpha 5]

In the English language, the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina.[28] This fell out of fashion during the mid to late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina".


Pre-Columbian era

Stencilled hands on the cave's wall
The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province, with indigenous artwork dating from 13,000–9,000 years ago

The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Montoneros kidnapped and executed Aramburu.[81] The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, let Héctor José Cámpora be the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Cámpora won the March 1973 election, issued a pardon for condemned guerrilla members and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain.[82]

On the day Perón returned to Argentina, the clash between Peronist internal factions—

  • Argentina Ministry of Tourism (official website)
  • National Institute of Tourism Promotion (official website)
Travel & tourism
  • Argentina (official website, in Spanish)

External links

  • Adler, Emanuel; Greve, Patricia (2009). "When security community meets balance of power: overlapping regional mechanisms of security governance". In Fawn, Rick. Globalising the Regional, Regionalising the Global. Review of International Studies 35. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 59–84.  
  • Aeberhard, Danny; Benson, Andrew; Phillips, Lucy (2000). The rough guide to Argentina. London: Rough Guides.  
  • Akstinat, Björn (2013). Handbuch der deutschsprachigen Presse im Ausland (in German). Berlin: IMH–Verlag.  
  • Arbena, Joseph (2002). "In Search of the Latin American Female Athlete". In Arbena, Joseph; LaFrance, David Gerald. Sport in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lanham, MD, USA: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 219–232.  
  • Arbena, Joseph; LaFrance, David Gerald, eds. (2002). Sport in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lanham, MD, USA: Rowman & Littlefield.  
  • Barnes, John (1978). Evita, First Lady: A Biography of Eva Perón. New York, NY, USA: Grove Press.  
  • Bidart Campos, Germán J. (2005). Manual de la Constitución Reformada (in Spanish) I. Buenos Aires: Ediar.  
  • Bloom, Harold (1994). The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. New York, NY, USA: Harcourt Brace & Company.  
  • Boughton, James M. (2012). Tearing Down Walls. The International Monetary Fund 1990–1999. Washington, D. C.: International Monetary Fund.  
  • Calvo, Carlos (1864). Anales históricos de la revolucion de la América latina, acompañados de los documentos en su apoyo. Desde el año 1808 hasta el reconocimiento de la independencia de ese extenso continente (in Spanish) 2. Paris: A. Durand. 
  • Crooker, Richard A. (2009). Argentina. New York, NY, USA: Infobase Publishing.  
  • Crow, John A. (1992). The Epic of Latin America (4th ed.). Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.  
  • Díaz Alejandro, Carlos F. (1970). Essays on the Economic History of the Argentine Republic. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press.  
  • Dougall, Angus (2013). The Greatest Racing Driver. Bloomington, IN, USA: Balboa Press.  
  • Edwards, Todd L. (2008). Argentina: A Global Studies Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO.  
  • Epstein, Edward; Pion-Berlin, David (2006). "The Crisis of 2001 and Argentine Democracy". In Epstein, Edward; Pion-Berlin, David. Broken Promises?: The Argentine Crisis and Argentine Democracy. Lanham, MD, USA: Lexington Books. pp. 3–26.  
  • Fearns, Les; Fearns, Daisy (2005). Argentina. London: Evans Brothers.  
  • Ferro, Carlos A. (1991). Historia de la Bandera Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ediciones Depalma.  
  • Foster, David W.; Lockhart, Melissa F.; Lockhart, Darrell B. (1998). Culture and Customs of Argentina. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group.  
  • Friedman, Ian C. (2007). Latino Athletes. New York, NY, USA: Infobase Publishing.  
  • King, John (2000). Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in Latin America. Critical Studies in Latin American & Iberian Cultures. London: Verso.  
  • Kopka, Deborah (2011). Central & South America. Dayton, OH, USA: Lorenz Educational Press.  
  • Lake, David (2009). "Regional Hierarchies: Authority and Local International Order". In Fawn, Rick. Globalising the Regional, Regionalising the Global. Review of International Studies 35. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 35–58.  
  • Levene, Ricardo (1948). Desde la Revolución de Mayo a la Asamblea de 1813–15. Historia del Derecho Argentino (in Spanish) IV. Buenos Aires: Editorial G. Kraf. 
  • Lewis, Daniel K. (2003). The History of Argentina. Palgrave Essential Histories Series. New York. NY, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.  
  • Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2014). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (17th ed.). Dallas, TX, USA: Summer Institute of Linguistics International. 
  • Lewis, Paul (1990). The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism. Chapel Hill, NC, USA: University of North Carolina Press.  
  • Maldifassi, José O.; Abetti, Pier A. (1994). Defense industries in Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Praeger.  
  • Margheritis, Ana (2010). Argentina's foreign policy: domestic politics and democracy promotion in the Americas. Boulder, CO, USA: FirstForumPress.  
  • McCloskey, Erin; Burford, Tim (2006). Argentina. Guilford, CT, USA: Bradt Travel Guides.  
  • McKinney, Kevin (1993). Everyday geography. New York, NY, USA: GuildAmerica Books.  
  • Menutti, Adela; Menutti, María Mercedes (1980). Geografía Argentina y Universal (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Edil. 
  • Morris, Michael (1988). Mangone, Gerard, ed. The Strait of Magellan. International Straits of the World 11. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishes.  
  • Mosk, Sanford A. (1990). "Latin America and the World Economy, 1850–1914". In Hanke, Lewis; Rausch, Jane M. People and Issues in Latin American History. II: From Independence to the Present. New York, NY, USA: Markus Wiener Publishing. pp. 86–96.  
  • Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles, eds. (2012). Sports around the World: History, Culture, and Practice 3. Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO.  
  • Nierop, Tom (2001). "The Clash of Civilisations". In Dijkink, Gertjan; Knippenberg, Hans. The Territorial Factor. Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA – Amsterdam University Press. pp. 51–76.  
  • Papadopoulos, Anestis (2010). The International Dimension of EU Competition Law and Policy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.  
  • Rey Balmaceda, Raúl (1995). Mi país, la Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Arte Gráfico Editorial Argentino.  
  • Rivas, José Andrés (1989). Santiago en sus letras: antología criticotemática de las letras santiagueñas (in Spanish). Santiago del Estero, SE, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero. 
  • Robben, Antonius C. G. M. (2011). Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press.  
  • Rodríguez, Robert G. (2009). The Regulation of Boxing: A History and Comparative Analysis of Policies Among American States. Jefferson, NC, USA: McFarland.  
  • Ruiz-Dana, Alejandra; Goldschag, Peter; Claro, Edmundo; Blanco, Hernán (2009). "Regional Integration, Trade and Conflicts in Latin America". In Khan, Shaheen Rafi. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 15–44.  
  • Sánchez Viamonte, Carlos (1948). Historia Institucional Argentina (in Spanish) (2nd ed.). Mexico D. F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica. 
  • Traba, Juan (1985). Origen de la palabra "¿¡Argentina!?" (in Spanish). Rosario, SF, Argentina: Escuela de Artes Gráficas del Colegio San José. 
  • Vanossi, Jorge R. (1964). Situación actual del federalismo: aspectos institucionales y económicos, en particular sobre la realidad argentina. Cuadernos de ciencia política de la Asociación Argentina de Ciencia Política (in Spanish) 2. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Depalma. 
  • Wood, Bernard (1988). The middle powers and the general interest. Ottawa: North–South Institute.  
  • Young, Richard; Cisneros, Odile (2010). Historical Dictionary of Latin American Literature and Theater. Lanham, MD, USA: Scarecrow Press.  
  • Young, Ronald (2005). "Argentina". In McColl, Robert W. Encyclopedia of World Geography I. New York, NY, USA: Golson Books. pp. 51–53.  
  • Bolt, Jutta; Van Zanden, Jan Luiten (2013). "The First Update of the Maddison Project; Re-estimating Growth Before 1820" (XLS). Maddison Project Working Paper 4. 
  • Colantoni, Laura; Gurlekian, Jorge (August 2004). "Convergence and intonation. Historical evidence from Buenos Aires Spanish". Bilingualism: Language and Cognition (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press) 7 (2): 107–119.  
  • Cruz, Jr., Arturo (6 August 1990). "Glory Past but Not Forgotten". Insight on the News (New York, NY, USA: News World Communications) 6 (32): 8. 
  • Long, Marshall (April 2009). "What is So Special About Shoebox Halls? Envelopment, Envelopment, Envelopment" (PDF). Acoustics Today (ASA – Acoustical Society of America) 5 (2): 21–25.  
  • Malamud, Andrés (Fall 2011). "A Leader Without Followers? The Growing Divergence Between the Regional and Global Performance of Brazilian Foreign Policy". Latin American Politics and Society (Lisbon: Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon) 53 (3): 1–24. 
  • Mallimaci, Fortunato; Esquivel, Juan Cruz; Irrazábal, Gabriela (26 August 2008). "Primera Encuesta Sobre Creencias y Actitudes Religiosas En Argentina" (PDF) (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. 
  • Moore, Don (January 1995). "Argentina: Radio with a Past". Monitoring Times (Brasstown, NC, USA: Grove Enterprises). 
  • Solomon, Hussein (1997). "South African Foreign Policy, Middle Power Leadership and Preventive Diplomacy" (PDF). Pretoria, South Africa: Centre for International Political Studies. 
  • National Constituent Convention (22 August 1994), Constitution of the Argentine Nation, Santa Fe 
Legal documents


