World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Armstrong culture

Hopewell Interaction Area and local expressions of the Hopewell tradition

The Armstrong culture were a Hopewell group in the Big Sandy River Valley of Northeastern Kentucky and Western West Virginia from 1 to 500 CE.


  • Origins 1
  • Material culture 2
    • Ceramics 2.1
    • Architecture 2.2
    • Agriculture 2.3
  • References 3
  • External links 4


The Armstrong people are thought to have been a regional variant of the Hopewell tradition or a Hopewell influenced Middle Woodland group who had peacefully mingled with the local Adena peoples.[1] Archaeologist Dr. Edward McMichael characterized them as an intrusive Hopewell-like trade culture or a vanguard of Hopewellian tradition that had probably peacefully absorbed the local Adena in the Kanawha River Valley. It is currently thought that their culture slowly evolved into the later Buck Garden people.[2]

Material culture


The Armstrong people made clay pottery with a glazed yellow-orange color. Armstrong pottery finish was similar in color to the Peters Cordmarked and Peters Plain ceramics of late western Ohio Hopewell, an oxidized color.[2] Peters Cordmarked is related to McGraw Cordmarked of that phase of classic Ohio Hopewell (c. 50 CE) and is considered to be a lineal descendant from that type.[3]


Armstrong peoples primarily focused their human resources was on long distance trade rather than mass building. Their villages were scattered over a large area and consisted of small round houses. Another feature of their culture was the practice of cremation and the building of small burial mounds in the Big Sandy Valley. They made small flaked knives and corner notched points from Vanport chert from the greater Muskingum River valley area. This period does see the enlarging of the large conical mounds by accretion cremating their dead, depositing their remains in the mounds and then adding new players of earth over them.


Their limited agricultural staples were comparable to the previous Adena peoples, with most of its emphasis on vining crops like the climbing string bean, pumpkins (a winter squash) along with some of the earlier summer squashes. They also grew native cereal grasses, tubers, bulbs and gourds. Maize, although a staple to many later groups of Native Americans in the area, would not reach this area for many centuries after the Armstrong peoples.


  1. ^ Dragoo, Don W. (1963). Mounds for the Dead. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 37. Woodward and McDonald; Carnegie Museum.  
  2. ^ a b McMichael, Edward V. (1968). Introduction to West Virginia Archeology (2 ed.). West Virginia Archeological Society. 
  3. ^ Prufer, Olaf H.; McKenzie, Douglas H. "Peters Cave: Two Woodland occupations in Ross County, Ohio" 66. Cleveland, Ohio: Case Institute of Technology. p. 242. 

External links

  • Early Native American Cultures (1000 BCE-1600 CE)
  • Rock Cave Farm:Land and Fort HIstory
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.