  1. ^ Constitution of Argentina, art. 35.
  2. ^ Crow 1992, p. 457: "In the meantime, while the crowd assembled in the plaza continued to shout its demands at the cabildo, the sun suddenly broke through the overhanging clouds and clothed the scene in brilliant light. The people looked upward with one accord and took it as a favorable omen for their cause. This was the origin of the ″sun of May″ which has appeared in the center of the Argentine flag and on the Argentine coat of arms ever since."; Kopka 2011, p. 5: "The sun's features are those of Inti, the Incan sun god. The sun commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on May 25, 1810, during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence."
  3. ^ a b c "Argentina". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c "Población por sexo e índice de masculinidad. Superficie censada y densidad, según provincia. Total del país. Año 2010" (XLS). Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. 
  5. ^ "Cuadro 1. Población estimada al 1 de julio de cada año calendario por sexo. Total del país. Años 2010–2040" (XLS). Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Argentina". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2014. International Monetary Fund. 2 November 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "Argentina – GINI index". Index Mundi – World Bank, Development Research Group. 2011. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c "Human Development Report 2014 – Summary" (PDF). New York, NY, USA: United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 15, 16. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Ley No. 5598 de la Provincia de Corrientes, 22 de octubre de 2004
  10. ^ a b Ley No. 6604 de la Provincia de Chaco, 28 de julio de 2010, B.O., (9092)
  11. ^ a b Wood 1988, p. 18; Solomon 1997, p. 3.
  12. ^ Huntington 2000, p. 6.
  13. ^ a b Huntington 2000, p. 6; Nierop 2001, p. 61: "Secondary regional powers in Huntington's view[12] include Great Britain, Ukraine, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Argentina."; Lake 2009, p. 55: "The US has created a foundation upon which the regional powers, especially Argentina and Brazil, can develop their own rules for further managing regional relations."; Papadopoulos 2010, p. 283: "The driving force behind the adoption of the MERCOSUR agreement was similar to that of the establishment of the EU: the hope of limiting the possibilities of traditional military hostility between the major regional powers, Brazil and Argentina."; Malamud 2011, p. 9: "Though not a surprise, the position of Argentina, Brazil’s main regional partner, as the staunchest opponent of its main international ambition [to win a permanent seat on the UN Security Council] dealt a heavy blow to Brazil’s image as a regional leader."; Boughton 2012, p. 101: "When the U.S. Treasury organized the next round of finance meetings, it included several non-APEC members, including all the European members of the G7, the Latin American powers Argentina and Brazil, and such other emerging markets as India, Poland, and South Africa."
  14. ^ a b Morris 1988, p. 63: "Argentina has been the leading military and economic power in the Southern Cone in the Twentieth Century."; Adler & Greve 2009, p. 78: "The southern cone of South America, including Argentina and Brazil, the two regional powers, has recently become a pluralistic security community."; Ruiz-Dana et al. 2009, p. 18: "[...] notably by linking the Southern Cone's rival regional powers, Brazil and Argentina."
  15. ^ a b "The 2010 Legatum Prosperity Index". London:  
  16. ^ a b Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 17.
  17. ^ a b Crow 1992, p. 128.
  18. ^ a b Levene 1948, p. 11: "[After the Viceroyalty became] a new period that commenced with the revolution of 1810, whose plan consisted in declaring the independence of a nation, thus turning the legal bond of vassalage into one of citizenship as a component of sovereignty and,in addition, organizing the democratic republic."; Sánchez Viamonte 1948, pp. 196–197: "The Argentine nation was a unity in colonial times, during the Viceroyalty, and remained so after the revolution of May 1810. [...] The provinces never acted as independent sovereign states, but as entities created within the nation and as integral parts of it, incidentally affected by internal conflicts."; Vanossi 1964, p. 11: "[The Argentine nationality is a] unique national entity, successor to the Viceroyalty, which, after undergoing a long period of anarchy and disorganization, adopted a decentralized form in 1853–1860 under the Constitution."
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Bolt & Van Zanden 2013.
  20. ^ a b c Díaz Alejandro 1970, p. 1.
  21. ^ a b "Becoming a serious country". London: The Economist. 3 June 2004. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Argentina is thus not a “developing country”. Uniquely, it achieved development and then lost it again. 
  22. ^ Rock 1987, pp. 6, 8; Edwards 2008, p. 7.
  23. ^ Traba 1985, pp. 15, 71.
  24. ^ Constitution of Argentina, 1826, art. 1.
  25. ^ Constitution of Argentina, 1853, Preamble.
  26. ^ Rosenblat 1964, p. 78.
  27. ^ Constitution of Argentina, 1860 amd., art. 35.
  28. ^ "Definition of Argentina in Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford, UK: Oxford Dictionaries. 6 May 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c Edwards 2008, p. 12.
  30. ^ Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 18–19.
  31. ^ Edwards 2008, p. 13.
  32. ^ Crow 1992, pp. 129–132.
  33. ^ Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 96–140.
  34. ^ a b Crow 1992, p. 353.
  35. ^ Crow 1992, p. 134.
  36. ^ Crow 1992, p. 135.
  37. ^ Crow 1992, p. 347.
  38. ^ Crow 1992, p. 421.
  39. ^ a b Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 194ff.
  40. ^ Rock 1987, p. 81.
  41. ^ Rock 1987, pp. 82–83.
  42. ^ a b Lewis 2003, pp. 39–40.
  43. ^ Rock 1987, p. 92; Lewis 2003, p. 41.
  44. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 349–353, vol. I.
  45. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 185–252, vol. I.
  46. ^ Lewis 2003, p. 41.
  47. ^ Lewis 2003, p. 43.
  48. ^ Lewis 2003, p. 45.
  49. ^ Lewis 2003, pp. 46–47.
  50. ^ Lewis 2003, pp. 48–50.
  51. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 363–541, vol. I.
  52. ^ Lewis 1990, pp. 18–30.
  53. ^ Mosk 1990, pp. 88–89.
  54. ^ a b Cruz 1990, p. 10.
  55. ^ a b Díaz Alejandro 1970, pp. 2–3.
  56. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 567–625, vol. I.
  57. ^ Lewis 1990, pp. 37–38.
  58. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 7–178, vol. II.
  59. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 181–302, vol. II.
  60. ^ Barnes 1978, p. 3.
  61. ^ Barnes 1978, pp. 113ff.
  62. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 303–351, vol. II.
  63. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 353–379, vol. II.
  64. ^ Robben 2011, p. 34.
  65. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 381–422, vol. II.
  66. ^ Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina, Antonius C. G. M. Robben, p. 145, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007
  67. ^ Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo, Marguerite Guzmán Bouvard, p. 22, Rowman & Littlefield, 1994
  68. ^ "Argentina's Guerrillas Still Intent On Socialism", Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 7 March 1976
  69. ^ Argentina’s Dirty War. Guy Gugliotta.
  70. ^ "Orphaned in Argentina's dirty war, man is torn between two families", The Washington Post, 11 February 2010
  71. ^ "El ex líder de los Montoneros entona un «mea culpa» parcial de su pasado", El Mundo, 4 May 1995
  72. ^ A 32 años de la caída en combate de Mario Roberto Santucho y la Dirección Histórica del PRT-ERP. 
  73. ^ Determinants Of Gross Human Rights Violations By State And State-Sponsored Actors In Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, And Argentina (1960–1990)''', Wolfgang S. Heinz & Hugo Frühling, p. 626, Springer, 1999, Google Books
  74. ^ National Geographic, Volume 170, p. 247, National Geographic Society, 1986
  75. ^ Robben, Antonius C. G. M. (September 2005). "Anthropology at War?: What Argentina's Dirty War Can Teach Us". Anthropology News. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  76. ^ Political Injustice: Authoritarianism and the Rule of Law in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, Anthony W. Pereira, p. 134, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005
  77. ^ Obituary The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009
  78. ^ Estimate of Deaths and Disappearances by 601st Intelligence Battalion. DINA Headquarters, Buenos Aires, Argentina. July 1978. pp. A8. 
  79. ^ "Una duda histórica: no se sabe cuántos son los desaparecidos", Clarin, 10 June 2003
  80. ^ Wright, Thomas C. State terrorism in Latin America, p. 158, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007
  81. ^ Robben 2011, p. 127.
  82. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 423–465, vol. II.
  83. ^ Robben 2011, pp. 76–77.
  84. ^ Robben 2011, p. 145.
  85. ^ Robben 2011, p. 148.
  86. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 467–504, vol. II.
  87. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 505–532, vol. II.
  88. ^ Ley No. 23492, 29 de diciembre de 1986, B.O., (26058) (in Spanish)
  89. ^ Ley No. 23521, 9 de junio de 1987, B.O., (26155) (in Spanish)
  90. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 533–549, vol. II.
  91. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 6.
  92. ^ a b Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 9.
  93. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 551–573, vol. II.
  94. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 575–587, vol. II.
  95. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 12.
  96. ^ a b Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 13.
  97. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 587–595, vol. II.
  98. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 16.
  99. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 15.
  100. ^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 14.
  101. ^ Ley No. 25779, 3 de septiembre de 2003, B.O., (30226), 1 (in Spanish)
  102. ^ Ley No. 24952, 17 de abril de 1998, B.O., (28879), 1 (in Spanish)
  103. ^ Galasso 2011, pp. 597–626, vol. II.
  104. ^ a b c d Young 2005, p. 52: "The Andes Mountains form the "backbone" of Argentina along the western border with Chile."
  105. ^ a b c d Albanese, Rubén (2009). "Información geográfica de la República Argentina" [Geographic information of the Argentine Republic] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. 
  106. ^ McKinney 1993, p. 6; Fearns & Fearns 2005, p. 31.
  107. ^ a b Albanese, Rubén (2009). "Alturas y Depresiones Máximas en la República Argentina" [Maximum peaks and lows in the Argentine Republic] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. 
  108. ^ Lynch, David K. "Land Below Sea Level". Geology – Geoscience News and Information. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. 
  109. ^ McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 5, 7–8, 51, 175.
  110. ^ a b c d e McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 8.
  111. ^ McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 18.
  112. ^ Crooker 2009, p. 16.
  113. ^ a b McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 209.
  114. ^ a b Crooker 2009, p. 32.
  115. ^ McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 5, 157.
  116. ^ Young 2005, p. 52; McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 5.
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  1. ^ a b Article 35 of the Argentine Constitution gives equal recognition to the names "United Provinces of the River Plate", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" and authorizes the use of "Argentine Nation" in the making and enactment of laws.[1]
  2. ^ a b c Area does not include territorial claims in South Sandwich Islands (307 km2).[4]
  3. ^ a b Though not declared official de jure, the Spanish language is the only one used in the wording of laws, decrees, resolutions, official documents and public acts.
  4. ^ The poem's full name is La Argentina y conquista del Río de la Plata, con otros acaecimientos de los reinos del Perú, Tucumán y estado del Brasil.
  5. ^ Also stated in article 35 of all subsequent amendments: 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, 1972 and 1994 (current)
  6. ^ San Martín's military campaigns, together with those of Simón Bolívar in Gran Colombia are collectively known as the Spanish American wars of independence.[45]
  7. ^ The Full Stop and Due Obedience laws had been abrogated by Congress in 1998.[102]
  8. ^ a b This regional subdivision does not include Argentine Antarctica claims.
  9. ^ Includes higher plants only: ferns and fern allies, conifers and cycads, and flowering plants.[131]
  10. ^ Includes only birds that breed in Argentina, not those that migrate or winter there.[131]
  11. ^ Excludes marine mammals.[131]
  12. ^ Since 2012 suffrage is optional for ages 16 and 17.[138]
  13. ^ Although not a province, the .federal district of the nation it holds the status of federal capital As [151]
  14. ^ The other top developing nations being Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey.[172]
  15. ^ English is also the primary language of the disputed Falkland Islands.
  16. ^ Many elder people also speak a macaronic language of Italian and Spanish called cocoliche, which was originated by the Italian immigrants in the late 19th century.
  17. ^ It gave origin to a mixture of Spanish and German called Belgranodeutsch.
  18. ^ In practice this privileged status amounts to tax-exempt school subsidies and licensing preferences for radio broadcasting frequencies.[239]
  19. ^ a b Level duration depends on jurisdiction.
  20. ^ The post-graduate sub-level of higher education is usually paid.
  21. ^ The other top venues being Berlin's Konzerthaus, Vienna's Musikverein, Amsterdam's Concertgebouw and Boston's Symphony Hall.[276]


See also

Argentine wine is the national liquor, and mate, the national infusion.[316][317] Asado and locro are considered the national dishes.[318][319]

The hornero, living across most of the national territory, was chosen as the national bird in 1928 after a lower school survey.[312] The ceibo is the national floral emblem and national tree,[306][313] while the quebracho colorado is the national forest tree.[314] Rhodochrosite is known as the national gemstone.[315] The national sport is pato.[288]

Some of Argentina's national symbols are defined by law, while others are traditions lacking formal designation.[306] The Flag of Argentina consists of three horizontal stripes equal in width and colored light blue, white and light blue, with the Sun of May in the center of the middle white stripe.[307] The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano in 1812; it was adopted as a national symbol on 20 July 1816.[308] The Coat of Arms, which represents the union of the provinces, came into use in 1813 as the seal for official documents.[309] The Argentine National Anthem was written by Vicente López y Planes with music by Blas Parera, and was adopted in 1813.[309] The National Cockade was first used during the May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two years later.[310] The Virgin of Luján is Argentina's patron saint.[311]

National symbols

Argentina has a varied sporting culture, with a rich story among the world's elite in several disciplines, including:


Argentine wine, one of the world's finest,[286] is an integral part of the local menu. Malbec, Torrontés, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Chardonnay are some of the most sought-after varieties.[287]

Common desserts include facturas (Viennese-style pastry), cakes and pancakes filled with dulce de leche (a sort of milk caramel jam), alfajores (shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate, dulce de leche or a fruit paste), and tortas fritas (fried cakes)[285]

The country has the highest consumption of red meat in the world,[283] traditionally prepared as asado, the Argentine barbecue. It is made with various types of meats, often including chorizo, sweetbread, chitterlings, and blood sausage.[284]

Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo creations, including empanadas (a small stuffed pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humita and mate.[282]

Table with a cut of Argentine beef, wine, sauces and spices
Argentine beef as asado, a traditional dish


Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscape and those around the world: Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulčič left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Neoclassical and Rationalist architecture. Alberto Prebisch and Amancio Williams were highly influenced by Le Corbusier, while Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecture locally. César Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities worldwide: Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s made him one of the world's most prestigious architects, with the Norwest Center and the Petronas Towers among his most celebrated creations.

The colonization brought the Spanish Baroque architecture, which can still be appreciated in its simpler Rioplatense style in the reduction of San Ignacio Miní, the Cathedral of Córdoba, and the Cabildo of Luján. Italian and French influences increased at the beginning of the 19th century with strong eclectic overtones that gave the local architecture a unique feeling.[281]

Argentine Bon Marché, inside of Galerías Pacífico.


Internationally laureate sculptors Erminio Blotta, Lola Mora and Rogelio Yrurtia authored many of the classical evocative monuments of the Argentine cityscape.

Other Argentine artists of worldwide fame include Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s, and Benito Quinquela Martín, the quintessential port painter, inspired by the immigrant-bound La Boca neighborhood.

In 1946 Gyula Košice and others created The Madí Movement in Argentina, which then spread to Europe and United States, where it had a significant impact.[280] Tomás Maldonado was one of the main theorists of the Ulm Model of design education, still highly influential globally.

Some of the best-known Argentine painters are Cándido López and Florencio Molina Campos (Naïve style); Ernesto de la Cárcova and Eduardo Sívori (Realism); Fernando Fader (Impressionism); Pío Collivadino, Atilio Malinverno and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós (Postimpressionism); Emilio Pettoruti (Cubism); Julio Barragán (Concretism and Cubism) Antonio Berni (Neofigurativism); Roberto Aizenberg and Xul Solar (Surrealism); Gyula Košice (Constructivism); Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative art); Juan Del Prete (Futucubism); Luis Seoane, Carlos Torrallardona, Luis Aquino, and Alfredo Gramajo Gutiérrez (Modernism); Lucio Fontana (Spatialism); Tomás Maldonado and Guillermo Kuitca (Abstract art); León Ferrari and Marta Minujín (Conceptual art); and Ciruelo (Fantasy art).

Carrara marble sculpture showing the Nereids helping the birth of Venus
Detail of The Nereids Fountain by Lola Mora.

Visual arts

In 2013 about 100 full-length motion pictures were being created annually.[279]

Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition: the country has won fourteen Goya Awards for Best Spanish Language Foreign Film—being by far the most awarded—and is also the only Latin American country that has won an Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film, with The Official Story (1985) and The Secret in Their Eyes (2009). In addition, Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo Santaolalla have been honored with Academy Award for Best Original Score nods. Many other Argentine films have been acclaimed by the international critique: Camila (1984), Man Facing Southeast (1986), A Place in the World (1992), Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes (1997), Nine Queens (2000), A Red Bear (2002), The Motorcycle Diaries (2004) and The Aura (2005) being some of them.

Development of Argentine cinema started in 1896; by the early 1930s it had already become Latin America's leading film producer, a place it kept until the early 1950s.[277] The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918.[278]

Buenos Aires is one of the great theater capitals of the world,[273][274] with a scene of international caliber centered around Corrientes Avenue, "the street that never sleeps", sometimes referred to as an intellectual Broadway in Buenos Aires.[275] Teatro Colón is a global landmark for opera and classical performances; its acoustics are considered among the world's top five.[276][upper-alpha 21] Other important theatrical venues include Teatro General San Martín, Cervantes, both in Buenos Aires City; Argentino in La Plata, El Círculo in Rosario, Independencia in Mendoza, and Libertador in Córdoba. Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the most prominent Argentine playwrights.

View of the theatre's stage
Teatro Colón, the third best opera house in the world.

Theatre and cinema

Tenor saxophonist Leandro "Gato" Barbieri and composer and big band conductor Lalo Schifrin are among the most internationally successful Argentine jazz musicians.

Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of aspiring musicians. Founding bands like Los Gatos, Almendra and Manal were followed by Seru Giran, Los Abuelos de la Nada, Soda Stereo and Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota, with prominent artists including Litto Nebbia, Luis Alberto Spinetta, Charly García, Fito Paez and León Gieco.[272]

The romantic ballad genre included singers of international fame such as Sandro de América.

A national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s from dozens of regional musical genres and went to influence the entirety of Latin American music. Some of its interpreters, like Atahualpa Yupanqui and Mercedes Sosa, achieved worldwide acclaim.

Argentina developed strong classical music and dance scenes that gave rise to renowned artists such as José Neglia, Norma Fontenla, Maximiliano Guerra, Paloma Herrera, Marianela Núñez, Iñaki Urlezaga and Julio Bocca.[272]

Tango, a Rioplatense musical genre with European and African influences,[270] is one of Argentina's international cultural symbols.[271] The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of jazz and swing in the United States, featuring large orchestras like those of Osvaldo Pugliese, Aníbal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro and Juan d'Arienzo.[272] After 1955, virtuoso Ástor Piazzolla popularized Nuevo tango, a subtler and more intellectual trend for the genre.[272] Tango enjoys worldwide popularity nowadays with groups like Gotan Project, Bajofondo and Tanghetto.

Black and white photograph of GardelArgentine singer and songwriter Carlos Gardel, perhaps the most prominent figure in the history of tango


Other highly regarded Argentine writers, poets and essayists include Estanislao del Campo, Eugenio Cambaceres, Almafuerte, Hugo Wast, Benito Lynch, Enrique Banchs, Oliverio Girondo, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Victoria Ocampo, Leopoldo Marechal, Silvina Ocampo, Roberto Arlt, Eduardo Mallea, Manuel Mujica Láinez, Ernesto Sábato, Silvina Bullrich, Rodolfo Walsh, María Elena Walsh, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Manuel Puig, Alejandra Pizarnik, and Osvaldo Soriano.[269]

history of literature,[265] found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to authors all over the globe. Short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph are among his most famous books. He was a friend and collaborator with Adolfo Bioy Casares, who wrote one of the most praised science fiction novels, The Invention of Morel.[266] Julio Cortázar, one of the leading members of the Latin American Boom and a major name in 20th century literature,[267] influenced an entire generation of writers in the Americas and Europe.[268]

The Modernist movement advanced into the 20th century including exponents such as Leopoldo Lugones and poet Alfonsina Storni;[263] it was followed by Vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes's Don Segundo Sombra as an important reference.[264]

Although Argentina's rich literary history began around 1550,[260] it reached full independence with Esteban Echeverría's El Matadero, a romantic landmark that played a significant role in the development of 19th century's Argentine narrative,[261] split by the ideological divide between the popular, federalist epic of José Hernández' Martín Fierro and the elitist and cultured discourse of Sarmiento's masterpiece, Facundo.[262]

Mosaic image showing the four photographs
Four of the most influential Argentine writers. Top-left to bottom-right: Adolfo Bioy Casares


Argentina is a multicultural country with significant European influences. Its cities are largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of European styles in fashion, architecture and design.[258] The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance.[259] Finally, indigenous American traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.


The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948[257] to 12.1 in 2009[254] and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76.[257] Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America.[255]

There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations).[254][255] The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory problems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.[254][256]

Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labor union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labor unions) and provide health care for half the population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens.[253]

The University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, alma mater to many of the country's 3,000 medical graduates, annually.[252]

Health care

The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge public education for all levels.[upper-alpha 20] Responsibility for educational supervision is organized at the federal and individual provincial states. In the last decades the role of the private sector has grown across all educational stages.

  • An initial level for children between 45 days to 5 years old, with the last year being compulsory.
  • An elementary or lower school mandatory level lasting 6 or 7 years.[upper-alpha 19] In 2010 the literacy rate was 98.07%.[249]
  • A secondary or high school mandatory level lasting 5 or 6 years.[upper-alpha 19] In 2010 18.3% of people over age 15 had completed secondary school.[250]
  • A higher level, divided in tertiary, university and post-graduate sub-levels. in 2013 there were 47 national public universities across the country, as well as 46 private ones.[251] In 2010 6.3% of people over age 20 had graduated from university.[250] The public universities of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, La Plata, Rosario, and the National Technological University are some of the most important.

The Argentine education system consists of four levels:[248]

Argentina has historically been placed high in the global rankings of literacy, with rates similar to those of developed countries.


(2.6/sq mi) 2The population is unequally distributed: about 60% live in the Pampas region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires province. The provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe, and the city of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. With 60 inhabitants per square kilometre (160/sq mi), Tucumán is the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average; by contrast, the southern province of Santa Cruz has around 1/km

The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each.[246] Mendoza, San Miguel de Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe have at least half a million people each.[246]

Argentina is highly urbanized, with 92% of its population living in cities:[245] the ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population. About 3 million people live in the city of Buenos Aires, and including the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area it totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.[246]


On 13 March 2013, Argentine Pope of the Catholic Church and took the name "Francis", becoming the first pope from the Americas and from the Southern Hemisphere, the first non-European pope in 1272 years, and the first Jesuit one.[244]

Argentines show high individualization and de-institutionalization of religious beliefs;[242] 23.8% of them claim to always attend religious services; 49.1%, to seldom do and 26.8%, to never do.[243]

The country is home to both the largest Muslim[239] and largest Jewish communities in Latin America, the latter being the 7th most populous in the world.[241] Argentina is a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.[239]

According to a CONICET poll, Argentines are 76.5% Catholic, 11.3% Agnostics and Atheists, 9% Evangelical Protestants, 1.2% Jehova's Witnesses, 0.9% Mormons; 1.2% follow other religions, including Islam, Judaism and Buddhism.[240]

The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion.[236] Although it enforces neither an official nor a state faith,[237] it gives Roman Catholicism a differential status.[238][upper-alpha 18]

Francis, the first pope from the New World, was born and raised in Argentina.


  • English,[upper-alpha 15] taught since elementary school. 42.3% of Argentines claim to speak it, with 15.4% of them claiming to have a high level of language comprehension.
  • Italian, by 1.5 million people.[232][upper-alpha 16]
  • Arabic, specially its Northern Levantine dialect, by one million people.[232]
  • Standard German, by 400,000 people.[232][upper-alpha 17]
  • Yiddish, by 200,000 people,[232] the largest Jewish population in Latin America and 7th in the world.[234]
  • Guaraní, by 200,000 people,[232] mostly in Corrientes, where it is official de jure.[9]
  • Catalan, by 174,000 people.[232]
  • French, including the rare Occitan language.
  • Quechua, by 65,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.[232]
  • Wichí, by 53,700 people, mainly in Chaco[232] where, along with Kom and Moqoit, it is official de jure.[10]
  • Vlax Romani, by 52,000 people.[232]
  • Japanese, by 32,000 people.[232]
  • Aymara, by 30,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.[232]
  • Ukrainian, by 27,000 people.[232]
  • Welsh, including its Patagonian dialect, in which 25,000 people are fluent.[232] Some districts have recently incorporated it as an educational language.[235]

There are several second-languages in widespread use among the Argentine population:

The de facto[upper-alpha 3] official language is Spanish, spoken by almost all Argentines.[232] The country is the largest Spanish-speaking society that universally employs voseo, the use of the pronoun vos instead of ("you"), which imposes the use of alternate verb forms as well. Due to the extensive Argentine geography, Spanish has a strong variation among regions, although the prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, primarily spoken in the La Plata Basin and accented similarly to Neapolitan language.[233] Italian and other European immigrants influenced Lunfardo—the regional slang—permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other Latin American countries as well.

Dialectal variants of the Spanish language in Argentina


Recent Illegal immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, with smaller numbers from Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Romania.[229] The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program[230] to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas —so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.[231]

Although statistically not significant enough sample size to be a reliable nationwide projection, a study conducted on 218 individuals in 2010 by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach, has established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed by 79% from different European, mainly Italian and Spanish ethnicity, 18% of different ethnicities Native American, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups, and 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indian. [227] [228]

Family in northern Argentina

Argentina is home to a significant population of Arab and partial Arab background, mostly of Syrian and Lebanese origin (in Argentina they are considered among the White people, just like in the USA Census). The Asian population in the country numbers at around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of Chinese[226] and Korean descent, although an older Japanese community that traces back to the early 20th century also exists.

Strikingly, at those times, the national population doubled every two decades. This belief is endured in the popular saying "los argentinos descienden de los barcos" (Argentines descend from the ships). Therefore, most Argentines are descended from the 19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave to Argentina (1850–1955),[223][224] with a great majority of these immigrants coming from diverse European countries. The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy and Spain.[225] The majority of Argentines descend from multiple European ethnic groups with an Italian majority (55% of Argentines have Italian origins), followed by Spanish plurality. An estimated 17% of the population also have French origins, and 8% descend from Germans.

During the 18th and 19th centuries especially, Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, with 6.6 million, second only to the USA in the numbers of immigrants received (27 millions) and ahead of such other areas of new settlement like Canada, Brazil and Australia.[221][222]

As with other areas of new settlement such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil and Uruguay, it is considered that Argentina is a country of immigrants.[218][219][220] Argentines usually refer to the country as a crisol de razas (crucible of races, or melting pot).

Norwegian-Argentine children, during the celebration of the National Day of Norway.


Argentina became in 2010 the first country in Latin America and the second in the Americas to allow same-sex marriage nationwide.[216] It was the tenth country to allow same-sex marriage.[217]

The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, a little below the world average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.8%. In Latin America this is second only to Uruguay and well above the world average, which is currently 7%. Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates, recently about 1% a year, as well as a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is still nearly twice as high as that in Spain or Italy, compared here as they have similar religious practices and proportions.[214][215] The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is 77.14 years.[3]

In the 2001 census [INDEC], Argentina had a population of 36,260,130, and preliminary results from the 2010 census were of 40,091,359 inhabitants.[212][213] Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally. Population density is of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. The net migration rate has ranged from zero to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants.[3]

Balvanera, filled with picturesque Dutch style tenements.


Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina. Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996), PEHUENSAT-1 (2007),[206] and those developed by CONAE, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series.[207] Argentina has its own satellite programme, nuclear power station designs (4th generation) and public nuclear energy company INVAP, which provides several countries with nuclear reactors.[208] Established in 1991, the CONAE has since launched two satellites successfully and,[209] in June 2009, secured an agreement with the European Space Agency on for the installation of a 35-m diameter antenna and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory, the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory.[210] The facility will contribute to numerous ESA space probes, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research projects. Chosen from 20 potential sites and one of only three such ESA installations in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock [211]

Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks, academics and the sciences in Argentina have enjoyed an international respect since the turn of the 1900s, when Dr. Luis Agote devised the first safe and effective means of blood transfusion as well as René Favaloro, who was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass surgery. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology, physics, computer sciences, molecular biology, oncology, ecology, and cardiology. Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory.

Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. In 1957 Argentina was the first country in Latin America to design and build a research reactor with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi. This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies, instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.[202] As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts[203] and is highly committed to global nuclear security.[204] In 1974 it was the first country in Latin America to put in-line a commercial nuclear power plant, Atucha I. Although the Argentine built parts for that station amounted to 10% of the total, the nuclear fuel it uses are since entirely built in the country. Later nuclear power stations employed a higher percentage of Argentine built components; Embalse, finished in 1983, a 30% and the 2011 Atucha II reactor a 40%.[205]

Argentines have three Nobel Prize laureates in the Sciences. glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates. Argentine research has led to the treatment of heart diseases and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronary bypass surgery.

Argentine satellite SAC-D

Science and technology

By 2011 Argentina also had the highest coverage of networked telecommunications among Latin American powers: about 67% of its population had internet access and 137.2%, mobile phone subscriptions.[201]

The Argentine television industry is large, diverse and popular across Latin America, with many productions and TV formats having been exported abroad. Since 1999 Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America,[199] as of 2014 totaling 87.4% of the country's households, a rate similar to those in the United States, Canada and Europe.[200]

Argentina began the world's first regular radio broadcasting on 27 August 1920, when Richard Wagner's Parsifal was aired by a team of medical students led by Enrique Telémaco Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo.[196][197] By 2002 there were 260 AM and 1150 FM registered radio stations in the country.[198]

Print media industry is highly developed in Argentina, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national ones include Clarín (centrist, Latin America's best-seller and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world), La Nación (center-right, published since 1870), Página/12 (leftist, founded in 1987), the Buenos Aires Herald (Latin America's most prestigious English language daily, liberal, dating back to 1876), La Voz del Interior (center, founded in 1904),[194] and the Argentinisches Tageblatt (German weekly, liberal, published since 1878)[195]

Media and communications

In 2013 there were 161 airports with paved runways[191] out of more than a thousand.[188] The Ezeiza International Airport, about 35 km (22 mi) from downtown Buenos Aires,[192] is the largest in the country, followed by Cataratas del Iguazú in Misiones, and El Plumerillo in Mendoza.[188] Aeroparque, in the city of Buenos Aires, is the most important domestic airport.[193]

In 2012 there were about 11,000 km (6,835 mi) of waterways,[190] mostly comprising the La Plata, Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers, with Buenos Aires, Zárate, Campana, Rosario, San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, Barranqueras and San Nicolas de los Arroyos as the main fluvial ports. Some of the largest sea ports are La PlataEnsenada, Bahía Blanca, Mar del Plata, QuequénNecochea, Comodoro Rivadavia, Puerto Deseado, Puerto Madryn, Ushuaia and San Antonio Oeste. Buenos Aires has historically been the most important port; however since the 1990s the Up-River port region has become dominant: stretching along 67 km (42 mi) of the Paraná river shore in Santa Fe province, it includes 17 ports and in 2013 accounted for 50% of all exports.

By 2004 Buenos Aires, all provincial capitals except Ushuaia, and all medium-sized towns were interconnected by 69,412 km (43,131 mi) of paved roads, out of a total road network of 231,374 km (143,769 mi).[189] Most important cities are linked by a growing number of expressways, including Buenos Aires–La Plata, Rosario–Córdoba, Córdoba–Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Mercedes–Mendoza, National Route 14 General José Gervasio Artigas and Provincial Route 2 Juan Manuel Fangio, among others. Nevertheless, this road infrastructure is still inadequate and cannot handle the sharply growing demand caused by deterioration of the railway system.[188]

Argentina has the largest railway system in Latin America, with 36,966 km (22,970 mi) of operating lines in 2008, out of a full network of almost 48,000 km (29,826 mi).[187] This system links all 23 provinces plus Buenos Aires City, and connects with all neighboring countries.[188] There are four incompatible gauges in use; this forces virtually all interregional freight traffic to pass through Buenos Aires.[188] The system has been in decline since the 1940s: regularly running up large budgetary deficits, by 1991 it was transporting 1,400 times less goods than it did in 1973.[188]

Vintage Line A station entrance of Buenos Aires Metro. The city was the first in Latin America and in the Southern Hemisphere to develop a subway network.


Tourist destinations:

Tourism in Argentina is characterized by its cultural offerings and its ample and varied natural assets. The country had 5.28 million visitors in 2010, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the top destination in South America, and second in Latin America after Mexico. Revenues from international tourists reached US$4.93 billion in 2010, up from US$3.96 billion in 2009.[185] The country's capital city, Buenos Aires, is the most visited city in South America.[186]

The largest ski center in Latin America, Bariloche (Argentine Patagonia)


The electric output of Argentina in 2009 totaled over 122 TWh (440 PJ), of which about 37% was consumed by industrial activities.[184]

Córdoba is Argentina's major industrial center, hosting metalworking, motor vehicle and auto parts manufactures. Next in importance are the Greater Buenos Aires area (food processing, metallurgy, motor vehicles and auto parts, chemicals and petrochemicals, consumer durables, textiles and printing); Rosario (food processing, metallurgy, farm machinery, oil refining, chemicals, and tanning); San Miguel de Tucumán (sugar refining); San Lorenzo (chemicals and pharmaceuticals); San Nicolás de los Arroyos (steel milling and metallurgy); and Ushuaia and Bahía Blanca (oil refining).[183] Other manufacturing enterprises are located in the provinces of Santa Fe (zinc and copper smelting, and flour milling); Mendoza and Neuquén (wineries and fruit processing); Chaco (textiles and sawmills); and Santa Cruz, Salta and Chubut (oil refining)[183]

In 2012 the leading sectors by volume were: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles and leather; refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass and cement; and recording and print media.[179] In addition, Argentina has since long been one of the top five wine-producing countries in the world.[179]

With a 6.5% production growth rate in 2011,[180] the diversified manufacturing sector is organized around a steadily growing network of industrial parks (314 as of 2013)[181][182]

In 2012 manufacturing accounted for 20.3% of GDP—the largest goods-producing sector in the nation's economy.[179] Well-integrated into Argentine agriculture, half of the industrial exports have rural origin.[179]

President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner inaugurating a factory in Ushuaia. Firms like BlackBerry, HP and Motorola have set up plants in Tierra del Fuego, drawn by tax breaks.[178]


Argentina ranks 102nd out of 178 countries in the Transparency International's 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index.[176] While the country has settled most of its debts, it faces a technical debt crisis since 31 July 2014. A New York judge blocked Argentina's payments to 93% of its bonds unless it pays to "Vulture funds" the full value of the defaulted bonds they bought after its 2001 default. Argentina vowed to capitulate to what its considered ransom tactics of the funds[177]

High inflation—a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades—has become a trouble once again, with rates in 2013 between the official 10.2% and the privately estimated 25%, causing heated public debate over manipulated statistics.[174][175] Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is classified as "medium", still considerably unequal.[7]

A middle emerging economy and one of the world's top developing nations,[172][upper-alpha 14] Argentina is a member of the G-20 major economies. Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven, with high economic growth alternating with severe recessions, income maldistribution and—in the recent decades—increasing poverty. Early in the 20th century Argentina achieved development,[20] and became the world's seventh richest country.[19] Although managing to keep a place among the top fifteen economies until mid-century,[19] it suffered a long and steady decline and now it's just an upper middle-income country.[173]

Benefiting from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, a diversified industrial base, and an export-oriented agricultural sector, the economy of Argentina is Latin America's third-largest.[171] It has a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index[8] and a relatively high GDP per capita,[6] with a considerable internal market size and a growing share of the high-tech sector.[15]


Military service is voluntary, with enlistment age between 18 and 24 years old and no conscription.[167] Argentina's defense has historically been one of the best equipped in the region, even managing its own weapon research facilities, shipyards, ordnance, tank and plane factories.[168] However, real military expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and the defense budget in 2011 was about 0.74% of GDP, a historical minimum,[169] below the Latin American average.
  • The [166] Its secondary missions include committing to multinational operations within the framework of the United Nations, participating in internal support missions, assisting friendly countries, and establishing a sub-regional defense system.[166]

The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the Argentine Armed Forces, as part of a legal framework that imposes a strict separation between national defense and internal security systems:[161][162]

Argentine Marines in formation during a UNITAS joint amphibious assault exercise in Peru

Armed forces

. Overseas Territories which are administered by the United Kingdom as [160] Argentina

Argentina claims 965,597 km2 (372,819 sq mi) in Antarctica, where it has the world's oldest continuous state presence, since 1904.[158] This overlaps claims by Chile and the United Kingdom, though all such claims fall under the provisions of the 1961 Antarctic Treaty, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member, with the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat being based in Buenos Aires.[159]

A prominent Latin American[13] and Southern Cone[14] OEI, CELAC and UNASUR, of which the former president Néstor Kirchner was first Secretary General. It is also a founding member of the Mercosur block, having Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela as partners. Since 2002 the country has emphasized its key role in Latin American integration, and the block—which has some supranational legislative functions—is its first international priority.[157]

An historical and current OAS. In 2012 Argentina was elected again to a two-year non-permanent position on the United Nations Security Council and is participating in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti, Cyprus, Western Sahara and the Middle East.[156]

Foreign policy is officially handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship, which answers to the President.

Argentine diplomatic missions:
  Nations hosting a resident diplomatic mission
  Nations without a resident diplomatic mission

Foreign relations

A 1862 law designated as national territories those under federal control but outside the frontiers of the provinces. In 1884 they served as bases for the establishment of the governorates of Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego.[153] The agreement about a frontier dispute with Chile in 1900 created the National Territory of Los Andes; its lands were incorporated into Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca in 1943.[152] La Pampa and Chaco became provinces in 1951. Misiones did so in 1953, and Formosa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, in 1955. The last national territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province in 1990.[152]

During the War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding countrysides became provinces though the intervention of their cabildos. The Anarchy of the Year XX completed this process, shaping the original thirteen provinces. Jujuy seceded from Salta in 1834, and the thirteen provinces became fourteen. After seceding for a decade, Buenos Aires accepted the 1853 Constitution of Argentina in 1861, and was made a federal territory in 1880.[152]

Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to the federal government;[146] they must be representative republics and must not contradict the Constitution.[147] Beyond this they are fully autonomous: they enact their own constitutions,[148] freely organize their local governments,[149] and own and manage their natural and financial resources.[150] Some provinces have bicameral legislatures, while others have unicameral ones.[upper-alpha 13]

Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. Provinces are divided for administration purposes into departments and municipalities, except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into partidos. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes.


Italianate–Eclectic facade of the house
Casa Rosada, workplace of the President
  • Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and Deputy chambers, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties and has the power of the purse and of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.[139]
    • The Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members elected to a four-year term. Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year.[140] As of 2014 ten provinces have just five deputies while the Buenos Aires Province, being the most populous one, has 70.
    • The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large to six-year terms, with each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.[141] At least one-third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women.
  • Executive: The President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law—subject to Congressional override—and appoints the members of the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.[142] The President is elected directly by the vote of the people, serves a four-year term and may be elected to office no more than twice in a row.[143]
  • Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.[144] The Judicial is independent of the Executive and the Legislative. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for life. The lower courts' judges are proposed by the Council of Magistrates (a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, researchers, the Executive and the Legislative), and appointed by the President on Senate approval.[145]

The federal government is composed of three branches:

Argentina is a federal constitutional republic and representative democracy.[135] The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina, the country's supreme legal document. The seat of government is the city of Buenos Aires, as designated by Congress.[136] Suffrage is universal, equal, secret and mandatory.[137][upper-alpha 12]



Argentina is also the 9th most biocapable country in the world.[132] In 2013 it had a protected area network consisting of 299 continental zones, covering 6.3% of total mainland area;[130] 21 Ramsar sites;[133] and 11 biosphere reserves,[131] partially sampling most of its 24 terrestrial ecoregions.[134]

From this total, 529 species of vertebrates and at least 240 plants are threatened, mostly by conversion of natural land for agriculture and deforestation, but also by industrialization, urbanization and a growing number of alien invasive species.[130]

  • 9,372 cataloged vascular plant species (ranked 24th)[upper-alpha 9]
  • 1,038 cataloged bird species (ranked 14th)[upper-alpha 10]
  • 375 cataloged mammal species (ranked 12th)[upper-alpha 11]
  • 338 cataloged reptilian species (ranked 16th)
  • 162 cataloged amphibian species (ranked 19th)

Argentina is a megadiverse country[130] hosting one of the greatest ecosystem varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 3 oceanic zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its territory.[130] This huge ecosystem variety has led to a biological diversity that is among the world's largest:[130][131]


Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions.[125] The Sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary.[125] The Zonda, a hot dry wind, affects Cuyo and the central Pampas. Squeezed of all moisture during the 6,000 m (19,685 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling wildfires and causing damage; between June and November, when the Zonda blows, snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions usually affect higher elevations.[129]

  • The Northwest climate is varied, with rainfall diminishing north to south and east to west:[110] Puna, to the high Andean west, is dry and with great temperature fluctuation but cold overall, frequently falling below freezing point at night;[110] Yungas, to the east, are tropical, very hot and moist.[120]
  • Mesopotamia is subtropical overall, with hot and very humid tropical climate in the north,[121] and gradually becoming temperate and semi-humid to the south.[122]
  • Gran Chaco has very hot subtropical to tropical climate,[118] and humid summers with mild drier winters. With heavy seasonal rainfalls,[122] it is subject to periodic droughts.[123]
  • Cuyo is generally mild, although mountainous areas have alpine climate with temperatures below freezing much of the year.[124]
  • Pampas and Sierras Pampeanas are temperate, with hot, stormy summers and cool winters; moisture is higher in the east.[125]
  • Patagonia is very windy, with mild summers and cold[110] to very cold winters[126] with heavy snowfall and frost,[110] especially in mountainous zones.[127] Precipitation steeply diminishes from west to east.[128]

Although the most populated areas are generally temperate, Argentina has an exceptional climate diversity, ranging from tropical in the north[118] to subpolar in the far continental south.[119] Climate patterns roughly follow the geographic regional division:[upper-alpha 8]


Top: Pampas, Sierras Pampeanas, Mesopotamia, Gran Chaco, Cuyo
Bottom: Northwest Puna, Northwest Yungas, Northwest Valleys, western Patagonia, eastern Patagonia

  • Northwest, a continuation of the high Puna with even higher, more rugged topography to the far-west;[112] the arid precordillera, filled with narrow valleys or quebradas to the mid-west;[113] and an extension of the mountainous Yungas jungles to the east.[113]
  • Mesopotamia, a subtropical wedge covering the western Paraná Plateau and neighbouring lowlands enclosed by the Paraná and Uruguay rivers.[104]
  • Gran Chaco, a large, subtropical and tropical low-lying, gently sloping alluvial plain[114] between Mesopotamia and the Andes.
  • Sierras Pampeanas, a series of medium-height mountain chains located in the center.[115]
  • Cuyo, a basin and range area in the central Andes piedmont, to the west.[114]
  • Pampas, a massive and hugely fertile alluvial plain located in the center east.[116]
  • Patagonia, a large southern plateau consisting mostly of arid, rocky steppes[104] to the east, moister cold grasslands to the south and dense subantarctic forests to the west.[117]

Argentina is divided into seven geographical regions:[upper-alpha 8]


Some of the major rivers are the Paraná, Uruguay—which join to form the Río de la Plata, Paraguay, Salado, Negro, Santa Cruz, Pilcomayo, Bermejo and Colorado.[109] These rivers are discharged into the Argentine Sea, the shallow area of the Atlantic Ocean over the Argentine Shelf, an unusually wide continental platform.[110] Its waters are influenced by two major ocean currents: the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falklands Current.[111]

The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province; the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego province; the easternmost is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones and the westernmost is within Los Glaciares National Park in Santa Cruz province.[105] The maximum north–south distance is 3,694 km (2,295 mi), while the maximum east–west one is 1,423 km (884 mi).[105]

Argentina's highest point is Mount Aconcagua in the Mendoza province (6,959 m (22,831 ft) above sea level),[107] also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres.[104] The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in the San Julián Great Depression, Santa Cruz province (−105 m (−344 ft) below sea level,[107] also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the seventh lowest point on Earth)[108]

With a mainland surface area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,518 sq mi),[upper-alpha 2] Argentina is located in southern South America, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes to the west;[104] Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east;[105] and the Drake Passage to the south;[106] for an overall land border length of 9,376 km (5,826 mi). Its coastal border over the Río de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean is 5,117 km (3,180 mi) long.[105]


Boosting the neo-keynesian economic policies[96] laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and steep GDP growth.[98] Under his administration Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund,[99] purged the military of officers with doubtful human rights records,[100] nullified and voided the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,[101][upper-alpha 7] ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the Juntas' crimes. He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was elected in 2007[103] and reelected in 2011.

De la Rúa kept Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent.[92] A massive capital flight was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts, generating further turmoil. The December 2001 riots forced him to resign.[94] Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde as acting president, who abrogated the fixed exchange rate established by Menem.[95] By the late 2002 the economic crisis began to recess, but the assassination of two piqueteros by the police caused political commotion, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward.[96] Néstor Kirchner was elected as the new president.[97]

Menem embraced neo-liberal policies:[91] a fixed exchange rate, business deregulation, privatizations and dismantling of protectionist barriers normalized the economy for a while. He pardoned the officers who had been sentenced during Alfonsín's government. The 1994 Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to be elected for a second term. The economy began to decline in 1995, with increasing unemployment and recession;[92] led by Fernando de la Rúa, the UCR returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections.[93]

Raúl Alfonsín won the 1983 elections campaigning for the prosecution of those responsible for human rights violations during the Proceso: the Trial of the Juntas and other martial courts sentenced all the coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he also enacted the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,[88][89] which halted prosecutions further down the chain of command. The worsening economic crisis and hyperinflation reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos Menem won the 1989 election. Soon after, riots forced Alfonsín to an early resignation.[90]

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, president of Argentina since 2007

Contemporary era

[87] shut down Congress, removed the judges of the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to the Proceso The

[86] Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties and dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent led to two massive protests: the

The exact chronology of the repression is still debated, however, as in some senses the long political war started in 1969. Trade unionists were targeted for assassination by the Peronist and Marxist paramilitary as early as 1969, and individual cases of state-sponsored terrorism against Peronism and the left can be traced back to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in 1955. The Trelew massacre of 1972, the actions of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance since 1973, and Isabel Martínez de Perón's "annihilation decrees" against left-wing guerrillas during Operativo Independencia (translates to Operation of Independence) in 1975, have also been suggested as dates for the beginning of the Dirty War.

After democratic government was restored, Congress passed legislation to provide compensation to victims' families. Some 11,000 Argentines have applied to the relevant authorities and received up to US $200,000 each as monetary compensation for the loss of loved ones during the military dictatorship.[80]

Declassified documents of the Chilean secret police cite an official estimate by the Batallón de Inteligencia 601 of 22,000 killed or "disappeared" between 1975 and mid-1978. During this period, in which it was later revealed 8,625 "disappeared" in the form of PEN (Poder Ejecutivo Nacional, anglicized as "National Executive Power") detainees who were held in clandestine detention camps throughout Argentina before eventually being freed under diplomatic pressure.[76] The number of people believed to have been killed or "disappeared," depending on the source, range from 9,089 to 30,000 in the period from 1976 to 1983, when the military was forced from power following Argentina's defeat in the Falklands War.[77][78] The National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons estimates that around 13,000 were disappeared.[79]

The 'Dirty War (Spanish: Guerra Sucia) was the name used by the Argentine Government for a period of [72][73] The guerrillas were responsible for causing at least 6,000 casualties among the military, police forces and civilian population according to a National Geographic Magazine article in the mid-1980s.[74] The disappeared ones were considered to be a political or ideological threat to the military junta and their disappearances an attempt to silence the opposition and break the determination of the guerillas.[75]

Second Resistance March opposing the National Reorganization Process, December 1982

Dirty War

The new head of State, Arturo Frondizi from the UCR won the following elections.[63] He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit and lifted Peronism proscription; yet his efforts to stay in good terms with Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out.[64] But Senate Chief José María Guido reacted swiftly and applied the anti-power vacuum legislation, becoming president instead; elections were repealed and Peronism proscribed again. Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 and led to an overall increase in prosperity; however his attempts to legalize Peronism resulted in his overthrow in 1966 by the Juan Carlos Onganía-led coup d'état called the Argentine Revolution, a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.[65]

Perón created a political movement known as Peronism. He nationalized strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt and achieved nearly full employment. The economy, however, began to decline in 1950 because of over-expenditure. His highly popular wife, Eva Perón, played a central political role. She pushed Congress to enact women suffrage in 1947,[60] and developed an unprecedented social assistance to the most vulnerable sectors of society.[61] However, her declining health did not allow her to run for the vice-presidency in 1951, and she died of cancer the following year. Perón was reelected in 1951, even surpassing his 1946 performance. In 1955 the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo in an ill-fated attempt to kill the President. A few months later, during the self-called Liberating Revolution coup, he resigned and went into exile in Spain.[62]

Official presidential portrait of Juan Domingo Perón and his wife Eva Perón, 1948


Uriburu ruled for two years; then Agustín Pedro Justo was elected with fraud, and signed a controversial treaty with the United Kingdom. Argentina stayed neutral during World War II, a decision that had full British support but was rejected by the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. A new military coup rose to government, and Argentina declared war to the Axis Powers a month before the end of World War II in Europe. The minister of welfare, Juan Domingo Perón, was fired and jailed because of his high popularity among workers. His liberation was forced by a massive popular demonstration, and he went to win the 1946 election.[59]

In 1930, Yrigoyen was ousted from power by the military led by José Félix Uriburu. Although Argentina remained among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century,[19] this coup d'état marks the start of the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back[21] into underdevelopment.

Infamous Decade

In 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal and secret male suffrage, which allowed Hipólito Yrigoyen, leader of the Radical Civic Union (or UCR), to win the 1916 election. He enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to family farmers and small businesses. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. The second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, influenced by the Great Depression.[58]

Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization:[56] after steep development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained labor-intensive in the 1930s.[57]

  • By 1865 Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income.
  • By 1901 it had risen to 10th place—ahead of Germany, Austria and France.
  • By 1908 it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and The Netherlands to reach 7th place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than Brazil's.[19]

Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies. The massive wave of European immigration they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest[19] developed nation[20] in the world. Driven by this immigration wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold:[52] from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went from 100,000 to 2,500,000 t (110,000 to 2,760,000 short tons) per year, while frozen beef exports increased from 25,000 to 365,000 t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons) per year,[53] placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters.[54] Its railway mileage rose from 503 to 31,104 km (313 to 19,327 mi).[55] Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education system, literacy skyrocketed from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most Latin American nations would reach even fifty years later.[54] Furthermore, real GDP grew so fast that despite the huge immigration influx, per capita income between 1862 to 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%:[55]

Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Bartolomé Mitre secured Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the first president of the reunified country. He was followed by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda; these three presidencies set up the bases of the modern Argentine State.[51]

President Julio Argentino Roca giving his constitutionally mandated annual report to Congress, 1886

Rise of the modern nation

The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule. In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution.[47] Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the Argentine Confederation in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas.[48] During his regime he faced a French blockade (1838–1840), the War of the Confederation (1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade (1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory.[49] His trade restriction policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza, another powerful caudillo, beat him out of power. As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal 1853 Constitution. Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda.[50]

In 1816 the Congress of Tucumán formalized the Declaration of Independence.[43] One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín took an army across the Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru.[44][upper-alpha 6] In 1819 Buenos Aires enacted a centralist constitution that was soon abrogated by federalists.[46]

Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists and the Federalists—a move that would define Argentina's first decades of independence.[42] The Assembly of the Year XIII appointed Gervasio Antonio de Posadas as Argentina's first Supreme Director.[42]

Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty,[18] the 1810 May Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the First Junta, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals.[39] In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist counter-revolution in Córdoba,[40] but failed to overcome those of the Banda Oriental, Upper Peru and Paraguay, which later became independent states.[41]

Painting of San Martín holding the Argentine flag
Portrait of General José de San Martin, Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru

Independence and civil wars

Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and 1807.[38] The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism to the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country. Like in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.[39]

The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.[37]

Further colonization efforts came from Paraguay—establishing the Governorate of the Río de la PlataPeru and Chile.[33] Francisco de Aguirre founded Santiago del Estero in 1553. Londres was founded in 1558; Mendoza, in 1561; San Juan, in 1562; San Miguel de Tucumán, in 1565.[34] Juan de Garay founded Santa Fe in 1573 and the same year Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera set up Córdoba.[35] Garay went further south to re-fund Buenos Aires in 1580.[36] San Luis was established in 1596.[34]

Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 1516 and 1526, respectively.[17] In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza founded the small settlement of Buenos Aires, which was abandoned in 1541.[32]

Territorial divisions of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata

Colonial era

[30] which can be divided into three main groups:[29]

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